2Chapter Menu Lesson 1: The Pulmonary- Circulatory System Lesson 2: Pressure and the BodyClick on a hyperlink to view the corresponding lesson.
310.1 The Pulmonary-Circulatory System pulmonary systembreathinglungspneumoniasuffocationasthmacirculatory systematriumventriclearterycapillaryveinheart attackstrokeheart
410.1 The Pulmonary-Circulatory System The Pulmonary SystemOur pulmonary system contains tissues and organs specialized for:Taking in oxygen and removing carbon dioxide from out bodiesExchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide
510.1 The Pulmonary-Circulatory System BreathingBreathing is the process of air entering and exiting our lungs.
6Breathing (cont.) The trachea forks into two branches called bronchi. 10.1 The Pulmonary-Circulatory SystemBreathing (cont.)The trachea forks into two branches called bronchi.The bronchi are connected to the lungs—the organs of the pulmonary system.
710.1 The Pulmonary-Circulatory System Breathing (cont.)The bronchi divide into bronchioles, which are further divided many times into alveoli.Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the alveoli.The air that now is high in carbon dioxide is exhaled and flows out in the reverse path.
8Problems in the Pulmonary System 10.1 The Pulmonary-Circulatory SystemProblems in the Pulmonary SystemWe cannot live without air.Cells combine food and oxygen to produce energy.Problems in the pulmonary system prevent oxygen from reaching the lungs.
910.1 The Pulmonary-Circulatory System PneumoniaCaused by contact with mucus from an infected person or the introduction of bacteria or viruses from the mouth and throat into the lungsOne of the leading causes of death in the U.S.
1010.1 The Pulmonary-Circulatory System SuffocationSuffocation occurs when the lungs and body do not receive enough oxygen.Causes of:ChokingChildren with blankets or plastic bags covering their facesGases such as carbon monoxide
11Asthma A disease of the airways to the lungs 10.1 The Pulmonary-Circulatory SystemAsthmaA disease of the airways to the lungsMost common long-term disease in childrenTriggers include air pollution, smog, and ozoneNormal bronchioleConstricted bronchiole
12The Circulatory System 10.1 The Pulmonary-Circulatory SystemThe Circulatory SystemOxygen, food, other nutrients, and waste products are transported to and from cells by blood.The circulatory system contains the heart and blood vessels, and transports blood throughout the body.Circulatory System
1310.1 The Pulmonary-Circulatory System BloodBlood is a tissue that contains many different substances, including cells.Blood is 55% plasma.Plasma is 90% water.The remaining 10% is ions, proteins, and other substances.
1410.1 The Pulmonary-Circulatory System Blood (cont.)
1510.1 The Pulmonary-Circulatory System HeartThe heart is the organ of the circulatory system that pumps blood.The atria (singular, atrium) are the two upper chambers of the heart that receive blood.The ventricles are the two lower chambers that pump blood out of the heart.
1610.1 The Pulmonary-Circulatory System Heart (cont.)Deoxygenated blood travels from the right atrium to the right ventricle, the lungs, the left atrium, the left ventricle, and to the body.
1710.1 The Pulmonary-Circulatory System Heart (cont.)
18Blood Vessels Blood travels to and from the heart in vessels. 10.1 The Pulmonary-Circulatory SystemBlood VesselsBlood travels to and from the heart in vessels.Arteries are vessels that carry blood away from the heart to organs of the body.Arteries branch into smaller vessels called capillaries, which deliver oxygen and nutrients to the organs.
1910.1 The Pulmonary-Circulatory System Blood Vessels (cont.)The capillaries transport carbon dioxide and wastes, then join with larger vessels that carry the blood on its return path.These vessels connect to larger vessels called veins that carry blood to the heart.
20Blood Vessels (cont.) All blood vessels have the same structure. 10.1 The Pulmonary-Circulatory SystemBlood Vessels (cont.)All blood vessels have the same structure.Inner lining: thin, flat layer of cells where the blood and the vessel wall meetNext layer: connective tissue followed by a layer of smooth muscleFinal layer: connective tissue that contains nerves and supplies the larger vessels with nutrients
21Problems in Circulatory System 10.1 The Pulmonary-Circulatory SystemProblems in Circulatory SystemCirculatory system problems prevent oxygen from reaching cells and can lead to health problems and death.Cardiovascular disease are the diseases of the heart and blood vessels.Cardiovascular disease causes more than half the deaths in the U.S.
22Problems in Circulatory System (cont.) 10.1 The Pulmonary-Circulatory SystemProblems in Circulatory System (cont.)Risk factors include:being overweighta diet high in saturated fat and cholesterolsmokinghigh blood sugarphysical inactivityconsuming too much alcohol
2310.1 The Pulmonary-Circulatory System Heart AttackA heart attack occurs if the coronary arteries cannot supply enough blood to the heart.
24Stroke A stroke is the death of brain tissue. 10.1 The Pulmonary-Circulatory SystemStrokeA stroke is the death of brain tissue.
25Exchanges Between the Pulmonary and Circulatory Systems 10.1 The Pulmonary-Circulatory SystemExchanges Between the Pulmonary and Circulatory SystemsThe air in the alveoli and blood in the capillaries must be able to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide freely.
2610.1 The Pulmonary-Circulatory System Gas ExchangePerhaps the most important exchange between the pulmonary and circulatory systems is gas exchange in the lungs.No energy is required—the gases move from regions of higher concentration to regions of lower concentration.
27Exchange in the Lungs Alveoli are surrounded by capillaries. 10.1 The Pulmonary-Circulatory SystemExchange in the LungsAlveoli are surrounded by capillaries.When the level of carbon dioxide in your lungs becomes great enough, you exhale without thinking.
28Exchange in the Lungs (cont.) 10.1 The Pulmonary-Circulatory SystemExchange in the Lungs (cont.)Respiration and breathing are not the same.Respiration uses oxygen and food to produce energy.Breathing is the physical process of inhalation and exhalation.
29Preventing Problems in the Pulmonary and Circulatory Systems 10.1 The Pulmonary-Circulatory SystemPreventing Problems in the Pulmonary and Circulatory SystemsFamily history, or genetics, partially determines your risk.However, a healthy lifestyle is the best way to prevent cardiopulmonary problems.
30What two branches does the trachea fork into? A lungs B brachia 10.1 The Pulmonary-Circulatory SystemWhat two branches does the trachea fork into?A lungsB brachiaC bronchiD bronchiolesLesson 1 Review
31What is the term for the iron-containing proteins in red blood cells? 10.1 The Pulmonary-Circulatory SystemWhat is the term for the iron-containing proteins in red blood cells?A plateletsB plasmaC hemoglobinD ionsLesson 1 Review
3210.1 The Pulmonary-Circulatory System What type of blood vessels carry blood away from the heart to organs of the body?A arteriesB capillariesC veinsD ventriclesLesson 1 Review
3410.2 Pressure and the Bodypressurehypertensionshock
35What is pressure? Pressure is the amount of force per unit area. 10.1 Pressure and the BodyWhat is pressure?Pressure is the amount of force per unit area.Many different units are used to measure pressure—mmHg, psi, Pa.Deflated tire with very low pressureInflated tire with full pressure
3610.1 Pressure and the BodyChanging PressurePressure increases as you increase the amount of force applied to a constant area.Pressure increases as you decrease the size of the area to which a constant force is applied.The equation for finding pressure is:
37Pressure in the Pulmonary System 10.1 Pressure and the BodyPressure in the Pulmonary SystemWhen you inhale, air is pulled into your lungs, not pushed.The volume of the lungs is expanded, and the pressure in the alveoli decreases.
38Pressure in the Pulmonary System 10.1 Pressure and the BodyPressure in the Pulmonary System
39Pressure in the Circulatory System 10.1 Pressure and the BodyPressure in the Circulatory SystemWithout pressure, blood vessels would not be able to transport blood to all tissues.The heart is a muscle that contracts.When the heart contracts, the volume inside the chamber decreases.Blood is forced out of the chamber and the chamber gets smaller.
40Pumping in One Direction 10.1 Pressure and the BodyPumping in One DirectionIt is important for blood to move in one direction as the heart pumps.The contractions of the heart muscles create areas of greater and lesser pressure, pumping blood through the heart.
41Pumping in One Direction (cont.) 10.1 Pressure and the BodyPumping in One Direction (cont.)Continuous surges keep the blood moving through the arteries.
42Problems with Blood Pressure 10.1 Pressure and the BodyProblems with Blood PressureNormalHypertension is a dangerous rise in blood pressure caused by blockages in or the hardening of blood vessels.AtherosclerosisHypertension is a disease caused by genetic and environmental factors.Stress InactivityWhat factors affect the likelihood of hypertension?
43Problems with Blood Pressure (cont.) 10.1 Pressure and the BodyProblems with Blood Pressure (cont.)Shock is a condition in which a large amount of blood is lost, usually in a short period of time.Under some circumstances such as internal bleeding, blood leaves the vessels and blood pressure decreases.The heart is not able to pump blood to all tissues without pressure.
44How is blood pressure measured? A millimeters of mercury 10.1 Pressure and the BodyHow is blood pressure measured?A millimeters of mercuryB pounds per square inchC grams per square millimeterD pascalLesson 2 Review
45When is air pulled into the lungs? 10.1 Pressure and the BodyWhen is air pulled into the lungs?A when pressure in the alveoli increasesB when the pressure in the lungs is lower than atmospheric pressureC when the chest cavity contractsD when the diaphragm moves upwardLesson 2 Review
46Which of the following does not contribute to hypertension? A genetics 10.1 Pressure and the BodyWhich of the following does not contribute to hypertension?A geneticsB a diet high in cholesterolC lack of exerciseD a diet low in saltLesson 2 Review
48Chapter Resources Menu Chapter AssessmentCalifornia Standards PracticeConcepts in MotionImage BankScience OnlineClick on a hyperlink to view the corresponding feature.
49What is the term for the muscle below your rib cage which contacts and relaxes as you breathe? A pharynxB larynxC tracheaD diaphragmChapter Assessment 1
50What term describes fragments of cells in your blood? A white blood cellsB hemoglobinC plateletsD plasmaChapter Assessment 2
51Which is not a risk factor for heart disease? A smoking B physical activityC high blood sugarD being overweightChapter Assessment 3
52A increase in the amount of force applied How have you changed the pressure on your body if you change your position from lying down to standing up?A increase in the amount of force appliedB increase in the size of the area to which a force is appliedC decrease in the amount of force appliedD decrease in the size of the area to which a force is appliedChapter Assessment 4
53A hardening of the blood vessels B internal bleeding What is shock?A hardening of the blood vesselsB internal bleedingC loss of blood and blood pressureD a genetic and environmental diseaseChapter Assessment 5
54SCI 5.bWhat occurs if coronary arteries cannot supply enough blood to the heart?A strokeB heart attackC asthmaD pneumoniaCA Standards Practice 1
55What is the name of the smallest blood vessels? A veins B alveoli SCI 5.bWhat is the name of the smallest blood vessels?A veinsB alveoliC arteriesD capillariesCA Standards Practice 2
56SCI 5.bWhat disease is characterized by the build up of thick fluid in the lungs?A pneumoniaB heart attackC strokeD asthmaCA Standards Practice 3
57What prevents the backflow of blood? SCI 6.jWhat prevents the backflow of blood?A contractions of the heart muscleB the atriaC valvesD constant pumpingCA Standards Practice 4
58Where does blood from the lungs go to? A right atrium B left atrium SCI 6.jWhere does blood from the lungs go to?A right atriumB left atriumC right ventricleD left ventricleCA Standards Practice 5