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Chromosomes and Human Genetics

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Presentation on theme: "Chromosomes and Human Genetics"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chromosomes and Human Genetics
Chapter 15

2 Chromosomes & Cancer Some genes on chromosomes control cell growth and division If something affects chromosome structure at or near these loci, cell division may spiral out of control This can lead to cancer

3 Philadelphia Chromosome
First abnormal chromosome to be associated with a cancer Associated with a chronic leukemia Overproduction of white blood cells

4 A Reciprocal Translocation
1 2 Chromosome 9 and chromosome 22 exchanged pieces 6 13 15 19 20

5 An Altered Gene When the reciprocal translocation occurred, a gene at the end of chromosome 9 fused with a gene from chromosome 22 This hybrid gene encodes an abnormal protein that stimulates uncontrolled division of white blood cells

6 Understanding Chromosomes
Walter Fleming August Weismann Rediscovery of Mendel’s work

7 Genes Units of information about heritable traits
In eukaryotes, distributed among chromosomes Each has a particular locus Location on a chromosome

8 Homologous Chromosomes
Homologous autosomes are identical in length, size, shape, and gene sequence Sex chromosomes are nonidentical but still homologous Homologous chromosomes interact, then segregate from one another during meiosis

9 Alleles Different molecular forms of a gene Arise through mutation
Diploid cell has a pair of alleles at each locus Alleles on homologous chromosomes may be same or different

10 Sex Chromosomes Discovered in late 1800s Mammals, fruit flies
XX is female, XY is male In other groups XX is male, XY female Human X and Y chromosomes function as homologues during meiosis

11 Karyotype Preparation - Stopping the Cycle
Cultured cells are arrested at metaphase by adding colchicine This is when cells are most condensed and easiest to identify

12 Karyotype Preparation
Arrested cells are broken open Metaphase chromosomes are fixed and stained Chromosomes are photographed through microscope Photograph of chromosomes is cut up and arranged to form karyotype diagram

13 Human Karyotype XX (or XY)

14 sex chromosome combinations possible in new individual
Sex Determination eggs sperm X Y X Female germ cell Male germ cell XX XY X Y sex chromosome combinations possible in new individual

15 The Y Chromosome Fewer than two dozen genes identified
One is the master gene for male sex determination SRY gene (Sex-determining region of Y) SRY present, testes form SRY absent, ovaries form

16 appearance of structures “uncommitted” duct system
that will give rise to external genitalia appearance of “uncommitted” duct system of embryo at 7 weeks Effect of Y Chromosome 7 weeks Y present Y absent Y present Y absent testes ovaries 10 weeks ovary birth approaching testis

17 The X Chromosome Carries more than 2,300 genes
Most genes deal with nonsexual traits Genes on X chromosome can be expressed in both males and females

18 Discovering Linkage One cross homozygous dominant female recessive
x Gametes: X Y heterozygous female heterozygous male All F1 offspring have red eyes

19 Discovering Linkage Reciprocal cross homozygous recessive female
dominant male x Gametes: X X X Y heterozygous females recessive males F1 offspring Half are red-eyed females, half are white-eyed males

20 Discovering Linkage Morgan’s crosses showed relationship between sex and eye color Females can have white eyes Morgan concluded gene must be on the X chromosome

21 Linkage Groups Genes on one type of chromosome Fruit flies Indian corn
4 homologous chromosomes 4 linkage groups Indian corn 10 homologous chromosomes 10 linkage groups

22 Full Linkage Parents: F1 offspring:
AB ab A B a b Parents: x A B a b F1 offspring: All AaBb meiosis, gamete formation A B a b 50%AB 50%ab With no crossovers, half of the gametes have one parental genotype and half have the other

23 Incomplete Linkage Parents: F1 offspring
AC ac A C a c Parents: x A C a c F1 offspring All AaCc meiosis, gamete formation Unequal ratios of four types of gametes: A a A a C c c C Most gametes have parental genotypes A smaller number have recombinant genotypes

24 Crossover Frequency Proportional to the distance that separates genes
B C D Crossing over will disrupt linkage between A and B more often than C and D

25 Linkage Mapping in Humans
Linkage maps based on pedigree analysis through generations Color blindness and hemophilia are very closely linked on X chromosome Recombination frequency is 0.167%

26 Pedigree Chart that shows genetic connections among individuals
Standardized symbols Knowledge of probability and Mendelian patterns used to suggest basis of a trait Conclusions most accurate when drawn from large number of pedigrees

27 Pedigree for Polydactly
II III IV V female male 5,5 6,6 * 5,5 6,6 6,6 5,5 6,6 5,5 6 7 5,5 6,6 5,5 6,6 5,5 6,6 5,5 6,6 5,6 6,7 12 6,6 6,6 *Gene not expressed in this carrier.

28 Genetic Abnormality A rare, uncommon version of a trait Polydactyly
Unusual number of toes or fingers Does not cause any health problems View of trait as disfiguring is subjective

29 Genetic Disorder Inherited conditions that cause mild to severe medical problems Why don’t they disappear? Mutation introduces new rare alleles In heterozygotes, harmful allele is masked, so it can still be passed on to offspring

30 Autosomal Recessive Inheritance Patterns
If parents are both heterozygous, child will have a 25% chance of being affected

31 Galactosemia Caused by autosomal recessive allele
Gene specifies a mutant enzyme in the pathway that breaks down lactose enzyme 1 enzyme 2 enzyme 3 GALACTOSE-1- PHOSOPHATE GALACTOSE-1- PHOSOPHATE LACTOSE GALACTOSE + glucose intermediate in glycolysis

32 Autosomal Dominant Inheritance
Trait typically appears in every generation

33 Huntington Disorder Autosomal dominant allele
Causes involuntary movements, nervous system deterioration, death Symptoms don’t usually show up until person is past age 30 People often pass allele on before they know they have it

34 Acondroplasia Autosomal dominant allele
In homozygous form usually leads to stillbirth Heterozygotes display a type of dwarfism Have short arms and legs relative to other body parts

35 X-Linked Recessive Inheritance
Males show disorder more than females Son cannot inherit disorder from his father

36 Examples of X-Linked Traits
Color blindness Inability to distinguish among some of all colors Hemophilia Blood-clotting disorder 1/7,000 males has allele for hemophilia A Was common in European royal families

37 Fragile X Syndrome An X-linked recessive disorder
Causes mental retardation Mutant allele for gene that specifies a protein required for brain development Allele has repeated segments of DNA

38 Hutchinson-Guilford Progeria
Mutation causes accelerated aging No evidence of it running in families Appears to be dominant Seems to arise as spontaneous mutation Usually causes death in early teens

39 Duplication Gene sequence that is repeated several to hundreds of times Duplications occur in normal chromosomes May have adaptive advantage Useful mutations may occur in copy

40 Duplication normal chromosome one segment repeated three repeats

41 A linear stretch of DNA is reversed
Inversion A linear stretch of DNA is reversed within the chromosome

42 Translocation A piece of one chromosome becomes attached to another nonhomologous chromosome Most are reciprocal Philadelphia chromosome arose from a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22

43 Translocation chromosome nonhomologous chromosome
reciprocal translocation

44 Deletion Loss of some segment of a chromosome
Most are lethal or cause serious disorder

45 Aneuploidy Individuals have one extra or less chromosome
(2n + 1 or 2n - 1) Major cause of human reproductive failure Most human miscarriages are aneuploids

46 Polyploidy Individuals have three or more of each type of chromosome (3n, 4n) Common in flowering plants Lethal for humans 99% die before birth Newborns die soon after birth

47 nondisjunction at anaphase I
chromosome alignments at metaphase I n - 1 nondisjunction at anaphase I alignments at metaphase II anaphase II

48 Down Syndrome Trisomy of chromosome 21
Mental impairment and a variety of additional defects Can be detected before birth Risk of Down syndrome increases dramatically in mothers over age 35

49 Turner Syndrome Inheritance of only one X (XO)
98% spontaneously aborted Survivors are short, infertile females No functional ovaries Secondary sexual traits reduced May be treated with hormones, surgery

50 Klinefelter Syndrome XXY condition
Results mainly from nondisjunction in mother (67%) Phenotype is tall males Sterile or nearly so Feminized traits (sparse facial hair, somewhat enlarged breasts) Treated with testosterone injections

51 XYY Condition Taller than average males
Most otherwise phenotypically normal Some mentally impaired Once thought to be predisposed to criminal behavior, but studies now discredit

52 Phenotypic Treatments
Symptoms of many genetic disorders can be minimized or suppressed by Dietary controls Adjustments to environmental conditions Surgery or hormonal treatments

53 Genetic Screening Large-scale screening programs detect affected persons Newborns in United States routinely tested for PKU Early detection allows dietary intervention and prevents brain impairment

54 Prenatal Diagnosis Amniocentesis Chorionic villus sampling Fetoscopy
All methods have some risks

55 Preimplantation Diagnosis
Used with in-vitro fertilization Mitotic divisions produce ball of 8 cells All cells have same genes One of the cells is removed and its genes analyzed If cell has no defects, the embryo is implanted in uterus

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