2Chapter Menu Lesson 1: What is light? Lesson 2: Light and Matter Lesson 3: Using LensesLesson 4: The Eye and VisionClick on a hyperlink to view the corresponding lesson.
311.1 What is light? wavelength frequency medium electromagnetic spectrum
4Light Transfers Energy 11.1 What is light?Light Transfers EnergySimilar to water waves, light waves also carry energy from place to place.
511.1 What is light?Parts of a WaveThe distance between any two crests of any two troughs is the wavelength.
6Frequency and Wavelength 11.1 What is light?Frequency and WavelengthThe frequency of a wave is the number of wavelengths that pass a given point in one second.As the frequency of a wave increases, wavelength decreases.
7Electromagnetic Waves 11.1 What is light?Electromagnetic WavesThe substance through which a wave moves is called the medium.Light is an electromagnetic wave, which is a type of wave that can travel in empty space as well as in matter.
811.1 What is light?A Range of WavelengthsThe electromagnetic spectrum includes all electromagnetic waves.It is arranged in order, from those with the longest wavelengths to those with the shortest wavelengths.Frequency increases as wavelength decreases, and is arranged in order of increasing frequency.
911.1 What is light?Visible LightThe visible light spectrum is the range of electromagnetic waves human eyes can detect.Visible light wavelengths are measured in nanometers (nm).The wavelengths range from 700 nm to 400 nm.
11What is the amplitude of a wave? A distance from crest to crest 11.1 What is light?What is the amplitude of a wave?A distance from crest to crestB distance from crest to troughC distance from crest to resting positionD wavelength x frequencyLesson 1 Review
12A the distance from crest to trough 11.1 What is light?What is a wavelength?A the distance from crest to troughB the distance from crest to the rest positionC the distance from crest to crestD the opposite of frequencyLesson 1 Review
13What is the term for the substance through which a wave moves? 11.1 What is light?What is the term for the substance through which a wave moves?A mediumB substrateC waterD vacuumLesson 1 Review
1511.2 Light and Matter absorption transmission scattering refraction law of reflection
16The Interaction of Light and Matter When light rays hit matter, they can be absorbed, reflected, or pass through the matter.All electromagnetic waves, including light, transfer energy from one place to another.
1711.2 Light and MatterAbsorption of LightAbsorption occurs when light rays hit a material, and some of the rays’ energy is transferred to the atoms in the material.The transfer of energy can cause the temperature of the material to increase.
1811.2 Light and MatterTransmission of LightTransmission occurs when light waves strike a material and pass through it, such as with glass.Whether the light waves are transmitted or absorbed depends on the wavelength of the light waves.
1911.2 Light and MatterScattering of LightScattering occurs when a material causes light waves traveling in one direction to travel in all directions.
20Opaque, Transparent, and Translucent Materials 11.2 Light and MatterOpaque, Transparent, and Translucent MaterialsThe three candleholders are made of different materials that absorb, transmit, and scatter light in different ways.
21The Speed of Light in Different Materials 11.2 Light and MatterThe Speed of Light in Different MaterialsNo object or wave can move faster than the speed of light in empty space.When light waves travel in matter, they move more slowly.
2211.2 Light and MatterRefractionRefraction occurs when a light ray changes direction when it moves from one material to another.
23Refraction and Speed Changes 11.2 Light and MatterRefraction and Speed ChangesLight waves change direction—refract—when they change speed moving from one medium to another.
2511.2 Light and MatterThe Visible SpectrumWhite light is a combination of all light waves in the visible light spectrum.Almost any color of light can be made by mixing the three primary colors—red, green, and blue—in different amounts.
26The Visible Spectrum (cont.) 11.2 Light and Matter11.2 Light and MatterThe Visible Spectrum (cont.)
2711.2 Light and MatterReflectionAccording to the law of reflection, when a light ray is reflected from a surface, the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection.
28Regular and Diffuse Reflection 11.2 Light and MatterRegular and Diffuse ReflectionLight ray reflected from an uneven surface hits a spot in the surface that is at a slightly different angle, causing the rays to go in many different directions.Diffuse reflection is the reflection of light rays from a rough surface.
29Regular and Diffuse Reflection (cont.) 11.2 Light and MatterRegular and Diffuse Reflection (cont.)The smooth surface of a mirror reflects parallel light rays so that they remain parallel.This is called regular reflection.
3011.2 Light and MatterReflection and ColorAs white light strikes and object, some of the light is absorbed and some is reflected.The reflected light enters your eyes and causes you to see the object.Color
3111.2 Light and MatterWhat is the term for the process of transferring light energy to the molecules in a material?A transmissionB absorptionC scatteringD refractionLesson 2 Review
32Which of the following does light travel fastest through? 11.2 Light and MatterWhich of the following does light travel fastest through?A transparent objectsB empty spaceC airD waterLesson 2 Review
33Why does an object appear to be blue? A it absorbs the blue wavelength 11.2 Light and MatterWhy does an object appear to be blue?A it absorbs the blue wavelengthB it scatters the blue wavelengthC it reflects all the other colors except blueD it absorbs all the wavelengths except blueLesson 2 Review
3511.3 Using Lenseslensconvex lensfocal pointfocal length
3611.3 Using LensesWhat is a convex lens?A lens is a transparent object with at least one curved side that causes light waves to bend.A convex lens is a lens that bulges outward.Convex lens: parallel light rays are bent so they come together, or convergeConcave lens: parallel light rays spread apart, or diverge
37What is a convex lens? (cont.) 11.3 Using LensesWhat is a convex lens? (cont.)A concave lens is thinner in the middle than at the edges.
38Light’s Path Through a Convex Lens 11.3 Using LensesLight’s Path Through a Convex LensA light ray bends when it slows down moving from air into the lens.The light ray bends again when it speeds up moving from the lens back into the air.
39Focal Point and Focal Length 11.3 Using LensesFocal Point and Focal LengthThe focal point is the point where all of the beams of light converge.In a convex lens, all light rays traveling parallel to the optical axis are bent so that they pass through the focal point.
40Focal Point and Focal Length (cont.) 11.3 Using LensesFocal Point and Focal Length (cont.)The focal length is the distance from the center of the lens to the focal points.
41Image Formation by a Convex Lens 11.3 Using LensesImage Formation by a Convex LensThe image formed by a convex lens depends on the position of an object relative to the focal point.
4211.3 Using LensesOptical InstrumentsAn optical instrument uses lenses to focus light and create useful images.Different optical instruments do this by combining lenses in various ways.Types of optical instrumentsCamerasTelescopesMicroscopes
4311.3 Using LensesCamerasA camera is focused by moving various lenses back and forth until a sharp image is formed.The image is smaller than the object and is upside down.To take a picture, the shutter opens so that light enters the camera, and film or an electronic sensor is exposed.
4411.3 Using LensesCameras (cont.)To control the amount of light that reaches the film or light sensor, cameras have a diaphragm or an aperture.
4511.3 Using LensesTelescopesAs an object gets farther away, less of the light from the object enters the openings in your eyes.A telescope is an optical instrument that makes far-away objects seem closer.There are two basic types of telescopes—refracting and reflecting.
46Refracting Telescopes 11.3 Using LensesRefracting TelescopesThe objective lens in a refracting telescope is much larger than the opening in a human eye.Much more light from a distant object enters the objective lens than would enter an eye.
47Reflecting Telescopes 11.3 Using LensesReflecting TelescopesAn image of a distant object is formed inside the telescope tube when light rays are reflected from the curved surface of a mirror.The largest telescopes are reflecting telescopes.
4811.3 Using LensesMicroscopesThe eyepiece lens of a microscope is positioned so it is closer to the image than one focal length.This makes the image enlarged by the objective lens even larger.
49C two focal lengths from the lens D in the center of the lens 11.3 Using LensesWhere do all the beams of light passing through a convex lens converge?A focal pointB optical axisC two focal lengths from the lensD in the center of the lensLesson 3 Review
50What happens to light when it moves from air into a convex lens? 11.3 Using LensesWhat happens to light when it moves from air into a convex lens?A it is reflectedB it is scatteredC it slows downD it speeds upLesson 3 Review
51A refracting telescope B reflecting telescope C camera D microscope 11.3 Using LensesWhich uses a curved mirror to form an image that is magnified by an eyepiece lens?A refracting telescopeB reflecting telescopeC cameraD microscopeLesson 3 Review
5311.4 The Eye and Visioncorneapupilirisretinapigment
54How the Eye Forms an Image 11.4 The Eye and VisionHow the Eye Forms an ImageAs light enters your eye, lenses in your eye focus light to produce an image on the back of your eye.Special cells at the back of the eye convert the image into electrical signals that travel to your brain.
5511.4 The Eye and VisionCorneaLight enters your eye through the cornea, which is a clear area of the sclera—the outer layer of the eye.The Eye
57Iris The pupil is the dark opening into the interior of your eye. 11.4 The Eye and VisionIrisThe pupil is the dark opening into the interior of your eye.The pupil is surrounded by the iris—the colored part of your eye behind the cornea.
58Lens The lens of your eye is convex and flexible. 11.4 The Eye and VisionLensThe lens of your eye is convex and flexible.The ciliary muscles attached to the lens change its shape depending on the distance of the object being looked at.
5911.4 The Eye and VisionRetinaThe retina is a sheet of light-sensitive cells in the back of the eye.Rod cells respond to dim light and cone cells enable you to see colors.
6311.4 The Eye and VisionSeeing ColorThe response of cone cells to different wavelengths of light cause you to see objects as having color.Three types of cone cells:One responds to the wavelengths of red and yellow light, causing you to see red.One responds to yellow and green light, causing you to see green.One responds to blue and violet light, causing you to see blue.
6411.4 The Eye and VisionPigment ColorsA pigment is a material used to change the color of other materials or objects.The color of a pigment depends on the wavelengths of the light it reflects.
6611.4 The Eye and VisionColor PrintingThe pictures in magazines are formed by many tiny dots of color.Usually, the primary colors of pigments, as well as black, are used.
67Common Vision Problems 11.4 The Eye and VisionCommon Vision ProblemsColor deficiency: either lack red or green cones, or the cones do not function correctly
68Common Vision Problems (cont.) 11.4 The Eye and VisionCommon Vision Problems (cont.)Nearsightedness: cannot see faraway objects clearly
69Common Vision Problems (cont.) 11.4 The Eye and VisionCommon Vision Problems (cont.)Farsightedness: cannot see nearby objects clearlyHow are lenses used to correct vision?
70What controls the amount of light that enters your eye? 11.4 The Eye and VisionWhat controls the amount of light that enters your eye?A ciliary musclesB corneaC scleraD irisLesson 4 Review
71What part of the eye enables you to see colors? A pupil B rod cells 11.4 The Eye and VisionWhat part of the eye enables you to see colors?A pupilB rod cellsC cone cellsD optic nerveLesson 4 Review
72Which describes a nearsighted eye? 11.4 The Eye and VisionWhich describes a nearsighted eye?A it is missing some cone cells or the cones don’t function properlyB the eyeball is too short for the lens to form a clear imageC the rods at the back of the eye do not function properlyD the eyeball is too long for the lens to form a clear imageLesson 4 Review
74Chapter Resources Menu Chapter AssessmentCalifornia Standards PracticeConcepts in MotionImage BankScience OnlineClick on a hyperlink to view the corresponding feature.
75What is the wavelength range of visible light? A 700–400 nm B 200–600 nmC 300–900 nmD 800–300 nmChapter Assessment 1
76What occurs when light waves strike a material and pass through it? A reflectionB absorptionC transmissionD scatteringChapter Assessment 2
77Which is true according to the law of reflection? A if light is not refracted, it is reflectedB parallel rays of light remain parallel when they are reflectedC the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflectionD the angle of reflection is twice the angle of incidenceChapter Assessment 3
78A upside down and larger than the object Which describes the image formed by an object more than two focal lengths from a convex lens?A upside down and larger than the objectB upside down and smaller than the objectC right side up and smaller than the objectD right side up and larger than the objectChapter Assessment 4
79Which part of the eye contains light-sensitive rods and cones? A scleraB corneaC optic nerveD retinaChapter Assessment 5
80What property of a wave increases as wavelength decreases? A crest SCI 6.aWhat property of a wave increases as wavelength decreases?A crestB troughC frequencyD amplitudeCA Standards Practice 1
81In which order does light pass through the parts of the eye? SCI 6.bIn which order does light pass through the parts of the eye?A lens, retina, pupilB lens, pupil, retinaC retina, lens, pupilD pupil, lens, retinaCA Standards Practice 2
82SCI 6.cWhich light waves are refracted the least after passing through a prism?A redB violetC yellowD blueCA Standards Practice 3
83SCI 6.fWhat occurs when you look at an object at the bottom of a pool of water?A reflectionB refractionC absorptionD scatteringCA Standards Practice 4
84What type of lens is present in both your eye and a microscope? SCI 6.dWhat type of lens is present in both your eye and a microscope?A objectiveB eyepieceC convexD concaveCA Standards Practice 5