6Gills Feathery gill filaments Contains tiny blood vessels Water enters mouth, passes over gills and out through slits at side.O2/CO2 exchanged in capillaries.
7Two-chambered heart One chamber receives deoxygenated blood from body The other pumps blood to the gills, where it picks up oxygen and releases CO2.
8Sexual Reproduction Most have external fertilization Female lays a large number of eggs and then male deposits sperm on top of them
9Adult male and female salmon spawn together in gravel beds of rivers and streams. Using sweeping movements of her tail, the female salmon digs out a gravel nest, called a redd. The male fertilizes the eggs as the female deposits them. The female protects the redd for one to two weeks or as long as she is able before dying.
10Sharks eggs are laid (like birds) Some (sharks) have internal fertilization. There are three ways that sharks can be born:eggs are laid (like birds)eggs hatch inside the mother and then are bornShark pups grow inside the mother (like humans)
11Mollies and guppies Internal fertilization. Eggs hatch inside and babies are born fully developed.
12Mouth brooding Cichlids Care for young after hatching.The cichlid scoops eggs, and later, babies into mouth to protect from danger
13Paired Fins Fan-shaped membranes attached to endoskeleton Used for balance, swimming and steeringMandarin fish fin Longnose Gar fin
14Sensory SystemsSharks can use smell to follow a trail of blood for several km
15Lateral line systemFluid filled canals along sides of fish that detect movement and vibrations in water
16Scales Thin bony plates formed from skin Growth rings can indicate age Top: Broadnose shark, Bottom: Florida gar
17Jaws Very important adaptation Allows grasping and crushing of prey Above: barracudaRight: pirrhana
24Three Classes of Fish Agnatha: jawless fish, lampreys and hagfish Class Condrichthyes: cartilaginous fish, sharks and raysOsteichthyes: bony fish
25Agnathans: jawless fish Cartilage skeletonParasitic bloodsuckers
26Lamprey Sucker-like mouths Attach to another fish, scrape away flesh and then suck blood.
27Hag f i s h Slit-like, toothed mouth Drills holes and sucks blood of dead or dying fishHag f i s h
28Skin excretes mucous to make the fish slippery to predators Skin excretes mucous to make the fish slippery to predators. One hagfish can produce enough slime to fill a milk jugSlime gland pores that produce mucus on skin
29Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous fish Entire skeleton is made of cartilageLivingfossilsInclude:SharksRaysSkates
36Sharks Have been around for 400 million years Almost unchanged for 150 million years
37Shark TeethBites prey, then tears it apart by tossing head back and forthRows of backup teeth replace lost onesMay grow and use 20,000 teeth in a lifetime
385 Most Dangerous SharksHammerheadGreat WhiteTigerMakoBull shark
39Great White Shark Up to 3000 teeth at one time Up to 23 feet in length Feed on sharks, sea lions, fish, rays, whalesAccount for 1/3 to ½ attacks on humans
40Tiger SharkWill eat fish, turtles, crabs, clams, mammals, sea birds, and other sharks. Occasionally Attack humans.
41Hammerhead Shark From 12 – 20 feet long Unlike other sharks, they form schools
42Mako Shark The fastest shark, and among the fastest fish Feed on schooling fishDangerous, with many attacks on people
43Bull SharkBecause it is aggressive and swims in shallow water, is frequent attacker of peopleSwims close to shore and can live in fresh water rivers and lakes for awhile
44Whale Sharks Largest sharks AND largest fish Up to 46 feet long and 15 tonsFilter feeders – eat mostly plankton and krillWhale Sharks
45Senses Over 2/3 of a shark’s brain is dedicated to smell Can feel vibrations in the waterSharks can use smell to follow a trail of blood for several km
46Rays Flat bodies Broad pectoral fins on sides Glide by flapping fins Feed on mollusks and crustaceans on ocean floor
47Offenses and defenses Sharp spines with poison glands. Electricity to kill predators and prey.Above: electric ray; Right, top: stingray barb; right: barb in foot
48Skates Skates Stocky tail with no stinging spine Two lobes on pelvic finThorn-like scales on midline of back and tailRayslong tail with stinging spine at midwaySingle lobes on pelvic finNo thorn-like scales
49Osteichthyes – Bony Fishes The largest group (superclass)Skeleton is made of boneThree classes:lung fishLobe-finned fishRay-finned fish
50Bony Skeleton Skeleton of bone, not cartilage Bony skeleton allowed evolution of land animals
51Lung Fish Gills and lungs (modified swim bladder) Can live in oxygen- poor water bygulping air from surfaceburrowing in mud and breathing through skin during drought
52Lobe-finned Fish Only one species: the coelacanth Fins adapted to crawlingPre-cursor to amphibians
53CoelacanthScientists thought the coelacanth had gone extinct with the dinosaurs.1938: a specimen was found at a local fish marketScientists now know that the coelacanth has remained alive, and unchanged for 400 million years.
54Ray-finned Fish Fan shaped fins with stiff spines (rays) Fins adapted to swimmingHuge diversity: Catfish, salmon, perch….
56Ray-finned fish that can walk on land Walking catfishMudskipper
57Inflatable Fish Porcupinefish: Pufferfish: When threatened, swell by filling body with waterBecome too large for the predator to swallow.Spiny covering is another defense.Pufferfish:Inflates when threatenedLarge black spot near the tail draws predator’s attention away from the its head and allows escape.
58The Beautiful Lionfish: Toxic FishThe Beautiful Lionfish:Sharp spines are coated with a poisonous mucousCapable of delivering a painful sting.The venom of some is strong enough to kill a man.The Ugly Stonefish:stone-like appearance is an excellent camouflageHas sharp, venomous spines that contain enough poison to kill a man.
59Sea HorsesMale seahorses carry fertilized eggs in a special abdominal pouch until they hatch.each day a seahorse can consume up to 3,000 brine shrimpseahorses have no teeth and swallow their food whole
60Seahorse Anatomycoronet: is nearly as distinctive as a human thumbprint dorsal fin: moves fish forward pectoral fins: control turning and steering eyes: each eye moves independently
61Dangerous Fish Moray Eel: Electric Eels: one of the largest eel species.feed mainly on fish.razor sharp teethcan remove the fingers of divers.Electric Eels:Electric eels are not true eels. They are related to catfish and carpfound in South America.Electric eels produce more electricity than any other living creature.Can disable a cow, stun a man or horse, light a neon lamp, or drive a small motor.
62Hidden Fish Scorpionfishes: Leafy Sea Dragon: species of seahorse camouflaged by leafy extensions which resemble seaweed.feed mainly on small shrimpsScorpionfishes:camouflaged by bizarre appearanceUse camouflage to ambush preynumerous venomous spines cover their bodies.
63Fish that ‘fish’ Frogfish: Anglerfish: Above: frogfish; camouflaged by appearance.modified dorsal spine with a fleshy growth at the end.lie motionless and use this spine like a fishing rod.curious fish are swallowed up by large, powerful jaws.Anglerfish:lives deep on the ocean flooreats crustaceans and smaller fishes.uses a bioluminescent lure on the end of its "fishing pole".Lure resembles bioluminescent bacteria which other fish eat.Above: frogfish;Left and below: anglerfish
64Flying Fish Flying Gurnards Atlantic Flying Fish large, wing-like pectoral fins.do not actually fly.Their large fins help them to swim low over the sand as they search for food.Atlantic Flying Fishlarge pectoral fins and long tail fin"leap" or "glide" like flying squirrels over the water surface.
65Deep Ocean FishAngler fish, Hatchet fish, viper fish
66Deep sea Squid Pacific Bobtail squid Deep sea glass squid has light organs on its eyes and can roll into a ball like a hedgehog when threatened.Deep sea Squid
67Hydrothermal Vent Species Some vent species feed on the chemicals emitted. Others, like the octopus, feed on small creatures living near the vent.Two tubeworm species; hydrothermal vent octopus
68Luminescence in the Deep -Bioluminescence is light produced by a chemical reaction which originates in an organism. -Very common in the oceanWarty Anglerfish with a luminescent lure; Deep-sea lizardfish with luminescent eyes
69Orange Roughy Live to be 150 years old Don’t reproduce until 25 or 30 years oldLive up to one mile deep
70Fish Jigsaw Each individual will receive a fish information sheet Read your info and record 5 interesting facts about your fish to share with your groupGroup members take turns sharing factsEach group member records 3 facts about each fish reported on