3Behavior can occur in response to an internal or external stimulus. Chapter 31Animal Behavior31.1 Basic BehaviorsBehaviorBehavior can occur in response to an internal or external stimulus.What influences behavior?Behavior results from the interaction of genetically based behaviors and behaviors based on experience.
4The Evolution of Behavior Chapter 31Animal Behavior31.1 Basic BehaviorsThe Evolution of BehaviorWhat triggers a response to a stimulus?The answer usually is found by studying the internal biology of an animal.What advantage does the behavior provide?The answers are tied to the evolution of behavior through natural selection.
5Chapter 31Animal Behavior31.1 Basic BehaviorsInnate BehaviorBehaviors are referred to as innate when the same behavior commonly is observed among a large number of individuals within a population, even if the environments are different.Mealworm Behavior
6Chapter 31Animal Behavior31.1 Basic BehaviorsFixed Action PatternsA stimulus triggers an innate response that the animal does not control and is not directly influenced by environmental conditions or past experiences.
7Chapter 31Animal Behavior31.1 Basic BehaviorsLearned BehaviorLearned behaviors result from an interaction between innate behaviors and past experiences within a particular environment.
8Chapter 31Animal Behavior31.1 Basic BehaviorsHabituationSometimes, animals learn over time that a potentially important stimulus deserves little or no attention.Habituation is the decrease in an animal’s response after repeatedly being exposed to a stimulus that has no positive or negative effects.
9Classical Conditioning Chapter 31Animal Behavior31.1 Basic BehaviorsClassical ConditioningClassical conditioning occurs when an association is made between two different kinds of stimuli.
10Chapter 31Animal Behavior31.1 Basic BehaviorsOperant ConditioningIn operant conditioning, an animal learns to associate its response to a stimulus with a reward or a punishment.For example, when a bird eats a butterfly that tastes bad, it associates the color of the butterfly with the taste and avoids all butterflies of that color.Visualizing Types of Behavior
11Chapter 31Animal Behavior31.1 Basic BehaviorsImprintingSome animals form a social attachment to the first object they see after birth.Other animals imprint on the chemical composition of the water in which they are hatched.
12Chapter 31Animal Behavior31.1 Basic BehaviorsCognitive BehaviorThinking, reasoning, and processing information to understand complex concepts and solve problems are cognitive behaviors.Humans exhibit cognitive behaviors when they solve problems, make decisions, and plan for the future.
13Animals that engage in complex behaviors survive and reproduce because Chapter 31Animal Behavior31.2 Ecological BehaviorsTypes of BehaviorsAnimals that engage in complex behaviorssurvive andreproduce becausethey have inheritedgenes that allowthem to besuccessful in aparticular environment.
14Competitive Behaviors Chapter 31Animal Behavior31.2 Ecological BehaviorsCompetitive BehaviorsCompetition for food, space, mates, and other resources occurs between individuals within a population.Competitive behaviors allow individuals to establish dominance or control of an area or resource.
15Chapter 31Animal Behavior31.2 Ecological BehaviorsAgonistic BehaviorA threatening or combative interaction between two individuals of the same species is called agonistic behavior.Agonistic behavior usually does not result in injury or death to either individual.
16Dominance Hierarchies Chapter 31Animal Behavior31.2 Ecological BehaviorsDominance HierarchiesSome animals living in groups develop dominancehierarchies in which atop-ranked animal getsaccess to resourceswithout conflict fromother animals in thegroup.This ranking system helps reduce hostile behaviors among animals.
17Territorial Behaviors Chapter 31Animal Behavior31.2 Ecological BehaviorsTerritorial BehaviorsTerritorial behaviors include verbal signals, such as the singing of birds, as well as chemical signals, such as a male cheetah’s urine.Territories usually are defended by males in order to increase their chance of obtaining adequate food, mates, and places to rear their offspring.
18Chapter 31Animal Behavior31.2 Ecological BehaviorsForaging BehaviorsForaging successfully means obtaining needed nutrients, while avoiding predators and poisonous foods.Natural selection favors individuals whose foraging behaviors use the least amount of energy to obtain the maximum amount of energy possible.
19Chapter 31Animal Behavior31.2 Ecological BehaviorsMigratory BehaviorsAnimals that engage in migratory behaviors increase their chances of survival by searching out new food sources.
20A circadian rhythm is a cycle, such as sleeping and waking, that Chapter 31Animal Behavior31.2 Ecological BehaviorsBiological RhythmsA circadian rhythm is a cycle, such as sleepingand waking, thatoccur daily.Many animals have an internal clock that maintains the daily rhythm of the sleep/wake cycle.
21Communication Behaviors Chapter 31Animal Behavior31.2 Ecological BehaviorsCommunication BehaviorsCommunication behaviors are critical to the survival and reproductive success of animals.Animals have several types of communication behaviors.
22These chemicals are specific to species. Chapter 31Animal Behavior31.2 Ecological BehaviorsPheromonesSome animals communicate by spreading highly specific chemicals called pheromones.These chemicals are specific to species.Pheromones often are used to relay messages between males and females about reproduction.
23Auditory Communication Chapter 31Animal Behavior31.2 Ecological BehaviorsAuditory CommunicationHowls, hoots, barks, and chirps are just a few examples of auditory communication.Language is a form of auditory communication in which animals use vocal organs to produce groups of sounds that have shared meanings.
24An animal engages in courting behaviors in order to attract a mate. Chapter 31Animal Behavior31.2 Ecological BehaviorsCourting BehaviorsAn animal engages in courting behaviors in order to attract a mate.Females often chooseto mate with males that appear larger andhealthier than others.
25Chapter 31Animal Behavior31.2 Ecological BehaviorsNurturing BehaviorsWhen parents provide care to their offspring in the early stages of development, they are engaging in nurturing behaviors.This includes providing food, protection, and skills needed for survival.Animal species that spend time nurturing young often produce fewer offspring than animals that do not nurture.
26Chapter 31Animal Behavior31.2 Ecological BehaviorsAltruistic BehaviorSometimes, an animal will perform an action that benefits another individual at a cost to itself.For example, a colony of naked mole rats forage for food, protect the queen, and huddle around her to provide warmth to the offspring.
27Chapter 31Animal Behavior31.2 Ecological BehaviorsKin SelectionAccording to the idea of kin selection, altruistic behavior evolves because it increases the number of copies of a gene that is common in a population.
28Advantages and Disadvantages Chapter 31Animal Behavior31.2 Ecological BehaviorsAdvantages and Disadvantages
30Chapter Resource Menu Chapter Diagnostic Questions Animal BehaviorChapter Resource MenuChapter Diagnostic QuestionsFormative Test QuestionsChapter Assessment QuestionsStandardized Test Practicebiologygmh.comGlencoe Biology TransparenciesImage BankVocabularyAnimationClick on a hyperlink to view the corresponding lesson.
31Which is an example of a response to an external stimulus? Chapter 31Animal BehaviorChapter Diagnostic QuestionsWhich is an example of a response to anexternal stimulus?a reptile moving into the sunlighta mouse retreating to its hole afterseeing a cata salmon swimming upstream to spawna male bird singing during mating season
32Which type of learned behavior occurs only Chapter 31Animal BehaviorChapter Diagnostic QuestionsWhich type of learned behavior occurs onlyduring an animal’s sensitive period?habituationimprintingclassical conditioningoperant conditioning
33Which is not a method by which elephants communicate? Chapter 31Animal BehaviorChapter Diagnostic QuestionsWhich is not a method by which elephantscommunicate?infrasonic soundmimicrybody gesturesloud vocalization
34What is the term for an environmental change Chapter 31Animal Behavior31.1 Formative QuestionsWhat is the term for an environmental changethat influences the activity of an organism?biotic factorincentiveinducementstimulus
35What has been the main question about animal Chapter 31Animal Behavior31.1 Formative QuestionsWhat has been the main question about animalbehavior that scientists have tried to answer?Is behavior based on genetics or experience?How do animals learn to respond to astimulus?How do different animals respond to the samestimuli?What is the relationship between stimuli andresponses?
36How do scientists determine why an animal reacts to specific stimuli? Chapter 31Animal Behavior31.1 Formative QuestionsHow do scientists determine why an animal reactsto specific stimuli?They look at the internal biology of an animal.They study the nature of the animal’sresponses.They study the advantages of certainbehaviors.They test different stimuli and measure theresponses.
37Which best defines innate behavior? Chapter 31Animal Behavior31.1 Formative QuestionsWhich best defines innate behavior?established learning patterngenetically based instinctimprinted conditioningstimulus-based response
38Experimental evidence suggests that animals Chapter 31Animal Behavior31.1 Formative QuestionsTrue or FalseExperimental evidence suggests that animalsother than humans are able to think and solveproblems.
39What do agonistic behaviors and territorial behaviors have in common? Chapter 31Animal Behavior31.2 Formative QuestionsWhat do agonistic behaviors and territorialbehaviors have in common?They are altruistic behaviors.They are competitive behaviors.They are based on biological rhythms.They require auditory communication.
40What initially guides the migration of birds? Chapter 31Animal Behavior31.2 Formative QuestionsWhat initially guides the migration of birds?Earth’s magnetic fieldgeographical featuresthe position of the Sunolder, more experienced birds
41What maintains the daily rhythm of the Chapter 31Animal Behavior31.2 Formative QuestionsWhat maintains the daily rhythm of thesleep/wake cycle in many animals?hibernation behaviorstemperature changesan internal biological clockavailability of food and water
42Which form of communication has the shortest range? Chapter 31Animal Behavior31.2 Formative QuestionsWhich form of communication has theshortest range?visual cuesauditory messagespheromone signalsinfrasonic sound waves
43What is another way to describe animal behavior that is altruistic? Chapter 31Animal Behavior31.2 Formative QuestionsWhat is another way to describe animalbehavior that is altruistic?communalmutualisticself-sacrificingsymbiotic
44Police horses that are no longer affected by Chapter 31Animal BehaviorChapter Assessment QuestionsPolice horses that are no longer affected bystreet noise and traffic are exhibiting whatlearned behavior?classical conditioningoperant conditioninghabituationimprinting
45What advantage do animals possess that Chapter 31Animal BehaviorChapter Assessment QuestionsWhat advantage do animals possess thatuse auditory communication rather thanpheromones?Answer: Auditory messages move fasterthan chemical messages, so themessage is more likely to bereceived.
46Which does not occur in animal groups with dominance hierarchies? Chapter 31Animal BehaviorChapter Assessment QuestionsWhich does not occur in animal groups withdominance hierarchies?Animals are ranked highest to lowest.Top animal gets access to resources.Animals fight for access to resources.Lack of hostilities allow more time forcare of young.
47How have animal behaviors evolved through natural selection? Chapter 31Animal BehaviorStandardized Test PracticeHow have animal behaviors evolved throughnatural selection?Animals have learned specific behaviorsover many generations.Behaviors have evolved along withphysical characteristics.
48How have animal behaviors evolved through natural selection? Chapter 31Animal BehaviorStandardized Test PracticeHow have animal behaviors evolved throughnatural selection?Behaviors have developed throughconditioning and imprinting.Certain behaviors have given animalsa competitive advantage.
49Why is the goose’s behavior a fixed action pattern? Chapter 31Animal BehaviorStandardized Test PracticeWhy is the goose’s behavior a fixed actionpattern?
50It is a response to an external condition. Chapter 31Animal BehaviorStandardized Test PracticeIt is a response to an external condition.The behavior is a learned response.The goose cannot control this behavior.The response is classically conditioned.
51What type of behavior enables an animal to Chapter 31Animal BehaviorStandardized Test PracticeWhat type of behavior enables an animal toignore unimportant stimuli so it can focus onand respond to important stimuli?acclimationconditioningcognitionhabituation
52What type of behavior do you want to influence when training a puppy? Chapter 31Animal BehaviorStandardized Test PracticeWhat type of behavior do you want toinfluence when training a puppy?altruistic behaviornurturing behaviorclassical conditioningoperant conditioning
53Which competitive behavior reduces conflict Chapter 31Animal BehaviorStandardized Test PracticeWhich competitive behavior reduces conflictbetween members of a group?kin selectionagonistic behaviordominance hierarchiespheromone release
54What is an advantage of communication using pheromones? Chapter 31Animal BehaviorStandardized Test PracticeWhat is an advantage of communicationusing pheromones?It can’t be misinterpreted.It reduces competition.It can be used to attract mates.It can’t be detected by other species.
55In the courtship process in most birds, which Chapter 31Animal BehaviorStandardized Test PracticeIn the courtship process in most birds, whichsex usually makes a display to attract theattention of the other sex?the malethe female
56Which animal spends the most time nurturing it’s young? Chapter 31Animal BehaviorStandardized Test PracticeWhich animal spends the most time nurturingit’s young?dogduckgorillarabbit