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CST Review Questions The Chemistry of DNA and Molecular Genetics.

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Presentation on theme: "CST Review Questions The Chemistry of DNA and Molecular Genetics."— Presentation transcript:

1 CST Review Questions The Chemistry of DNA and Molecular Genetics

2 The diagram below represents a portion of a nucleic acid molecule. The part indicated by arrow X could be 1. adenine. 2. ribose. 3. deoxyribose. 4. phosphate. Question 1

3 Question 2 The molecule coded directly from DNA is represented by number

4 What is an example of a molecule produced by this type of process? 1. glucose 2. glycogen 3. a fatty acid 4. a protein Question 3

5 A mutation may occur in a gene as a result of the 1.synthesis of a spindle apparatus. 2. loss of a nucleotide. 3. loss of a nucleolus. 4. replication of centromeres. Question 4

6 Which organelle in the diagram below represents an exception to the cell theory because it contains genetic material and can reproduce within the cell? 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D Question 5

7 The diagram below represents a portion of a chromosome of a fruit fly. What would most likely be located at area A? 1. centrioles 2. spindle fibers 3. nucleolus 4. nucleic acid Question 6

8 Question 3 The structure and location of a cellular component is represented in the diagram below. The polymer in the diagram most likely contains 1. adenosine triphosphate. 2. lipids. 3. genes. 4. hydrolytic enzymes. Question 7

9 Question 3 Which processes occur in the nucleus? 1. 1 and and and and 5 Question 8

10 Process 1 is known as 1. replication 2. mutation 3. nondisjunction 4. translocation Question 9

11 What is the product of process 3? 1. a strand of DNA 2. two complementary strands of DNA 3. a strand of RNA 4. a chain of amino acids Question 10

12 If an adenine nucleotide is deleted from a nucleotide sequence in a DNA molecule, the result is a 1. clone 2. mutation 3. polypeptide 4. hybrid Question 11

13 One strand of DNA could be as long as a football field if it were stretched out lengthwise. One of the factors allowing DNA to fit inside the nucleus of a cell is its ability to 1. break apart into separate genes. 2. extend to form very long, thin molecules. 3. coil tightly around associated proteins. 4. denature from the effect of an enzyme. Question 12

14 In an experiment, the height of several plants was recorded daily in millimeters. Which tool would be the most accurate and appropriate for this measurement? 1. Digital scale 2. Graduated cylinder 3. Yardstick 4. Metric ruler Question 13

15 The diagram below shows a strand 3 of DNA matched to a strand of messenger RNA. What process does this diagram represent? 1. mutation 2. respiration 3. transcription 4. translation Question 14

16 Why is the particular sequence of bases in a segment of DNA important to cells? 1. Some base sequences code for protein production. 2. Some base sequences cause the release of lipids from the nucleus. 3. Some base sequences contain the order of sugars in polysaccharides. 4. Some base sequences produce electrical signals sent to the cytoplasm. Question 15

17 A rare genetic condition causes 30 dwarfism and immunodefi ciencies. Which of the following is the most likely cause of this condition? 1. a parasitic infection 2. a mutation in DNA 3. a bacterial disease 4. an excess of ATP Question 16

18 The weakest bonds in a double-stranded molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid exist between the 1. deoxyribose sugars. 2. phosphate groups. 3. nitrogenous bases carbon sugars. Question 17

19 The types of enzymes produced in a cell are regulated by the 1.order of nucleotides in DNA molecules. 2. shape of DNA molecules. 3. size of nucleotides in DNA molecules. 4. location of DNA molecules. Question 18

20 Molecules C, D, and E will combine to form part of 1. a polypeptide. 2. a polysaccharide. 3. DNA. 4. RNA. Question 19

21 Structure B represents a molecule of 1. nuclear DNA. 2. cytoplasmic DNA. 3. ribosomal RNA. 4. transfer RNA. Question 20

22 How many codons are located on the messenger RNA molecule in the diagram? Question 21

23 The type of molecule represented at A is synthesized according to a template found in 1. DNA. 2. RNA. 3. dipeptides. 4. amino acids. Question 22

24 One similarity between DNA and messenger RNA molecules is that they both contain 1. the same sugar. 2.genetic codes based on sequences of bases. 3. a nitrogenous base known as uracil. 4. double-stranded polymers. Question 23

25 DNA replicates through a process called 1. dispersive replication. 2. semidisperive replication. 3. conservative replication. 4. semiconservative replication. Question 24

26 When DNA replication occurs, the enzyme which separates the two sides of the helix is called 1. DNA polymerase. 2. DNA amylase. 3. DNA ligase. 4. DNA helicase. Question 25

27 The enzyme which bonds new nitrogenous bases to those existing on the original DNA strand is called 1.DNA polymerase. 2.DNA amylase. 3.DNA ligase. 4.DNA helicase. Question 26

28 Okazaki fragments are formed because 1.DNA polymerase can only create a new strand of DNA from the 5' end to the 3' end. 2.DNA polymerase can only create a new strand of DNA from the 3' end to the 5' end. 3.newly formed DNA tends to break apart easily into fragments. 4.DNA helicase sometimes inadvertently breaks the DNA. Question 27

29 One important difference between DNA replication in prokaryotes and eukaryotes is that 1.prokaryotes do not use enzymes in the replication process 2.there is only one replication origin in prokaryotes 3.there are no Okazaki fragments in prokaryotes 4.replication is conservative, not semiconservative, in prokaryotes Question 28

30 Which of the following must happen first in order for DNA replication to occur? 1. DNA polymerase binds to the leading strand 2. DNA is unwound 3. Hydrogen bonds form between bases 4. Chromosomes condense Question 29

31 A nucleotide consists of 1. a nitrogen base. 2. a nitrogen base and a sugar. 3. a nitrogen base, sugar, and phosphate. 4. two nitrogen bases, a sugar, and a phosphate. Question 30

32 The "rungs" of the DNA ladder are made of 1. phosphates & bases. 2. sugars. 3. sugars & phosphates. 4. bases. Question 31

33 A DNA strand has the following bases: A A G C C A. What are the bases on its complimentary strand? 1. A A G C C A 2. A C C G A A 3. T T C G G T 4. C C A T T C Question 32

34 When onion cells are observed with a compound light microscope, which laboratory technique is used to make the nucleus more visible? 1. centrifugation 2. chromatography 3. microdissection 4. staining Question 33

35 A student is investigating the internal organs of an earthworm. Which piece of equipment should the student use to move the intestine aside without damaging it? 1. a glass slide 2. a metric ruler 3. a dissecting needle 4. a dropping pipette Question 34

36 Question 3 What is the volume of water in the graduated cylinder shown below? mL mL mL mL Question 35

37 Question 3 Which piece of laboratory equipment should a student use to remove the legs of a preserved grasshopper for further study? Question 36

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