Presentation on theme: "Chapter Menu Lesson 1:What is light?What is light? Lesson 2:Light and MatterLight and Matter Lesson 3:Using LensesUsing Lenses Lesson 4:The Eye and."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter Menu Lesson 1:What is light?What is light? Lesson 2:Light and MatterLight and Matter Lesson 3:Using LensesUsing Lenses Lesson 4:The Eye and VisionThe Eye and Vision Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding lesson.
wavelength frequency medium electromagnetic spectrum 11.1 What is light?
Light Transfers Energy Similar to water waves, light waves also carry energy from place to place What is light?
Parts of a Wave The distance between any two crests of any two troughs is the wavelength What is light?
Frequency and Wavelength The frequency of a wave is the number of wavelengths that pass a given point in one second What is light? As the frequency of a wave increases, wavelength decreases.
Electromagnetic Waves The substance through which a wave moves is called the medium What is light? Light is an electromagnetic wave, which is a type of wave that can travel in empty space as well as in matter.
A Range of Wavelengths The electromagnetic spectrum includes all electromagnetic waves What is light? It is arranged in order, from those with the longest wavelengths to those with the shortest wavelengths. Frequency increases as wavelength decreases, and is arranged in order of increasing frequency.
Visible Light The visible light spectrum is the range of electromagnetic waves human eyes can detect What is light? Visible light wavelengths are measured in nanometers (nm). The wavelengths range from 700 nm to 400 nm.
Visible Light (cont.) 11.1 What is light?
Lesson 1 Review What is the amplitude of a wave? Adistance from crest to crest Bdistance from crest to trough Cdistance from crest to resting position Dwavelength x frequency 11.1 What is light?
Lesson 1 Review What is a wavelength? Athe distance from crest to trough Bthe distance from crest to the rest position Cthe distance from crest to crest Dthe opposite of frequency 11.1 What is light?
Lesson 1 Review What is the term for the substance through which a wave moves? Amedium Bsubstrate Cwater Dvacuum 11.1 What is light?
End of Lesson 1
absorption transmission scattering refraction law of reflection 11.2 Light and Matter
The Interaction of Light and Matter All electromagnetic waves, including light, transfer energy from one place to another. When light rays hit matter, they can be absorbed, reflected, or pass through the matter Light and Matter
Absorption of Light The transfer of energy can cause the temperature of the material to increase. Absorption occurs when light rays hit a material, and some of the rays energy is transferred to the atoms in the material Light and Matter
Transmission of Light Whether the light waves are transmitted or absorbed depends on the wavelength of the light waves. Transmission occurs when light waves strike a material and pass through it, such as with glass Light and Matter
Scattering of Light Scattering occurs when a material causes light waves traveling in one direction to travel in all directions Light and Matter
Opaque, Transparent, and Translucent Materials 11.2 Light and Matter The three candleholders are made of different materials that absorb, transmit, and scatter light in different ways.
The Speed of Light in Different Materials 11.2 Light and Matter No object or wave can move faster than the speed of light in empty space. When light waves travel in matter, they move more slowly.
Refraction Refraction occurs when a light ray changes direction when it moves from one material to another Light and Matter
Refraction and Speed Changes Light waves change directionrefract when they change speed moving from one medium to another Light and Matter
Refraction and Speed Changes (cont.)
The Visible Spectrum White light is a combination of all light waves in the visible light spectrum Light and Matter Almost any color of light can be made by mixing the three primary colorsred, green, and bluein different amounts.
The Visible Spectrum (cont.) 11.2 Light and Matter
Reflection According to the law of reflection, when a light ray is reflected from a surface, the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection Light and Matter
Regular and Diffuse Reflection Light ray reflected from an uneven surface hits a spot in the surface that is at a slightly different angle, causing the rays to go in many different directions. Diffuse reflection is the reflection of light rays from a rough surface Light and Matter
Regular and Diffuse Reflection (cont.) The smooth surface of a mirror reflects parallel light rays so that they remain parallel. This is called regular reflection Light and Matter
Reflection and Color As white light strikes and object, some of the light is absorbed and some is reflected. The reflected light enters your eyes and causes you to see the object Light and Matter Color
Lesson 2 Review What is the term for the process of transferring light energy to the molecules in a material? Atransmission Babsorption Cscattering Drefraction 11.2 Light and Matter
Lesson 2 Review Which of the following does light travel fastest through? Atransparent objects Bempty space Cair Dwater 11.2 Light and Matter
Lesson 2 Review Why does an object appear to be blue? Ait absorbs the blue wavelength Bit scatters the blue wavelength Cit reflects all the other colors except blue Dit absorbs all the wavelengths except blue 11.2 Light and Matter
End of Lesson 2
11.3Using Lenses lens convex lens focal point focal length
What is a convex lens? A lens is a transparent object with at least one curved side that causes light waves to bend. A convex lens is a lens that bulges outward Using Lenses –Convex lens: parallel light rays are bent so they come together, or converge –Concave lens: parallel light rays spread apart, or diverge
What is a convex lens? (cont.) A concave lens is thinner in the middle than at the edges Using Lenses
Lights Path Through a Convex Lens A light ray bends when it slows down moving from air into the lens. The light ray bends again when it speeds up moving from the lens back into the air Using Lenses
Focal Point and Focal Length The focal point is the point where all of the beams of light converge. In a convex lens, all light rays traveling parallel to the optical axis are bent so that they pass through the focal point Using Lenses
Focal Point and Focal Length (cont.) The focal length is the distance from the center of the lens to the focal points Using Lenses
Image Formation by a Convex Lens The image formed by a convex lens depends on the position of an object relative to the focal point Using Lenses
Optical Instruments An optical instrument uses lenses to focus light and create useful images Using Lenses Different optical instruments do this by combining lenses in various ways. Types of optical instruments –Cameras –Telescopes –Microscopes
Cameras A camera is focused by moving various lenses back and forth until a sharp image is formed Using Lenses The image is smaller than the object and is upside down. To take a picture, the shutter opens so that light enters the camera, and film or an electronic sensor is exposed.
Cameras (cont.) To control the amount of light that reaches the film or light sensor, cameras have a diaphragm or an aperture Using Lenses
Telescopes As an object gets farther away, less of the light from the object enters the openings in your eyes Using Lenses A telescope is an optical instrument that makes far-away objects seem closer. There are two basic types of telescopes refracting and reflecting.
Refracting Telescopes The objective lens in a refracting telescope is much larger than the opening in a human eye Using Lenses Much more light from a distant object enters the objective lens than would enter an eye.
Reflecting Telescopes An image of a distant object is formed inside the telescope tube when light rays are reflected from the curved surface of a mirror Using Lenses The largest telescopes are reflecting telescopes.
Microscopes The eyepiece lens of a microscope is positioned so it is closer to the image than one focal length Using Lenses This makes the image enlarged by the objective lens even larger.
Lesson 3 Review Where do all the beams of light passing through a convex lens converge? Afocal point Boptical axis Ctwo focal lengths from the lens Din the center of the lens 11.3 Using Lenses
Lesson 3 Review What happens to light when it moves from air into a convex lens? Ait is reflected Bit is scattered Cit slows down Dit speeds up 11.3 Using Lenses
Lesson 3 Review Which uses a curved mirror to form an image that is magnified by an eyepiece lens? Arefracting telescope Breflecting telescope Ccamera Dmicroscope 11.3 Using Lenses
End of Lesson 3
11.4The Eye and Vision cornea pupil iris retina pigment
How the Eye Forms an Image As light enters your eye, lenses in your eye focus light to produce an image on the back of your eye. Special cells at the back of the eye convert the image into electrical signals that travel to your brain The Eye and Vision
Cornea Light enters your eye through the cornea, which is a clear area of the sclerathe outer layer of the eye The Eye and Vision The Eye
Cornea 11.4 The Eye and Vision
Iris The pupil is the dark opening into the interior of your eye The Eye and Vision The pupil is surrounded by the iristhe colored part of your eye behind the cornea.
Lens The lens of your eye is convex and flexible The Eye and Vision The ciliary muscles attached to the lens change its shape depending on the distance of the object being looked at.
Retina The retina is a sheet of light-sensitive cells in the back of the eye The Eye and Vision Rod cells respond to dim light and cone cells enable you to see colors.
Parts of the Eye 11.4 The Eye and Vision
Parts of the Eye 11.4 The Eye and Vision
Parts of the Eye 11.4 The Eye and Vision
Seeing Color The response of cone cells to different wavelengths of light cause you to see objects as having color The Eye and Vision Three types of cone cells: –One responds to the wavelengths of red and yellow light, causing you to see red. –One responds to yellow and green light, causing you to see green. –One responds to blue and violet light, causing you to see blue.
Pigment Colors A pigment is a material used to change the color of other materials or objects. The color of a pigment depends on the wavelengths of the light it reflects The Eye and Vision
Pigment Colors (cont.) 11.4 The Eye and Vision
Color Printing The pictures in magazines are formed by many tiny dots of color. Usually, the primary colors of pigments, as well as black, are used The Eye and Vision
Common Vision Problems Color deficiency: either lack red or green cones, or the cones do not function correctly 11.4 The Eye and Vision
Common Vision Problems (cont.) Nearsightedness: cannot see faraway objects clearly 11.4 The Eye and Vision
Common Vision Problems (cont.) Farsightedness: cannot see nearby objects clearly 11.4 The Eye and Vision How are lenses used to correct vision?
Lesson 4 Review What controls the amount of light that enters your eye? Aciliary muscles Bcornea Csclera Diris 11.4 The Eye and Vision
Lesson 4 Review What part of the eye enables you to see colors? Apupil Brod cells Ccone cells Doptic nerve 11.4 The Eye and Vision
Lesson 4 Review Which describes a nearsighted eye? Ait is missing some cone cells or the cones dont function properly Bthe eyeball is too short for the lens to form a clear image Cthe rods at the back of the eye do not function properly Dthe eyeball is too long for the lens to form a clear image 11.4 The Eye and Vision
End of Lesson 4
Chapter Assessment California Standards Practice Concepts in Motion Image Bank Science Online Chapter Resources Menu Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding feature.
What is the wavelength range of visible light? A700–400 nm B200–600 nm C300–900 nm D800–300 nm Chapter Assessment 1
What occurs when light waves strike a material and pass through it? Areflection Babsorption Ctransmission Dscattering Chapter Assessment 2
Which is true according to the law of reflection? Aif light is not refracted, it is reflected Bparallel rays of light remain parallel when they are reflected Cthe angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection Dthe angle of reflection is twice the angle of incidence Chapter Assessment 3
Which describes the image formed by an object more than two focal lengths from a convex lens? Aupside down and larger than the object Bupside down and smaller than the object Cright side up and smaller than the object Dright side up and larger than the object Chapter Assessment 4
Which part of the eye contains light- sensitive rods and cones? Asclera Bcornea Coptic nerve Dretina Chapter Assessment 5
What property of a wave increases as wavelength decreases? Acrest Btrough Cfrequency Damplitude CA Standards Practice 1 SCI 6.a
In which order does light pass through the parts of the eye? Alens, retina, pupil Blens, pupil, retina Cretina, lens, pupil Dpupil, lens, retina CA Standards Practice 2 SCI 6.b
Which light waves are refracted the least after passing through a prism? Ared Bviolet Cyellow Dblue CA Standards Practice 3 SCI 6.c
What occurs when you look at an object at the bottom of a pool of water? Areflection Brefraction Cabsorption Dscattering CA Standards Practice 4 SCI 6.f
What type of lens is present in both your eye and a microscope? Aobjective Beyepiece Cconvex Dconcave CA Standards Practice 5 SCI 6.d