Presentation on theme: "Chapter Menu Lesson 1:The Pulmonary- Circulatory SystemThe Pulmonary- Circulatory System Lesson 2:Pressure and the BodyPressure and the Body Click on."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter Menu Lesson 1:The Pulmonary- Circulatory SystemThe Pulmonary- Circulatory System Lesson 2:Pressure and the BodyPressure and the Body Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding lesson.
pulmonary system breathing lungs pneumonia suffocation asthma circulatory system atrium 10.1 The Pulmonary-Circulatory System ventricle artery capillary vein heart attack stroke heart
The Pulmonary System Our pulmonary system contains tissues and organs specialized for: 10.1 The Pulmonary- Circulatory System –Taking in oxygen and removing carbon dioxide from out bodies –Exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide
Breathing Breathing is the process of air entering and exiting our lungs The Pulmonary- Circulatory System
Breathing (cont.) The trachea forks into two branches called bronchi The Pulmonary- Circulatory System The bronchi are connected to the lungs the organs of the pulmonary system.
Breathing (cont.) The bronchi divide into bronchioles, which are further divided many times into alveoli The Pulmonary- Circulatory System Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the alveoli. The air that now is high in carbon dioxide is exhaled and flows out in the reverse path.
Problems in the Pulmonary System We cannot live without air. Cells combine food and oxygen to produce energy. Problems in the pulmonary system prevent oxygen from reaching the lungs The Pulmonary- Circulatory System
Pneumonia Caused by contact with mucus from an infected person or the introduction of bacteria or viruses from the mouth and throat into the lungs One of the leading causes of death in the U.S The Pulmonary- Circulatory System
Suffocation Suffocation occurs when the lungs and body do not receive enough oxygen. Causes of: –Choking –Children with blankets or plastic bags covering their faces –Gases such as carbon monoxide 10.1 The Pulmonary- Circulatory System
Asthma A disease of the airways to the lungs 10.1 The Pulmonary- Circulatory System Most common long-term disease in children Triggers include air pollution, smog, and ozone Normal bronchiole Constricted bronchiole
The Circulatory System Oxygen, food, other nutrients, and waste products are transported to and from cells by blood The Pulmonary- Circulatory System The circulatory system contains the heart and blood vessels, and transports blood throughout the body. Circulatory System
Blood Blood is a tissue that contains many different substances, including cells The Pulmonary- Circulatory System –Plasma is 90% water. –The remaining 10% is ions, proteins, and other substances. Blood is 55% plasma.
Blood (cont.) 10.1 The Pulmonary- Circulatory System
Heart The heart is the organ of the circulatory system that pumps blood The Pulmonary- Circulatory System The atria (singular, atrium) are the two upper chambers of the heart that receive blood. The ventricles are the two lower chambers that pump blood out of the heart.
Heart (cont.) Deoxygenated blood travels from the right atrium to the right ventricle, the lungs, the left atrium, the left ventricle, and to the body The Pulmonary- Circulatory System
Heart (cont.) 10.1 The Pulmonary- Circulatory System
Blood Vessels Blood travels to and from the heart in vessels. Arteries are vessels that carry blood away from the heart to organs of the body The Pulmonary- Circulatory System Arteries branch into smaller vessels called capillaries, which deliver oxygen and nutrients to the organs.
Blood Vessels (cont.) The capillaries transport carbon dioxide and wastes, then join with larger vessels that carry the blood on its return path. These vessels connect to larger vessels called veins that carry blood to the heart The Pulmonary- Circulatory System
Blood Vessels (cont.) All blood vessels have the same structure. –Inner lining: thin, flat layer of cells where the blood and the vessel wall meet –Next layer: connective tissue followed by a layer of smooth muscle –Final layer: connective tissue that contains nerves and supplies the larger vessels with nutrients 10.1 The Pulmonary- Circulatory System
Problems in Circulatory System Circulatory system problems prevent oxygen from reaching cells and can lead to health problems and death. Cardiovascular disease are the diseases of the heart and blood vessels. Cardiovascular disease causes more than half the deaths in the U.S The Pulmonary- Circulatory System
Problems in Circulatory System (cont.) Risk factors include: –being overweight –a diet high in saturated fat and cholesterol –smoking –high blood sugar –physical inactivity –consuming too much alcohol 10.1 The Pulmonary- Circulatory System
Heart Attack A heart attack occurs if the coronary arteries cannot supply enough blood to the heart The Pulmonary- Circulatory System
Stroke A stroke is the death of brain tissue The Pulmonary- Circulatory System
Exchanges Between the Pulmonary and Circulatory Systems The air in the alveoli and blood in the capillaries must be able to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide freely The Pulmonary- Circulatory System
Gas Exchange Perhaps the most important exchange between the pulmonary and circulatory systems is gas exchange in the lungs The Pulmonary- Circulatory System No energy is requiredthe gases move from regions of higher concentration to regions of lower concentration.
Exchange in the Lungs Alveoli are surrounded by capillaries The Pulmonary- Circulatory System When the level of carbon dioxide in your lungs becomes great enough, you exhale without thinking.
Exchange in the Lungs (cont.) Respiration and breathing are not the same The Pulmonary- Circulatory System Respiration uses oxygen and food to produce energy. Breathing is the physical process of inhalation and exhalation.
Preventing Problems in the Pulmonary and Circulatory Systems 10.1 The Pulmonary- Circulatory System Family history, or genetics, partially determines your risk. However, a healthy lifestyle is the best way to prevent cardiopulmonary problems.
Lesson 1 Review What two branches does the trachea fork into? Alungs Bbrachia Cbronchi Dbronchioles 10.1 The Pulmonary- Circulatory System
Lesson 1 Review What is the term for the iron- containing proteins in red blood cells? Aplatelets Bplasma Chemoglobin Dions 10.1 The Pulmonary- Circulatory System
Lesson 1 Review What type of blood vessels carry blood away from the heart to organs of the body? Aarteries Bcapillaries Cveins Dventricles 10.1 The Pulmonary- Circulatory System
End of Lesson 1
pressure hypertension shock 10.2 Pressure and the Body
What is pressure? Many different units are used to measure pressuremmHg, psi, Pa. Pressure is the amount of force per unit area Pressure and the Body Deflated tire with very low pressure Inflated tire with full pressure
Changing Pressure Pressure increases as you decrease the size of the area to which a constant force is applied. The equation for finding pressure is: Pressure increases as you increase the amount of force applied to a constant area Pressure and the Body
Pressure in the Pulmonary System The volume of the lungs is expanded, and the pressure in the alveoli decreases. When you inhale, air is pulled into your lungs, not pushed Pressure and the Body
Pressure in the Pulmonary System 10.1 Pressure and the Body
Pressure in the Circulatory System Without pressure, blood vessels would not be able to transport blood to all tissues Pressure and the Body The heart is a muscle that contracts. When the heart contracts, the volume inside the chamber decreases. Blood is forced out of the chamber and the chamber gets smaller.
Pumping in One Direction It is important for blood to move in one direction as the heart pumps Pressure and the Body The contractions of the heart muscles create areas of greater and lesser pressure, pumping blood through the heart.
Pumping in One Direction (cont.) 10.1 Pressure and the Body Continuous surges keep the blood moving through the arteries.
Problems with Blood Pressure Hypertension is a dangerous rise in blood pressure caused by blockages in or the hardening of blood vessels Pressure and the Body Stress Inactivity NormalAtherosclerosis Hypertension is a disease caused by genetic and environmental factors. What factors affect the likelihood of hypertension?
Problems with Blood Pressure (cont.) Shock is a condition in which a large amount of blood is lost, usually in a short period of time Pressure and the Body Under some circumstances such as internal bleeding, blood leaves the vessels and blood pressure decreases. The heart is not able to pump blood to all tissues without pressure.
Lesson 2 Review How is blood pressure measured? Amillimeters of mercury Bpounds per square inch Cgrams per square millimeter Dpascal 10.1 Pressure and the Body
Lesson 2 Review When is air pulled into the lungs? Awhen pressure in the alveoli increases Bwhen the pressure in the lungs is lower than atmospheric pressure Cwhen the chest cavity contracts Dwhen the diaphragm moves upward 10.1 Pressure and the Body
Lesson 2 Review Which of the following does not contribute to hypertension? Agenetics Ba diet high in cholesterol Clack of exercise Da diet low in salt 10.1 Pressure and the Body
End of Lesson 2
Chapter Assessment California Standards Practice Concepts in Motion Image Bank Science Online Chapter Resources Menu Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding feature.
What is the term for the muscle below your rib cage which contacts and relaxes as you breathe? Apharynx Blarynx Ctrachea Ddiaphragm Chapter Assessment 1
What term describes fragments of cells in your blood? Awhite blood cells Bhemoglobin Cplatelets Dplasma Chapter Assessment 2
Which is not a risk factor for heart disease? Asmoking Bphysical activity Chigh blood sugar Dbeing overweight Chapter Assessment 3
How have you changed the pressure on your body if you change your position from lying down to standing up? Aincrease in the amount of force applied Bincrease in the size of the area to which a force is applied Cdecrease in the amount of force applied Ddecrease in the size of the area to which a force is applied Chapter Assessment 4
What is shock? Ahardening of the blood vessels Binternal bleeding Closs of blood and blood pressure Da genetic and environmental disease Chapter Assessment 5
What occurs if coronary arteries cannot supply enough blood to the heart? Astroke Bheart attack Casthma Dpneumonia CA Standards Practice 1 SCI 5.b
What is the name of the smallest blood vessels? Aveins Balveoli Carteries Dcapillaries CA Standards Practice 2 SCI 5.b
What disease is characterized by the build up of thick fluid in the lungs? Apneumonia Bheart attack Cstroke Dasthma CA Standards Practice 3 SCI 5.b
What prevents the backflow of blood? Acontractions of the heart muscle Bthe atria Cvalves Dconstant pumping CA Standards Practice 4 SCI 6.j
Where does blood from the lungs go to? Aright atrium Bleft atrium Cright ventricle Dleft ventricle CA Standards Practice 5 SCI 6.j