Presentation on theme: "The Chemistry of DNA and Molecular Genetics"— Presentation transcript:
1The Chemistry of DNA and Molecular Genetics CST Review QuestionsThe Chemistry of DNA and Molecular Genetics
2Question 1The diagram below represents a portion of a nucleic acid molecule. The part indicated by arrow X could be1. adenine.2. ribose.3. deoxyribose.4. phosphate.
3Question 2The molecule coded directly from DNA is represented by number1234
4Question 3What is an example of a molecule produced by this type of process?1. glucose2. glycogen3. a fatty acid4. a protein
5Question 4 A mutation may occur in a gene as a result of the synthesis of aspindle apparatus.2. loss of a nucleotide.3. loss of a nucleolus.4. replication ofcentromeres.
6Question 5Which organelle in the diagram below represents an exception to the cell theory because it contains genetic material and can reproduce within the cell?ABCD
7Question 6 The diagram below represents a portion of a chromosome of a fruit fly.What would most likely be located at area A?1. centrioles2. spindle fibers3. nucleolus4. nucleic acid
8Question 3Question 7The structure and location of a cellular component is represented in the diagram below. The polymer in the diagram most likely contains1. adenosine triphosphate.2. lipids.3. genes.4. hydrolytic enzymes.
9Which processes occur in the nucleus? Question 3Question 8Which processes occur in the nucleus?1. 1 and 22. 2 and 33. 3 and 44. 4 and 5
10Question 9 Process 1 is known as 1. replication 2. mutation 3. nondisjunction4. translocation
11Question 10 What is the product of process 3? 1. a strand of DNA 2. two complementary strands of DNA3. a strand of RNA4. a chain of amino acids
12Question 11If an adenine nucleotide is deleted from a nucleotide sequence in a DNA molecule, the result is a1. clone2. mutation3. polypeptide4. hybrid
13Question 12One strand of DNA could be as long as a football field if it were stretched out lengthwise. One of the factors allowing DNA to fit inside the nucleus of a cell is its ability to1. break apart into separate genes.2. extend to form very long, thinmolecules.3. coil tightly around associated proteins.4. denature from the effect of an enzyme.
14Question 13In an experiment, the height of several plants was recorded daily in millimeters. Which tool would be the most accurate and appropriate for this measurement?1. Digital scale2. Graduated cylinder3. Yardstick4. Metric ruler
15Question 14The diagram below shows a strand 3 of DNA matched to a strand of messenger RNA. What process does this diagram represent?1. mutation2. respiration3. transcription4. translation
16Question 15Why is the particular sequence of bases in a segment of DNA important to cells?1. Some base sequences code for protein production.2. Some base sequences cause the release of lipids from the nucleus.3. Some base sequences contain the order of sugars in polysaccharides.4. Some base sequences produce electrical signals sent to the cytoplasm.
17Question 16A rare genetic condition causes 30 dwarfism and immunodefi ciencies. Which of the following is the most likely cause of this condition?1. a parasitic infection2. a mutation in DNA3. a bacterial disease4. an excess of ATP
18Question 17The weakest bonds in a double-stranded molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid exist between the1. deoxyribose sugars.2. phosphate groups.3. nitrogenous bases.4. 5-carbon sugars.
19Question 18The types of enzymes produced in a cell are regulated by theorder of nucleotides in DNAmolecules.2. shape of DNA molecules.3. size of nucleotides in DNA molecules.4. location of DNA molecules.
20Question 19 Molecules C, D, and E will combine to form part of 1. a polypeptide.2. a polysaccharide.3. DNA.4. RNA.
21Question 20 Structure B represents a molecule of 1. nuclear DNA. 2. cytoplasmic DNA.3. ribosomal RNA.4. transfer RNA.
22Question 21How many codons are located on the messenger RNA molecule in the diagram?1. 12. 63. 34. 9
23Question 22The type of molecule represented at A is synthesized according to a template found in1. DNA.2. RNA.3. dipeptides.4. amino acids.
24Question 23One similarity between DNA and messenger RNA molecules is that they both contain1. the same sugar.genetic codes based on sequences of bases.3. a nitrogenous base known as uracil.4. double-stranded polymers.
25Question 24 DNA replicates through a process called dispersive replication. semidisperive replication. conservative replication. semiconservative replication.
26Question 25When DNA replication occurs, the enzyme which separates the two sides of the helix is calledDNA polymerase.DNA amylase.DNA ligase.DNA helicase.
27Question 26The enzyme which bonds new nitrogenous bases to those existing on the original DNA strand is calledDNA polymerase.DNA amylase.DNA ligase.DNA helicase.
28Question 27 Okazaki fragments are formed because DNA polymerase can only create a new strand of DNA from the 5' end to the 3' end.DNA polymerase can only create a new strand of DNA from the 3' end to the 5' end.newly formed DNA tends to break apart easily into fragments.DNA helicase sometimes inadvertently breaks the DNA.
29Question 28One important difference between DNA replication in prokaryotes and eukaryotes is that prokaryotes do not use enzymes in the replication processthere is only one replication origin in prokaryotesthere are no Okazaki fragments in prokaryotesreplication is conservative, not semiconservative, in prokaryotes
30Question 29Which of the following must happen first in order for DNA replication to occur?1. DNA polymerase binds to the leading strand2. DNA is unwound3. Hydrogen bonds form between bases4. Chromosomes condense
31Question 30 A nucleotide consists of 1. a nitrogen base a nitrogen base and a sugar a nitrogen base, sugar, andphosphate two nitrogen bases, a sugar, and aphosphate.
32Question 31 The "rungs" of the DNA ladder are made of 1. phosphates & bases sugars sugars & phosphates bases.
33Question 32 A DNA strand has the following bases: A A G C C A. What are the bases on its complimentary strand?A A G C C AA C C G A AT T C G G TC C A T T C
34Question 33When onion cells are observed with a compound light microscope, which laboratory technique is used to make the nucleus more visible?1. centrifugation2. chromatography3. microdissection4. staining
35Question 34A student is investigating the internal organs of an earthworm. Which piece of equipment should the student use to move the intestine aside without damaging it?1. a glass slide2. a metric ruler3. a dissecting needle4. a dropping pipette
36Question 3Question 35What is the volume of water in the graduated cylinder shown below?mLmLmLmL
37Question 3Question 36Which piece of laboratory equipment should a student use to remove the legs of a preserved grasshopper for further study?