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CST Review. CST and FINAL EXAM REVIEW Directions: Both your final exam and the CST (STAR) test are based on the California Standards. There are five major.

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Presentation on theme: "CST Review. CST and FINAL EXAM REVIEW Directions: Both your final exam and the CST (STAR) test are based on the California Standards. There are five major."— Presentation transcript:

1 CST Review

2 CST and FINAL EXAM REVIEW Directions: Both your final exam and the CST (STAR) test are based on the California Standards. There are five major categories and they include: Investigation and Experimentation, Cell Biology, Genetics, Evolution and Ecology, and Physiology. Each of the categories includes a number of topics that you should know about. I am including each of the California Standards and questions that pertain to each. Answer them completely using your notes and textbook as resources.

3

4 1. What is a controlled experiment?

5 Controlled experiment– tests effect of a single variable while keeping all other variables the same

6 2. What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory?

7 hypothesis– a possible explanation to a scientific question. ( an educated guess based on prior knowledge and observations) Theory– a well tested and supported hypothesis (Cell theory, theory of Natural Selection, Atomic theory)

8 Observation classified into two types: Quantitative– involve numbers, counting, measuring objects. Qualitative– involve characteristics that cannot be easily measured or counted such as color or texture

9 3. When conducting experiments, sometimes the results are not consistent and may yield results that are obviously wrong. What might be some typical sources of unavoidable errors?

10 Human error (mistakes in conducting experiment) Small sample tested Contaminated sample

11

12 4. Why is the cell membrane referred to as being semi-permeable?

13 Most membranes are selectively permeable (some materials can pass across membrane and others cannot) like sieve

14 5. The cell membrane can be referred to as a mosaic. What is the cell membrane composed of? (Draw a diagram and label)

15 Proteins act like passageways for larger molecules to pass through membrane

16 6. What is an enzyme and how does it speed up a chemical reaction?

17 Enzymes– specialized proteins that act as biological catalysts (catalysts– a substance that speeds up rate of chemical reaction by lowering a reactions activation energy)

18 Enzymes are very specific Name of enzyme derived from reaction it catalyzes Enzymes are not used up in a chemical reaction.

19 7. What conditions affect the action of an enzyme (name three things)

20 Temperature pH Presence of substrate

21 8. What is the difference between a prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell? (Give an example of each type)

22 Prokaryotic cell- no nucleus (bacteria) Eucaryotic cell- has nucleus

23 9. What are the roles of the endoplasmic reticulum and the golgi apparatus in the secretion of proteins?

24 Endoplasmic Reticulum- cells internal transport system (Rough ER- (has ribosomes attached) and Smooth ER (no ribosomes) Golgi Apparatus- post office of the cell

25 10. What is the role of mitochondria in the cell?

26 Mitochondria- found in nearly all eukaryotic cells. Use energy from food to power growth, development and movement. Powerhouse of cell

27 11. What kind of cells might have a high number of mitochondria?

28 Cells that need a lot of energy. Heart cells, sperm cells, muscle cells, etc.

29 12. What are the four types of organic molecules found in living things?

30 Four groups of organic compounds found in living things (carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins) Macromolecules formed by process called polymerization (large compounds built be joining together smaller ones) Monomers– smaller compounds Polymers– large molecules

31 13. Large macromolecules (polymers) are made (synthesized) from smaller building blocks called monomers. What are the building blocks for: Proteins- Carbohydrates- Nucleic Acids-

32 13. Large macromolecules (polymers) are made (synthesized) from smaller building blocks called monomers. What are the building blocks for: Proteins- amino acids Carbohydrates- glucose (single-sugar, monosaccharide) Nucleic Acids- nucleotide

33 14. Proteins are all made from amino acids. What makes one protein different from another?

34 The number of amino acids and the sequence of amino acids (like letters in an alphabet spelling different words)

35 15. What effect does temperature have on proteins?

36 It changes the 3-dimensional structure of the protein (this will also change the way the protein functions) Like when you cook a steak or eggs- it changes the consistency. It may also stop the action of an enzyme- snake venom

37 16. What organelle is responsible for photosynthesis and what is the name of the chemical (pigment) responsible for capturing the energy from sunlight?

38 Chloroplasts- found in plants and some other organisms (none found in animals and fungi) Green pigment- chlorophyll found in photosynthetic membranes

39

40 17. What is mitosis and what types of cells undergo mitosis?

41 Division of cells forming two identical new daughter cells (body cells) 2n 2n Part of Cell Cycle PMAT (stages) followed by cytokinesis

42 18. What is the difference between diploid cells and haploid cells?

43 Diploid (2n)- two sets of chromosomes (normal number in body cells) Haploid (n)- half the number of chromosomes (found in sex cells-gametes)

44 19. What process produces diploid cells and which produces haploid cells?

45 Mitosis- makes diploid cells 2n 2n Meiosis- makes haploid sex cells (gametes) 2n n + n

46 20. What is meiosis and what does it result in?

47 Process of producing sex cells (gametes) Results in four haploid (n) cells (sperm or egg)

48 21. Explain why this is a good representation of fertilization: n + n =2n

49 Shows two haploid cells (gametes) coming together to produce diploid (2n) cell-zygote n + n =2n

50 22. What is meant by segregation when sex cells (gametes) are produced?

51 22. What is meant be segregation when sex cells (gametes) are produced? Chromosomes segregate (separate) during meiosis.

52 23. What is independent assortment?

53 Each of the chromosome pairs separate independently of the others (like flipping a coin each time to determine which one to use)

54 24. What is a mutation?

55 Any change in an organisms DNA. Happens naturally and randomly

56 25. Mutations may or may not affect the expression of a gene. Why?

57 It may not change the amino acid it codes for (there are multiple combinations that code for same amino acid) It may be a mutation in area of DNA that does not code for proteins

58 26. What are sex chromosomes and what combinations would result in a boy or a girl?

59 Girl = XX Boy = XY 23 rd pair of chromosomes in humans

60 27. What occurs during: Replication- Transcription- Translation-

61 27. What occurs during: Replication- DNA making DNA Transcription- DNA making RNA Translation- RNA making Proteins

62 28. What are the differences between DNA and RNA (name three)

63 DNARNA Sugar- deoxyribose Sugar- ribose Double stranded Single stranded ATCGAUCG

64 29. What is a codon and how is it involved in protein synthesis?

65 3-letter code word on mRNA that codes for a particular amino acid

66 30. During replication, the DNA sequence of GTTACGCAT would result in another strand have a sequence of?

67 GTTACGCAT CAATGCGTA

68 31. During transcription, the DNA sequence of GTTACGCAT would result in a strand of RNA having a sequence of?

69 GTTACGCAT CAAUGCGUA

70 32. Use the table below to determine what amino acid sequence the following strands of mRNA would code for: GGCAUACCC- UUCCAGUUA- GCATTACGG-

71 32. Use the table below to determine what amino acid sequence the following strands of mRNA would code for: GGCAUACCC- Gly - Ile - Pro UUCCAGUUA- Phe - Stop - Leu GCAUUACGG- Ala - Leu - Arg

72 What about a DNA sequence of: GGCATACCC- UUCCAGTTA- GCATTACGG-

73 What about a DNA sequence of: GGCATACCC- CCGUAUGGG- Pro-Tyr-Pro UUCCAGTTA- AAGGUCAAU- Lys-Val-Asn GCATTACGG- CGUAAUGCC- Arg-Asn-Ala

74 33. What are the complementary bases in DNA and in RNA? DNA- RNA-

75 33. What are the complementary bases in DNA and in RNA? DNA- AT CG RNA- AU CG

76 34. Males are more likely to have a sex-linked trait than females. Why?

77 Males only have a single X chromosome and will have recessive disorder on X chromosome automatically (do not have another X with a possible normal gene to counteract) X H X h & X H X h - normal X h X h –disorder X H Y –normal X h Y –disorder

78 35. Why can a women be a carrier of a sex-linked genetic disorder but a male cannot?

79 Girls have 2 X chromosomes X H X h - normal (carrier) carries the gene but does not express it

80 35. What is crossing over? (Draw a diagram and explain)

81 Legs of chromosomes cross over each other and exchange parts of themselves

82 36. Complete the following genetic cross and give the genotypic and phenotypic ratios of the offspring: Tt x tt (draw punnett square and give ratios)

83 Tttt Tttt T t t tt t Genotypic ratio- 1:1 Phenotypic ratio- 1:1

84 37. Complete the following genetic cross and give the genotypic and phenotypic ratios of the offspring: XX h x X h Y (draw punnett square and give ratios)

85 XX h XhXhXhXh XYXhYXhY X X h Xh YXh Y Genotypic ratio- 1:1:1:1 Phenotypic ratio- 1:1:1:1 Female-normal Female-disorder Male-normal Male-disorder

86 38. In fruit flies, the gene for red eyes (R) is dominant and the gene for sepia eyes (r) is recessive. What are the possible combinations of genes in the offspring of two red-eyed heterozygous flies (Rr)? (draw punnett square)

87 RRRr rr R r R rR r Genotypic ratio- 1:2:1 Phenotypic ratio- 3:1

88 39. What is cloning?

89 Cloning- a member of a population of genetically identical cells produced from a single cell

90

91 40. What does biodiversity mean?

92 Biodiversity- the variation and frequency of organisms within a given area

93 41. How do alterations in a habit affect the biodiversity?

94 41. How do alterations in a habitat affect the biodiversity? Normally decreases the diversity. Human intervention, urbanization, habitat fragmentation and destruction

95 42. What are biotic and abiotic factors that effect an environment?

96 Biotic- all the living things in an environment (plant, animal, bacteria, etc.) Abiotic- non-living factors including temperature, precipitation (rainfall), soil type, etc.

97 43. What are are the main trophic levels in a food chain or web? (Draw and label a diagram)

98 Trophic level- individual level on food chain or food web. Always starts with producer (autotroph)

99 44. What is always forms the base of a food chain or food web?

100 Always a producer

101 45. What are the four factors that affect a population size?

102 Birth rate Immigration Death rate Emigration INCREASES POPULATION SIZE DECREASES POPULATION SIZE

103 46. What is ecological succession and what is the difference between primary and secondary succession?

104 Series of events an environment goes through to regrow after a disturbance Primary- starts with bare rock Secondary- starts with soil

105 47. What are biogeochemical cycles?

106 cycling of nutrients (minerals and other chemicals) that sustain life. Three main cycles Carbon cycle- Nitrogen cycle- Water cycle- Phosphorus cycle-

107 48. What are the two main processes that contribute to the oxygen and carbon cycles?

108 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

109 49. What is an energy pyramid and what percent of energy is available to each succeeding trophic level?

110 The movement of energy through an ecosystem. Only 10% is available to each succeeding step

111 50. What is carrying capacity?

112 The maximum number of individuals an ecosystem can support

113 51. How does the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation effect the environment?

114 Burning fossil fuels = more CO 2 (product of combustion) Deforestation = more CO 2 (trees not using CO 2 for photosynthesis)

115 52. Why are fungi and bacteria so important and helpful in preventing the Earth from being covered with dead organisms?

116 They are decomposers and return nutrients to the environment

117

118 53. What is natural selection and why does natural selection act on phenotypes instead of genotypes?

119 Natural selection- process by which certain heritable traitsthose that make it more likely for an organism to survive and successfully reproduce become more common in a population over successive generations. It is a key mechanism of evolution.

120 54. Define the following terms: Species- Population- Community- Biome-

121 54. Define the following terms: Species- individual type of organism Population- group of same species in area Community- groups of different population in given area Biome- geographical region containing several ecosystems that have same climate and dominant communities (climax communities)

122 55. What type of traits might give an individual a greater chance of surviving (fitness)?

123 Those that make an organism more successful at getting food, mating, camouflage, etc

124 56. What type of isolation might lead to the development of a new species?

125 Geographic isolation- mountain ranges, rivers, oceans, etc. Temporal isolation- timing of mating season Behavioral isolation- different mating rituals All three increase the chances that isolated groups will grow increasingly different and eventually form a distinct new species

126 57. Define the following terms: Behavioral selection- Disruptive selection- Stabilizing selection- Directional selection-

127 57. Define the following terms: Behavioral selection- Disruptive selection- Stabilizing selection- Directional selection-

128 58. What is genetic drift and when might it occur?

129 New population forms from small group of founders that might have limited gene pool. May form when small number of individuals populate new island

130

131 59. What is homeostasis?

132 Maintaining constant and stable internal conditions despite changes in the outside environment. Works like a thermostat controlling room temperature

133 60. How does a nerve impulse travel through the nervous system (describe an electrochemical impulse)

134 Part electrical and part chemical transmission of signal.

135 61. What is a synapse and how does the impulse travel across the synapse?

136 Synapse- gap between two neurons. Signal is carried by chemicals (neurotransmitters) across the gap

137 62. What is a reflex arc?

138 Reflex arc- when nerve impulse does not travel all the way to the brain first to respond to stimuli. Can react faster

139 63. When you experience the fight or flight response, your adrenal glands secrete the hormone adrenaline. What is the result of this?

140 You can react faster. Increased heart and breathing rate. Heightened senses

141 64. What is a hormone?

142 A chemical signal that is produced by endocrine glands. Include testosterone, adrenaline, growth hormone, etc.

143 65. What is your bodys first line of defense against pathogens?

144 sweat, skin, tears, mucus, stomach acid

145 66. How does the HIV virus reduce you ability to fight off infections?

146 The HIV virus attacks your bodys immune system. You are not able to fight off pathogens

147 HIV targets the immune system HIV- Human Immunodeficiency Virus Retrovirus (contains RNA) that attacks and weakens the immune system

148 Leads to opportunistic infections HIV is transmitted by exchange of blood or other body fluids

149 HIV reproduces in T-cells (cells that trigger immune responses) HIV leads to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)

150 67. How does your circulatory and respiratory systems work together to maintain homeostasis?

151 Respiratory system takes in oxygen and releases carbon dioxide that it takes from you circulatory system.

152 68. What endocrine gland and hormone it produces regulates metabolism?

153 Thyroid gland- The function of the thyroid gland is to take iodine, found in many foods, and convert it into thyroid hormones: thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Every cell in the body depends upon thyroid hormones for regulation of their metabolism

154 69. What important function do your kidneys perform to maintain homeostasis?

155 Filter you blood and maintain fluid levels in bloodstream (blood pressure) and levels of salts, ph level, nitrogen wastes, etc. Sends excess fluids to bladder to rid from body

156 70. How does a vaccine provide you with immunity?

157 Vaccines artificially produce acquired immunity 1. Vaccine- substance that contains antigen of a pathogen 2. Causes immune system to produce memory cells 3. You can make antibodies right away if infected

158 71. Where does chemical digestion of food begin?

159 In your mouth

160 72. What type of pathogens do antibiotics work on or not work on?

161 Bacteria or fungi, but NOT on viruses

162 73. What are your bodys non-specific defenses against pathogens?

163 Inflammatory response- characterized by swelling, redness, pain, itching, and increased warmth at affected site Reacts to every pathogen the same way

164 74. What are your bodys specific defenses against pathogens?

165 Immune response is triggered when immune system detects a pathogen (2 types of immune response) Cell-mediated immunity- when lymphocytes (not antibodies) themselves defend the body. Humoral Immunity- also called antibody- mediated immunity Antigens- protein markers on surfaces of cells and viruses that help immune system identify a foreign cell or virus

166 75. What is an antibody?

167 Antibodies- proteins made by B-cells and destroy pathogens

168 76. What is an antigen?

169 Antigens- protein markers on surfaces of cells and viruses that help immune system identify a foreign cell or virus

170 77. What are the three types of neurons? (Diagram and label the correct pathway)

171 Sensory neurons- detect stimuli and transmit signals to brain and spinal cord Interneurons- make up brain and spinal cord and receive and process information Motor neurons-pass messages from nervous system to organs and muscles

172

173 78. What is a feedback loop and how is it similar to a thermostat in your house?

174 It operates by doing the opposite (negative) of what it senses. If senses it is to hot, it tries to cool down, to cold, tries to warm up.

175 79. How are the nervous system and endocrine system similar? Different?

176 Both regulate and control you body Nervous system- fast acting and hard wired Endocrine system- slower acting chemical signals carried in your bloodstream throughout the body. Control process that occur over long periods of time (hair growth, aging, sleep patterns, etc.)

177 80. Why is a virus not considered a living thing?

178 It needs a host cell to reproduce (cannot reproduce by itself)


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