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Population Ecology Every second….5 people are born, 2 people die, ….net gain 3 people.

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Presentation on theme: "Population Ecology Every second….5 people are born, 2 people die, ….net gain 3 people."— Presentation transcript:

1 Population Ecology Every second….5 people are born, 2 people die, ….net gain 3 people.

2 Population Ecology Deals with the # of individuals of a particular species that are found in an area and how and why those # change or remain fixed over time.

3 Population ecologists study… How populations respond to its environment Competition for resources, predations, disease and other environmental pressures

4 Population Growth J-shaped curve 1. Exponential growth– growth rate under ideal conditions 2. Uncheck growth (carrying capacity not yet met)

5 J-shaped Exponential growth!

6 S-Shaped Curve 1. An S-shaped curve shows that the population grows slowly at first & then increases more and more quickly.

7 S-Shaped Curve

8 2. At carrying capacity, growth of the population will remain the same.

9 3. Carrying capacity is the number of organisms that an environment can support indefinitely.

10 A. Births will approximately equal DEATHS. B. When the population overshoots the carrying results in LIMITING factors death to outnumber births.

11 C. Limiting Factor is a factor that will limit population growth. 1) Food availability 2) Disease 3) Predators 4) Space

12 Reproductive Patterns A. Rapid life history (example: mosquitoes) a. Rapid reproduction b. High number of offspring

13 Reproductive Patterns c. Small body size d. Organisms mature rapidly e. Reproduce early f. Organisms have a short life span

14 B. Slow life history (example: elephant) a. Slow reproduction b. Low number of offspring c. Large body size

15 d. Organisms mature slowly e. Reproduce late in life f. Organisms have a long life span g. Organisms tend to have parental care

16 Population density & growth Population density is the number of individuals in a given area.

17 Density–DEPENDENT factor Factor that limits population size or density

18 A. Disease (example: HIV) B. Competition C. Predators D. Parasites E.Food F.Water G.Territory

19 Density -INDEPENDENT factor: Usually a weather related event. It affects ALL populations regardless of size.

20 A. Temperature B. Storms C. Floods D. Drought E. Volcanic eruption

21 Predator-prey relationship A.Predators affect prey populations B. Prey affect predator populations

22 Intraspecies competition A. Space B. Food C. Water D. Reproduction

23 Invasive Species – uncontrolled competition

24 Project World Population Growth Demography Study of HUMAN population size, density, distribution, movement, BIRTH rates & death rates.

25 World Population Growth

26 YearPopulation 1200 million million million million million billion billion billion billion billion billion billion billion billion billion billion billion billion billion billion billion billion billion billion billion

27 Humans can alter their environment thus affect the POPULATION GROWTH RATE.

28 1. Famine 2. Eradicate Disease 3. War 4. Better food production

29 Calculating Growth Rate Growth rate (r) = birth rate (b)+ I – death rate (d) + E

30 Immigration – movement of individuals into a population Emigration – movement of individuals into a population

31 Doubling time – time needed for population to double in size Zero population growth – birthrate = death rate

32 Birthrate – number of live births per 1000 in a given year Death rate – number of deaths per 1000 in a given year

33 Demographics of Countries Demographics – applied science that deals with population statistics.

34 Developed countries 1. Low birth rates 2.Low infant mortality rates. (the # of infant deaths per 1000 live births)

35 Developed countries 1996 US 7.5/1000 for infant morality World average 62/1000

36 Developed countries 3.Usually have longer life expectancy

37 Developed countries 4.Examples of developed countries: US, Canada, Sweden, Germany, France, Australia, Japan

38 Moderately developed countries Examples: 1. Mexico 2. Turkey 3. Thailand (most S. American nations) Developing Countries

39 Less developed countries Examples: 1. Bangledesh 2. Niger 3.Ethiopia 4.Laos 5.Cambodia

40 These countries have ………… High birth and mortality rates than developed countries Short life spans

41 Another factor to examine is the replacement level fertility. This is number of children a couple must have to replace themselves. Replacement rate is 2.1 children in developed countries.

42 The replacement rate in developing countries is 2.7 children.

43 Age Structure of Countries In order to predict future population it is important to know the age structure.

44 Age Structure of Countries number age malesfemales Age structure is the number and proportion at each age in a population. The number of males and females at each age.

45 The overall structure of the age tells whether the population is increasing, stable or shrinking.

46 Stable growth – approximately the same number of individuals at each age grouping

47 Rapid growth – a large proportion of the population is 19 years old or younger

48 Slow growth – a large proportion of population is 55 years old or younger

49 Declining growth – the largest portion of the population is years, smaller groups are younger




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