5 STRUCTURE of the PLASMA (CELL) MEMBRANE All cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane.Functions like a GATE, controlling what ENTERS and LEAVES the cell.The cell membrane is semipermeable or selectively permeable.
6 STRUCTURE of the PLASMA (CELL) MEMBRANE A semipermeable membrane only allows certain molecules to pass throughSome substances easily cross the membrane, while others cannot cross at all.
7 STRUCTURE of the PLASMA (CELL) MEMBRANE Made of a thin layer of lipids and proteinsMade mostly of phospholipid molecules (Phosphate + Lipid).Phospholipids are a kind of lipid that consists of 2 FATTY ACIDS (tails), and PHOSPHATE GROUP (heads).
8 STRUCTURE of the PLASMA (CELL) MEMBRANE Cell membranes consist of TWO phospholipid layers called a LIPID BILAYER.
9 STRUCTURE of the PLASMA (CELL) MEMBRANE CytoplasmPhosphate HeadLipid Tail
10 STRUCTURE of the PLASMA (CELL) MEMBRANE Water molecules surround both sides of the cell membrane. phosphate heads sticking toward the water andlipid tails pointing away from the water.
11 STRUCTURE of the PLASMA (CELL) MEMBRANE The cell membrane is constantly being formed and broken down in living cells. Cytoplasm
12 III. MEMBRANE PROTEINSA variety of proteins are embedded in the lipid bilayer.They help to MOVE material INTO and OUT of the cell.
13 III. MEMBRANE PROTEINSCholesterol (a carbohydrate) is also found in the membrane to provide structure and shape.
15 Cellular TransportAll particles move and have kinetic energy (energy of motion).Movement is random and usually in a water solution.Cells are mostly made of water and there is a constant flow of ions and particles.
16 IV. 2 TYPES OF CELLULAR TRANSPORT 1. Passive transport = movement of molecules across the membrane by using the molecules kinetic energy. The cell exerts no energy!2. Active transport = transport of materials against the concentration gradient and requires cellular energy.
17 V. PASSIVE TRANSPORT 3 types of passive transport: 1. Diffusion = the net movement of particles from an area of HIGHER concentration of particles to an area of LOWER concentration of particles.
18 Diffusion….Molecules move randomly until they are equally distributed.Diffusion continues until the concentration of substances is uniform throughout.
20 Diffusion….Dynamic equilibrium = continual movement but no overall change in concentration;Movement of materials into and out of the cell at equal rates maintains its dynamic equilibrium with its environment.
21 Diffusion…. Diffusion depends on the concentration gradient. Concentration gradient is the difference between the concentration of a particular molecule in one area and the concentration in an adjacent area.Ex: gas exchange in the lungs (oxygen from air to blood and carbon dioxide from blood to air)
25 V. PASSIVE TRANSPORT3. Osmosis = the diffusion of water molecules from an area of HIGH water concentration to an area of LOW water concentration.Occurs in response to the concentration of solutes dissolved in water!
26 V. PASSIVE TRANSPORT: OSMOSIS Occurs in response to the concentration of solutes dissolved in water!Solutes are dissolved substances in a solution.Cytoplasm is mostly water containing many dissolved solutes.
27 V. PASSIVE TRANSPORT: OSMOSIS Because no TWO molecules can occupy the same space at the same time, the MORE solutes there are in a certain volume of water; the FEWER water molecules there can be in the same volume.
28 V. PASSIVE TRANSPORT: OSMOSIS Plant and animal cells behave differently b/c plant cells have a large water vacuole and a cell wall.
29 V. PASSIVE TRANSPORT: OSMOSIS Ex: Osmosis occurring in a slug (animal) cell
30 V. PASSIVE TRANSPORT: OSMOSIS A. Isotonic solution = a solution in which the concentration of dissolved substances (solutes) is the SAME as the concentration of solutes inside the cell.Osmosis does not occur since a concentration gradient is not established!
31 What happens to cells when placed in an isotonic solution? Plant cell –becomes flaccid (limp)plant wilts b/c no net tendency for water to enterAnimal cell- normal
33 V. PASSIVE TRANSPORT: OSMOSIS B. Hypotonic solution = a solution in which the concentration of solutes is LOWER than the concentration of solutes inside the cell.
34 What happens to cells when placed in a hypotonic solution? Animal cell- water will move thru plasma membrane into the cell. This causes the cell to swell and the internal pressure increases.Cell lyses (bursts)!
35 What happens to cells when placed in a hypotonic solution? Plant cell- normalthe vacuole and cytoplasm increase in volume.the cell membrane is pushed harder against the cell wall causing it to stretch a little.the plant tissue becomes stiffer (turgid).
37 V. PASSIVE TRANSPORT: OSMOSIS C. Hypertonic solution = a solution in which the concentration of dissolved substances is HIGHER than the concentration inside the cell.
38 What happens to cells when placed in a hypertonic solution? Animal cell - will shrivel because of decreased turgor pressure
39 What happens to cells when placed in a hypertonic solution? Plant cell - will lose water from vacuole and a decrease in turgor pressure will occur; so it is plasmolyzed.Turgor pressure = internal pressure of a cell due to water held there by osmotic pressurePlasmolysis = the loss of turgor pressure causing the plasma membrane to pull away from the cell wallcauses the plant to wilt
41 D. Summary of Cell Behavior in Different Environments:
42 VI. ACTIVE TRANSPORTMovement of molecules from an area of LOW to an area of HIGH concentration. (opposite of passive transport!)Requires cellular energy!Moves large, complex molecules such as proteins across the cell membrane
43 VI. ACTIVE TRANSPORTLarge molecules, food, or fluid droplets are packaged in membrane-bound sacs called vesicles
44 2 types of active transport: 1. Endocytosis = process by which a cell surrounds and takes in material from its environmentUsed by ameba to feed & white blood cells to kill bacteria
46 2 types of active transport: 2. Exocytosis = expels materials out of the cell, reverse of endocytosisused to remove wastes, mucus, & cell productsProteins made by ribosomes in a cell are packaged into transport vesicles by the Golgi ApparatusTransport vesicles fuse with the cell membrane and then the proteins are secreted out of the cell (ex: insulin)