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Click on a lesson name to select. Section 1: Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance Section 2: Complex Patterns of Inheritance Section 3: Chromosomes and.

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Presentation on theme: "Click on a lesson name to select. Section 1: Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance Section 2: Complex Patterns of Inheritance Section 3: Chromosomes and."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Click on a lesson name to select. Section 1: Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance Section 2: Complex Patterns of Inheritance Section 3: Chromosomes and Human Heredity Chapter 11 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

4 11.1 Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 Recessive Genetic Disorders A recessive trait is expressed when the individual is homozygous recessive for the trait.

5 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Cystic Fibrosis Affects the mucus-producing glands, digestive enzymes, and sweat glands Chloride ions are not absorbed into the cells of a person with cystic fibrosis but are excreted in the sweat. Without sufficient chloride ions in the cells, a thick mucus is secreted Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance Chapter 11

6 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Albinism Caused by altered genes, resulting in the absence of the skin pigment melanin in hair and eyes White hair Very pale skin Pink pupils 11.1 Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance Chapter 11

7 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Tay-Sachs Disease Caused by the absence of the enzymes responsible for breaking down fatty acids called gangliosides Gangliosides accumulate in the brain, inflating brain nerve cells and causing mental deterioration Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance Chapter 11

8 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Galactosemia Recessive genetic disorder characterized by the inability of the body to digest galactose Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance Chapter 11

9 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Dominant Genetic Disorders Huntingtons disease affects the nervous system. Achondroplasia is a genetic condition that causes small body size and limbs that are comparatively short Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance Chapter 11

10 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity 11.1 Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance Chapter 11

11 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11

12 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Pedigrees A diagram that traces the inheritance of a particular trait through several generations 11.1 Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance Chapter 11

13 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Inferring Genotypes Knowing physical traits can determine what genes an individual is most likely to have. Predicting Disorders Record keeping helps scientists use pedigree analysis to study inheritance patterns, determine phenotypes, and ascertain genotypes Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance Chapter 11

14 11.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Incomplete Dominance The heterozygous phenotype is an intermediate phenotype between the two homozygous phenotypes. Chapter 11

15 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Codominance Both alleles are expressed in the heterozygous condition Complex Patterns of Inheritance Chapter 11

16 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Sickle-cell Disease Changes in hemoglobin cause red blood cells to change to a sickle shape. People who are heterozygous for the trait have both normal and sickle-shaped cells. Sickle cell Normal red blood cell 7766x 11.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance Chapter 11

17 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Multiple Alleles Blood groups in humans ABO blood groups have three forms of alleles Complex Patterns of Inheritance Chapter 11

18 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Coat Color of Rabbits Multiple alleles can demonstrate a hierarchy of dominance. In rabbits, four alleles code for coat color: C, c ch, c h, and c Complex Patterns of Inheritance Chapter 11

19 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Coat Color of Rabbits Light gray Dark gray Himalayan Albino Chinchilla 11.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance Chapter 11

20 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Epistasis Variety is the result of one allele hiding the effects of another allele. No dark pigment present in fur Dark pigment present in fur eebb eeB_ E_bbE_B_ 11.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance Chapter 11

21 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Sex Determination Sex chromosomes determine an individuals gender Complex Patterns of Inheritance Chapter 11

22 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Dosage Compensation The X chromosome carries a variety of genes that are necessary for the development of both females and males. The Y chromosome mainly has genes that relate to the development of male characteristics. Chromosome inactivation Barr bodies 11.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance Chapter 11

23 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Sex-Linked Traits Genes located on the X chromosome Red-green color blindness Hemophilia 11.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance Chapter 11 Sex-Linked Traits

24 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Polygenic Traits Polygenic traits arise from the interaction of multiple pairs of genes Complex Patterns of Inheritance Chapter 11

25 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Environmental Influences Environmental factors Diet and exercise Sunlight and water Temperature 11.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance Chapter 11

26 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Twin Studies Helps scientists separate genetic contributions from environmental contributions Traits that appear frequently in identical twins are at least partially controlled by heredity. Traits expressed differently in identical twins are strongly influenced by environment Complex Patterns of Inheritance Chapter 11

27 Karyotypemicrograph in which the pairs of homologous chromosomes are arranged in decreasing size Chromosomes and Human Heredity Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Karyotype Studies Images of chromosomes stained during metaphase Chromosomes are arranged in decreasing size to produce a micrograph. Chapter 11

28 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Telomeres Telomere caps consist of DNA associated with proteins. Serves a protective function for the structure of the chromosome 11.3 Chromosomes and Human Heredity Chapter 11

29 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Nondisjunction Cell division during which sister chromatids fail to separate properly Down syndrome 11.3 Chromosomes and Human Heredity Chapter 11 Visualizing Nondisjunction

30 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11

31 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter Resource Menu Chapter Diagnostic Questions Formative Test Questions Chapter Assessment Questions Standardized Test Practice biologygmh.com Glencoe Biology Transparencies Image Bank Vocabulary Animation Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding lesson. Chapter 11

32 A. albinism B. cystic fibrosis C. galactosemia D. Tay-Sachs Identify the disease characterized by the absence of melanin. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 Chapter Diagnostic Questions

33 A. excessive mucus production B. an enlarged liver C. a cherry-red spot on the back of the eye D. vision problems An individual with Tay-Sachs disease would be identified by which symptom? Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 Chapter Diagnostic Questions

34 Under what circumstances will a recessive trait be expressed? Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 Chapter Diagnostic Questions A. A recessive allele is passed on by both parents. B. One parent passes on the recessive allele. C. The individual is heterozygous for the trait. D. There is a mutation in the dominant gene.

35 A. It appears at birth and runs in families. Which of Dr. Garrods observations about alkaptonuria was most critical to his determination that it is a genetic disorder? Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter Formative Questions B. It is linked to an enzyme deficiency. C. It continues throughout a patients life, affecting bones and joints. D. It is caused by acid excretion and results in black urine.

36 A. DD B. Dd C. dd D. dE Which is the genotype of a person who is a carrier for a recessive genetic disorder? Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter Formative Questions

37 A. at least one parent is a carrier B. both parents are carriers C. both parents are homozygous recessive D. at least one parent is homozygous dominant Albinism is a recessive condition. If an albino squirrel is born to parents that both have normal fur color, what can you conclude about the genotype of the parents? Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter Formative Questions

38 A. dosage compensation B. incomplete dominance C. multiple alleles D. sex-linked When a homozygous male animal with black fur is crossed with a homozygous female with white fur, they have offspring with gray fur. What type of inheritance does this represent? Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter Formative Questions

39 A. autosomes B. Barr bodies C. monosomes D. sex chromosomes Of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in human cells, one pair is the _______. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter Formative Questions

40 A. blood type B. color blindness C. hemophilia D. skin color Which is an example of a polygenic trait? Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter Formative Questions

41 A. The blood type of an individual. B. The locations of genes on a chromosome. C. The cells chromosomes arranged in order. D. The phenotype of individuals in a pedigree. What does a karyotype show? Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter Formative Questions

42 A. multiple alleles B. nondisjunction C. nonsynapsis D. trisomy What is occurring in this diagram? Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter Formative Questions

43 A. Down syndrome B. Klinefelters syndrome C. Tay-Sachs syndrome D. Turners syndrome What condition occurs when a persons cells have an extra copy of chromosome 21? Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter Formative Questions

44 A. 1 and 2 are siblings B. 1 and 2 are parents C. 1 and 2 are offspring D. 1 and 2 are carriers Use the figure to describe what the top horizontal line between numbers 1 and 2 indicates. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 Chapter Assessment Questions

45 A. I A B. I O C. I B D. i Which is not an allele in the ABO blood group? Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 Chapter Assessment Questions

46 A. one less chromosome on pair 12 B. one extra chromosome on pair 21 C. one less chromosome on pair 21 D. one extra chromosome on pair 12 Down Syndrome results from what change in chromosomes? Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 Chapter Assessment Questions

47 A. heterozygous B. homozygous dominant C. homozygous recessive If a genetic disorder is caused by a dominant allele, what is the genotype of those who do not have the disorder? Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 Standardized Test Practice

48 A. RR B. Rr C. rr Analyze this pedigree showing the inheritance of a dominant genetic disorder. Which would be the genotype of the first generation father? Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 Standardized Test Practice

49 A. codominance B. dosage compensation C. epistasis D. sex-linked Shorthorn cattle have an allele for both red and white hair. When a red-haired cow is crossed with a white-haired bull, their calf has both red and white hairs scattered over its body. What type of inheritance does this represent? Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 Standardized Test Practice

50 A. Males have only one X chromosome. B. Males have two X chromosomes. C. Males have only one Y chromosome. Why are males affected by recessive sex- linked traits more often than are females? Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 Standardized Test Practice D. The traits are located on the Y chromosomes.

51 A. 25% B. 50% C. 75% D. 100% A carrier of hemophilia and her husband, who is unaffected by the condition, are expecting a son. What is the probability that their son will have hemophilia? Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 Standardized Test Practice

52 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 Glencoe Biology Transparencies

53 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 Image Bank

54 carrier pedigree Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 Vocabulary Section 1

55 incomplete dominance codominance multiple alleles epistasis sex chromosome autosome sex-linked trait polygenic trait Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 Vocabulary Section 2

56 karyotype telomere nondisjunction Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 Vocabulary Section 3

57 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 Animation Visualizing Nondisjunction


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