Presentation on theme: "The Periodic Table A map of the building block of matter."— Presentation transcript:
The Periodic Table A map of the building block of matter.
Periodic Law Periodic Law: –Physical and chemical properties of the elements repeat in a regular pattern when they are arranged in order of increasing atomic number.
Families or Groups & Periods Families or groups go down columns of the periodic table. There are 18 columns that have similar characteristics and they have the following names. 1 – alkaline earth metals15 – nitrogen group 2 – alkali metals16 – chalcogens 3-12 – transition metals17 – halogens 13 – boron group18 – noble gases 14 – carbon group Periods go across the periodic table.
Directions of trends Increase Across – Decrease Down Electronegativity Ability to attract electrons Most electronegative atoms are in upper right corner of periodic table (fluorine) Thats why atoms on the right gain electrons; they pull electrons from the metals on the left. Ionization Energy Energy required to remove an electron from an atom The nucleuss hold on its valence electrons
Direction of trends increase-down a group & decrease across a period Atomic Radius Refers to size of an atom As you move across the period, the attraction between valence electrons and the nucleus is stronger; resulting in smaller size Melting & Boiling Points Temperature required to melt or boil an element. Metals increase as you go down a group; decrease across a period. Nonmetals decrease down a group and increase across a period.
Periodic Table: Metallic arrangement Layout of the Periodic Table: Metals vs. nonmetals Metals Nonmetals
Reading the Periodic Table: Classification
Across the Periodic Table Periods: Are arranged horizontally across the periodic table (rows 1-7) These elements have the same number of valence shells. 2nd Period 6th Period
Down the Periodic Table Family: Are arranged vertically down the periodic table (columns or group, or 1-8 A,B)Family: Are arranged vertically down the periodic table (columns or group, or 1-8 A,B) These elements have the same number electrons in the outer most shells, the valence shell.These elements have the same number electrons in the outer most shells, the valence shell. Alkali Family: 1 e- in the valence shell Alkali Family: 1 e- in the valence shell Halogen Family: 7 e- in the valence shell Halogen Family: 7 e- in the valence shell
Infamous Families of the Periodic Table Notable families of the Periodic Table and some important members: Alkali Alkaline (earth) Transition Metals Noble Gas HalogenChalcogens
Important members - the Elements Individual members of selected Elements & their characteristicsIndividual members of selected Elements & their characteristics H He Li Na KCa Mg Fe I Cl F P SSi ONC Al Zn Cu Ag Br
Periodic Table: Electron Behavior The periodic table can be classified by the behavior of the electrons
Trend in Atomic Radius Atomic Radius:Atomic Radius: The size of an atom is decreases as you move across a period and increases as you move down a family.
Trend in Ionization Potential Ionization potential: The energy required to remove the valence electron from an atom. It is greatest in the upper right corner of the periodic table because these atoms hold on to their valence e- the tightest.
Trend in Electron Affinity Electron Affinity: The energy released when an electron is added to an atom. It is greatest in the upper right corner of the periodic table as these atoms have the greatest affinity for electrons.
Summary of Trends 1. Electron Configuration 2. Atomic Radius 3. Ionization Energy 4. Electron Affinity