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Topic 10 Topic 10 Topic 10: Elements Table of Contents Topic 10 Topic 10 Basic Concepts Additional Concepts.

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Presentation on theme: "Topic 10 Topic 10 Topic 10: Elements Table of Contents Topic 10 Topic 10 Basic Concepts Additional Concepts."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Topic 10 Topic 10

3 Topic 10: Elements Table of Contents Topic 10 Topic 10 Basic Concepts Additional Concepts

4 An elements chemical and physical properties are closely related to its position in the periodic table and that certain properties repeat periodically. Periodic Properties of the Elements Elements: Basic Concepts Both position in the periodic table and the properties of the elements arise from the electron configurations of their atoms. Topic 10 Topic 10

5 Understanding the relationship between electron configuration and position in the periodic table enables you to predict the properties of the elements and the outcome of many chemical reactions. Periodic Properties of the Elements Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

6 Elements in the same group (vertical column) of the periodic table have the same number of valence electrons, and because of this, they have similar properties. Behavior of Main Group Elements But elements in a period (horizontal row) have properties different from one another. Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

7 Behavior of Main Group Elements As a result, the character of the elements changes. This is because the number of valence electrons increases from one to eight as you move from left to right in any row of the periodic table except the first. Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

8 Behavior of Main Group Elements Each period begins with two or more metallic elements, which are followed by one or two metalloids. The metalloids are followed by nonmetallic elements, and every period ends with a noble gas. Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

9 Trends in Metallic Properties Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

10 Patterns in Atomic Size Recall that the size of an atom increases in any group of elements as you go down the column because the valence electrons are found in energy levels farther and farther from the nucleus. But how does atomic radius change across a period from left to right? The lithium atom, with only three electrons, is actually larger than the fluorine atom, which has nine. Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

11 Patterns in Atomic Size Theres a simple explanation for the trend of decreasing atomic size across a period. The lithium nucleus has three protons, so theres an attractive force of 3+ acting on the electron. Picture the valance electron on a lithium atom. Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

12 Patterns in Atomic Size Now, think about the valence electrons in a beryllium atom. Here, there is an attractive force of 4+ from the four protons in the beryllium nucleus. Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

13 Patterns in Atomic Size With each increase in nuclear charge across the period, the outer electrons are attracted more strongly toward the nucleus, resulting in smaller size. Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

14 Atomic Radii of Main Group Elements Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

15 Ionic Size Atomic size is an important factor in the chemical reactivity of an element. Ionic size is also important in determining how ions behave in solution and the structure of solid ionic compounds. Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

16 Ionic Size When metallic atoms lose one or more electrons to become positive ions, they acquire the configuration of the noble gas in the preceding period. This means that the outermost electrons of the ion are in a lower energy level than the valence electrons of the neutral atom. Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

17 Size of Atoms and Their Ions The electrons that are not lost by the atom experience a greater attraction to the nucleus and pull together in a tighter bundle with a smaller radius. The result is that all positive ions have smaller radii than their corresponding atoms. Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

18 Size of Atoms and Their Ions When an atom gains electrons to become a negative ion, the atom acquires the electron configuration of the noble gas at the end of its period. But the nuclear charge doesnt increase with the number of electrons. Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

19 Size of Atoms and Their Ions In the case of fluorine, a nuclear charge of 9+ must hold ten electrons in the F – ion. The result is that all the electrons are held less tightly, and the radius of the ion is larger than the neutral atom. Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

20 Patterns in Ionic Radii The Alkali Metals The Group 1 elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), cesium (Cs), and francium (Fr)are called the alkali metals. The alkali elements are soft, silvery-white metals and good conductors of heat and electricity. Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10 Click box to view movie clip.

21 Patterns in Ionic Radii The Alkali Metals Their chemistry is relatively uncomplicated; they lose their s valence electron and form a 1+ ion with the stable electron configuration of the noble gas in the preceding period. Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

22 Patterns in Ionic Radii The Alkaline Earth Metals The Group 2 elementsberyllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra)are called the alkaline earth metals. Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

23 Patterns in Ionic Radii The Alkaline Earth Metals The properties of Group 2 elements are similar to those of the Group 1 elements. Like the alkali metals, they are too reactive to be found as free elements in nature. They lose both of their s valence electrons and form 2+ ions with the stable electron configuration of the noble gas in the preceding period. Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

24 Important Properties of Magnesium Alloys of magnesium are used where light weight and strength are important, as in this jet engine. Magnesium resists corrosion because it reacts with oxygen in the air to form a coating of magnesium oxide. The coating of MgO protects the metal underneath from further reaction with oxygen. Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

25 Strontium Reveals Its Presence Strontium is a less well-known element of Group 2, but its important, nevertheless. Because of its chemical similarity to calcium, strontium can replace calcium in the hydroxyapatite of bones and form Sr 5 (PO 4 ) 3 OH. Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

26 Strontium Reveals Its Presence This could be a problem only if the strontium atoms are the radioactive isotope strontium-90, which is hazardous if it is incorporated into a persons bones. Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

27 Group 13 Elements Only boron, the first element in Group 13, is a metalloid. The other Group 13 elementsaluminum (Al), gallium (Ga), indium (In), and thallium (Tl) are metals. Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

28 Group 13 Elements None of the metals are as active as the metals in Groups 1 and 2, but theyre good conductors of heat and electricity. Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

29 The Uses of Group 13 Elements Boron is a metalloid found in boric acid (H 3 BO 3 ) and borax (Na 2 B 4 O 7 10H 2 O). Boric acid is one of the active ingredients in eyewash or contact lens-cleaning solution. Borax is the abrasive in some tough cleansing powders. Its also used as a water softener and is an important component in some types of glass. Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

30 Group 14 Elements The Group 14 elementscarbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), and lead (Pb)exhibit a variety of properties. Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

31 Group 14 Elements Carbon is a nonmetal, silicon and germanium are metalloids, and tin and lead are metals. Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

32 Group 15 Elements The trend in metallic properties is obvious as you go from the top of Group 15 to the bottomfrom nitrogen (N) to phosphorus (P) to arsenic (As) to antimony (Sb) and bismuth (Bi). Nitrogen and phosphorus are nonmetals. Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

33 Group 15 Elements They form covalent bonds to complete their outer-level configuration. Arsenic and antimony are metalloids and either gain or share electrons to complete their octets. Bismuth is more metallic and often loses electrons. Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

34 Group 16 Elements The Group 16 elementsoxygen (O), sulfur (S), selenium (Se), and tellurium (Te)are nonmetals, and polonium (Po) is a metalloid. Their valence-electron configuration is s 2 p 4. With rare exceptions, oxygen gains two electrons and forms the oxide ion (O 2– ) with the neon configuration. Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

35 Group 16 Elements Oxygen reacts with both metals and nonmetals and, among the nonmetals, is second only to fluorine in chemical reactivity. Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

36 Group 17 Elements The halogensfluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), idodine (I), and astatine (At)are active nonmetals. Because of their chemical reactivity, they dont exist as free elements in nature. Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

37 Group 17 Elements Their chemical behavior is characterized by a tendency to gain one electron to complete their s 2 p 5 valence-electron configuration and form a 1– ion with a noble-gas configuration. Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

38 Group 18 Elements Helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe), and radon (Rn), the noble gases, were originally called the inert gases because chemists couldnt get them to react. Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

39 Properties of the Transition Elements With the exception of the Group 12 elements (zinc, cadmium, and mercury), the transition metals have higher melting points and boiling points than those of almost all of the main group elements. Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

40 Properties of the Transition Elements Multiple oxidation states are characteristic of the transition elements. Many of the transition elements can have multiple oxidation numbers ranging from 2+ to 7+. Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

41 Properties of the Transition Elements These oxidation numbers are due to involvement of the d electrons in chemical bonding. Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

42 Lanthanides and Actinides: The Inner Transition Elements In the lanthanides, electrons of highest energy are in the 4f sublevel. Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10 The lanthanides were once called rare earth elements because all of these elements occurred in Earths crust as earths, an older term for oxides, and seemed to be relatively rare.

43 Lanthanides and Actinides: The Inner Transition Elements The highest- energy electrons in the actinides are in the 5f sublevel. Elements: Basic Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

44 Basic Assessment Questions Explain why elements within the same group of the periodic table are similar but not identical in properties, such as ionization energy. Question 1 Topic 10 Topic 10

45 Elements within the same group of the periodic table have the same number of valence electrons, but different numbers of nonvalence electrons. Answer Basic Assessment Questions Topic 10 Topic 10

46 Compare the alkali and alkaline earth metals in terms of position in the periodic table, number of valence electrons, and overall properties. Question 2 Basic Assessment Questions Topic 10 Topic 10

47 Basic Assessment Questions Answer The alkali metals have one valence electron and are in group 1A. The alkaline earth metals have two valence electrons and are in group 2A. Both types of metals are reactive, but the alkaline earth metals are less reactive. The alkali metals are softer. Topic 10 Topic 10

48 Compare the metallic character of the elements carbon, silicon, and lead. What do these elements have in common in terms of valance electrons and placement in the periodic table? Question 3 Basic Assessment Questions Topic 10 Topic 10

49 Basic Assessment Questions Answer Carbon is a nonmetal, silicon is a metalloid, and lead is a metal. All have four valence electrons and are located in group 4A. Topic 10 Topic 10

50 Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10 Additional Concepts

51 Reactivity of the Group 1A Element, Lithium Elements: Additional Concepts Lithium is the most active metal in the second period because it can attain the noble- gas configuration of helium by losing a single electron. If lithium loses one electron from its 2s sublevel, its electron configuration changes from 1s 2 2s 1 to 1s 2. Topic 10 Topic 10

52 The resulting lithium ion has a 1+ charge and the same electron configuration as a helium atom. While this is not an octet, it is a noble-gas configuration. Elements tend to react in ways that allow them to achieve the configuration of the nearest noble gas. Reactivity of the Group 1A Element, Lithium Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

53 Reactivity of the Group 2A Element, Beryllium Beryllium, the next element in the second period, must lose a pair of 2s electrons to acquire the helium configuration. Its harder to lose two electrons than it is to lose one, so beryllium is slightly less reactive than lithium. Nevertheless, beryllium does react by losing both of its 2s electrons and forming a 2+ ion with the helium electron configuration. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

54 Reactivity of the Group 3A Element, Boron If this pattern continued, you would expect boron to lose three electrons to attain the helium configuration. Sometimes, boron does react by losing electrons, but often it reacts by sharing electrons. Boron is the only metalloid in the period. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

55 That means boron sometimes behaves like a metal and loses electrons like its neighboring metals, lithium and beryllium. When it loses electrons, boron achieves the noble-gas configuration of helium. Reactivity of the Group 3A Element, Boron Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

56 But more often, boron acts like a nonmetal and shares electrons. Boron is unusual because it has only three electrons to share and cannot acquire an octet of electrons by just sharing. Reactivity of the Group 3A Element, Boron Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

57 Reactivity of the Group 4A, 5A, 6A, and 7A Elements, C, N, O, and F Carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine are nonmetals. Carbon, with the configuration [He]2s 2 2p 2, and nitrogen, with the configuration [He]2s 2 2p 3, share electrons to attain the noble-gas configuration of neon, [He]2s 2 2p 6. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

58 Reactivity of the Group 4A, 5A, 6A, and 7A Elements, C, N, O, and F Oxygen, with the configuration [He]2s 2 2p 4, gains two electrons to form the oxide ion, O 2–. Fluorine, with the configuration [He]2s 2 2p 5, gains one electron to become the fluoride ion, F –. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

59 Reactivity of the Group 1A Elements: The Alkali Metals Because of their chemical reactivity, the alkali metals dont exist as free elements in nature. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10 Sodium, for example, is found mostly combined with chlorine in sodium chloride. Click box to view movie clip.

60 Reactivity of the Group 1A Elements: The Alkali Metals Metallic sodium is obtained from NaCl through a process called electrolysis in which an electric current is passed through the molten salt. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

61 Spontaneous Reactivity Sodium and the other Group 1 elements are among the most active of all the metals. All Group 1 metals react vigorously with water. When they do, they replace hydrogen and form a hydroxide, as shown in the following equation. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

62 Alkali Metals Form Hydroxides So much heat is generated in the rapid reaction of potassium and water that the hydrogen gas produced in the reaction bursts into flames. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10 Potassium hydroxide (KOH) formed in the reaction makes the solution alkaline. Hydroxides are important household and industrial chemicals.

63 Household, Industrial, and Biological Uses Sodium hydroxide is used in the digestion of pulp in the process of making paper. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10 Its also used in making soap, in petroleum refining, in the reclaiming of rubber, and in the manufacture of rayon.

64 Compounds of sodium and potassium are important to the human body because they supply the positive ions that play a key role in transmitting nerve impulses that control muscle functions. Household, Industrial, and Biological Uses Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10 It is sodium hydroxides ability to convert fats to soap that makes it effective as a kitchen drain cleaner.

65 Its one of the three major components of fertilizers; the other two are also main group elementsnitrogen and phosphorus. Household, Industrial, and Biological Uses Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10 Potassium is also an essential nutrient for plants.

66 Reactivity of the Group 2A Elements, the Alkaline Earth Metals The most reactive element in the alkaline earth group is the one with the largest atomic radius and, therefore, the least attraction for its two valence electrons. Knowing this, you can predict that radium, the largest atom in the group, is the most reactive. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

67 Reactivity of the Group 2A Elements, the Alkaline Earth Metals The trend to increasing reactivity with increasing size of atom for the alkaline earth metals is illustrated by the reaction of the elements with water. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

68 Reactions of Magnesium and Calcium Magnesium oxide is also formed when magnesium is heated in air. It burns vigorously, producing a brilliant white light and magnesium oxide. In the process, magnesium loses two electrons to form the Mg 2+ ion, and oxygen gains two electrons to form the O 2– ion. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

69 Reactions of Magnesium and Calcium Together, they form the ionic compound MgO. The following equation shows what happens. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

70 Reactions of Strontium Strontium makes its presence known by the brilliant red color of a fireworks display. The red color also identifies strontium in laboratory flame tests. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

71 Reactivity of the Group 13 Elements: The Importance of Aluminum Because aluminum is neither as hard nor as strong as steel, it is often alloyed with other metals to make structural materials. Aluminum alloys are used in automobile engines, airplanes, and truck bodies where high strength and light weight are important. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

72 Aluminum in Your Home At home, you may find bicycles, outdoor furniture, ladders, and pots and pans that are made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

73 Aluminum as a Conductor Even though aluminum doesnt conduct electricity as well as copper, it costs less to use aluminum than copper for transmission of electricity. Aluminum cables are much lighter than copper cables, so fewer support towers are needed to hold the miles and miles of cable that span the country. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

74 Galliums Low Melting Point Gallium, indium, and thallium react much like aluminum. But gallium, shown here, has an unusually low melting point, 29.8°C. The heat of a hand is sufficient to liquefy the metal. For comparison, aluminum melts at 660ºC. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

75 Reactivity of the Group 14 Elements: Silicon Silicon, like boron, is a metalloid. It occurs in sand as silicon dioxide, SiO 2 sometimes called silica. About 59 percent of Earths crust is made up of silica. In its elemental form, silicon is a hard, gray solid with a relatively high melting point, 1410ºC. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

76 Silicon is in window glass and in the chips that run computers. Compounds of silicon are found in lubricants, caulking, and sealants. Reactivity of the Group 14 Elements: Silicon Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

77 Special Glasses from Silicon Silicon is important in semiconductors. Its also important in making alloys and in ceramics, glass, and cement. The glass-ceramic shown here doesnt expand when heated so it wont break when exposed to large temperature changes. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

78 Tin Cans and Alloys Tin (Sn) is best known for its use as a protective coating for steel cans used for food storage. The coating protects the steel from corrosion. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

79 Tin Cans and Alloys Tin is also a principal component in the alloys bronze, solder, and pewter. Tin is a soft metal that can be rolled into thin sheets of foil. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

80 The Lead-Acid Storage Battery Lead (Pb) has been known and used since ancient times. Its obtained from the ore galena (PbS). Lead is alloyed with tin in solder and cheaper grades of pewter. The most important use of lead is in the lead-acid storage batteries used in automobiles. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

81 Reactivity of the Group 15 Elements Nitrogen, as the chemically unreactive molecule N 2, makes up 78 percent by volume of Earths atmosphere. Plants and animals cant use nitrogen in this form. Lichens, soil bacteria, and bacteria in the root nodules of beans, clover and other similar plants convert nitrogen to ammonia and nitrate compounds. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

82 Reactivity of the Group 15 Elements Lightning also converts atmospheric nitrogen to nitrogen monoxide (NO). Plants use these simple nitrogen compounds to make proteins and other complex nitrogen compounds that become part of the food chain. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

83 Ammonia, the Essential Fertilizer Ammonia is used as a liquid fertilizer applied directly to soil, or it can be converted to solid fertilizers such as ammonium nitrate, NH 4 NO 3 ; ammonium sulfate, (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 ; or ammonium hydrogen phosphate, (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

84 Two Allotropes of Phosphorus White and red phosphorus are two common allotropes of phosphorus. Notice that the white phosphorus is photographed under a liquid because this form of phosphorus, which has the formula P 4 reacts spontaneously with oxygen in the air. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

85 Two Allotropes of Phosphorus Red phosphorus is used in making matches. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

86 Gallium Arsenide Semiconductors Arsenic is a metalloid found widely distributed in Earths crust. An increasingly important use of the element is in the form of the binary compound gallium arsenide, GaAs. Because of its higher speed and performance, gallium arsenide is now replacing silicon in some of its semi-conductor applications in electronic circuitry. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

87 Antimony Antimony (Sb) is used primarily in alloys with other materials, particularly lead. Antimony improves the hardness and corrosion resistance of the metal. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

88 Reactivity of the Group 16 Elements Like oxygen, sulfur gains two electrons and forms the sulfide ion (S 2– ) when it reacts with metals or with hydrogen. But in its reactions with nonmetals, sulfur can have other oxidation numbers. Much of the sulfur produced in the United States is taken from deposits of elemental sulfur by the Frasch process of mining. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

89 Unstable Hydrogen Peroxide In your household chemical storehouse, youll find oxygen in solutions of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), shown in a brown bottle. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

90 An Application of Seleniums Photosensitivity The chemistry of selenium and tellurium is similar to that of sulfur. Selenium has the property of increased electrical conductivity when exposed to light. This property has applications in security devices and mechanical opening and closing devices, where the interruption of a beam of light triggers an electrical response. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

91 Fluorides Prevent Tooth Decay Many towns and cities add fluorides to their water supply, and sodium fluoride (NaF) or tin(II) fluoride (SnF 2 ) is often added to toothpastes to prevent tooth decay. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

92 Silver Bromide Coats Photographic Film The compound of the halogens are more important than the free elements. Compounds of chlorine with carbon, such as carbon tetrachloride and chloroform, are important solvents. Silver bromide (AgBr) is important in the light-sensitive coating on film. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

93 Reactivity of Group 18 Elements, Noble Gases The lack of reactivity of noble gases is understandable; all the noble gases have a full complement of valence electrons and of noble gasses, therefore, no tendency to gain or lose electrons. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

94 Reactivity of the Group 3-12 Elements, Transition Elements: Iron Besides its importance as a structural metal, iron is an essential element in biological systems. It is the iron ion at the center of the heme molecule that binds oxygen. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

95 Chromium When chromium is alloyed with iron, tough, hard steels or steels that are corrosion-resistant are formed. Chromium is also alloyed with other transition metals to produce structural alloys for use in jet engines that must withstand high temperatures. A self-protective metal, chromium is often plated onto other materials to protect them from corrosion. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

96 Zinc Like chromium, zinc is a corrosion-resistant metal. One of its principal uses is as a coating on iron and steel surfaces to prevent rusting. In the process called galvanizing, a surface coating of zinc is applied to iron by dipping the iron into molten zinc. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

97 Zinc Zinc is also important when alloyed with other metals. The most important of these alloys is the combination of zinc with copper in brass. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

98 Reactivity of Lanthanides and Actinides: Cerium Misch metal is 50 percent cerium combined with lanthanum, neodymium, and a small amount of iron. Cerium is the principal metal in the alloy called misch metal. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

99 Other Lanthanides Neodymium (Nd) is used not only to decolorize glass but to add color to glass. Other lanthanides are used in the glass industry. When added to the glass used for welders goggles, neodymium and praseodymium (Pr) absorb the eye-damaging radiation from welding. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

100 Radioactivity and the Actinides Uranium (U) is a naturally occurring, radioactive element used as a source of nuclear fuel and other radioactive elements. Plutonium (Pu) is one of the elements obtained from the use of uranium as a nuclear fuel. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

101 Radioactivity and the Actinides Some actinides have medical applications: for example, radioactive californium-252 (Cf) is used in cancer therapy. Better results in killing cancer cells have been achieved using this isotope of californium than by sing the more traditional X-ray radiation. Elements: Additional Concepts Topic 10 Topic 10

102 Additional Assessment Questions Name the elements in the following pair. Compare them in terms of group number, number of valence electrons, and metallic character. Question 1 As and Bi Topic 10 Topic 10

103 As: arsenic; 5A; 3; metalloid Answers Bi: bismuth; 5A; 5; metal Additional Assessment Questions Topic 10 Topic 10

104 State a use for each element. Question 2 A. Se and Cl B. I and H C. S and F Additional Assessment Questions Topic 10 Topic 10

105 Answers A. Se: used in solar panels and photcopiers Cl: used as a bleach and disinfectant and to make certain plastics B. I: silver compound used to coat photographic film He: used in balloons and by divers C. S: used to make sulfuric acid F: used in toothpaste to protect tooth enamel Additional Assessment Questions Topic 10 Topic 10

106 An element is metallic and radioactive. It has six valence electrons. Identify the elements group number and name the element. Question 3 Additional Assessment Questions Topic 10 Topic 10

107 Answer Group 6A, polonium Additional Assessment Questions Topic 10 Topic 10

108 Compare the period-2 elements that are in groups 5A, 6A, 7A, and 8A in terms of number of valence electrons and reactivity. Question 4 Additional Assessment Questions Topic 10 Topic 10

109 Nitrogen (group 5A) has five valence electrons and is relatively unreactive. Answers Neon (group 8A) has eight valence electrons and is extremely unreactive. Fluorine (group 7A) has seven valence electrons and is extremely reactive. Oxygen (group 6A) has six valence electrons and is reactive. Additional Assessment Questions Topic 10 Topic 10

110 To advance to the next item or next page click on any of the following keys: mouse, space bar, enter, down or forward arrow. Click on this icon to return to the table of contents Click on this icon to return to the previous slide Click on this icon to move to the next slide Click on this icon to open the resources file. Help Click on this icon to go to the end of the presentation.

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