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Topic 20 Topic 20 Topic 20: Energy and Chemical Change Basic Concepts Additional Concepts Table of Contents Topic 20 Topic 20.

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Presentation on theme: "Topic 20 Topic 20 Topic 20: Energy and Chemical Change Basic Concepts Additional Concepts Table of Contents Topic 20 Topic 20."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Topic 20 Topic 20

3 Topic 20: Energy and Chemical Change Basic Concepts Additional Concepts Table of Contents Topic 20 Topic 20

4 Energy is the ability to do work or produce heat. The Nature of Energy Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts It exists in two basic forms, potential energy and kinetic energy. Potential energy is energy due to the composition or position of an object. Topic 20 Topic 20

5 A macroscopic example of potential energy of position is water stored behind a dam above the turbines of a hydroelectric generating plant. The Nature of Energy Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts When the dam gates are opened, the water rushes down and does work by turning the turbines to produce electrical energy. Topic 20 Topic 20

6 Kinetic energy is energy of motion. The Nature of Energy Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts You can observe kinetic energy in the motion of people and objects all around you. Topic 20 Topic 20 The potential energy of the dammed water is converted to kinetic energy as the dam gates are opened and the water flows out.

7 Chemical systems contain both kinetic energy and potential energy. The Nature of Energy Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts As temperature increases, the motion of submicroscopic particles increases. Topic 20 Topic 20 The potential energy of a substance depends upon its composition: the type of atoms in the substance, the number and type of chemical bonds joining the atoms, and the particular way the atoms are arranged.

8 Law of conservation of energy Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 Although the amount of money in each account has changed, the total amount of your money in the bank remains the same. To better understand the conservation of energy, suppose you have money in two accounts at a bank and you transfer funds from one account to the other.

9 When applied to energy, this analogy embodies the law of conservation of energy. Law of conservation of energy Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 The law of conservation of energy states that in any chemical reaction or physical process, energy can be converted from one form to another, but it is neither created nor destroyed.

10 The energy stored in a substance because of its composition is called chemical potential energy. Chemical potential energy Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 Chemical potential energy plays an important role in chemical reactions.

11 Heat, which is represented by the symbol q, is energy that is in the process of flowing from a warmer object to a cooler object. Chemical potential energy Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 When the warmer object loses heat, its temperature decreases. When the cooler object absorbs heat, its temperature rises.

12 The flow of energy and the resulting change in temperature are clues to how heat is measured. Measuring heat Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 In the metric system of units, the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of pure water by one degree Celsius (1°C) is defined as a calorie (cal). The SI unit of heat and energy is the joule (J). One joule is the equivalent of calories, or one calorie equals joules.

13 Relationships Among Energy Units Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20

14 The breakfast shown in the photograph contains 230 nutritional Calories. Converting Energy Units Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 How much energy in joules will this healthy breakfast supply?

15 You are given an amount of energy in nutritional Calories. Converting Energy Units Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 You must convert nutritional Calories to calories and then calories to joules. Known amount of energy = 230 calories Unknown amount of energy = ? J

16 Use a conversion to convert nutritional Calories to calories. Converting Energy Units Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 Use a conversion factor to convert calories to joules.

17 Youve learned that one calorie, or J, is required to raise the temperature of one gram of pure water by one degree Celsius (1°C). Specific Heat Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 That quantity, J/(g°C), is defined as the specific heat (c) of water.

18 The specific heat of any substance is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of that substance by one degree Celsius. Specific Heat Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 Because different substances have different compositions, each substance has its own specific heat.

19 The heat absorbed or released by a substance during a change in temperature depends not only upon the specific heat of the substance, but also upon the mass of the substance and the amount by which the temperature changes. Calculating heat evolved and absorbed Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 You can express these relationships in an equation.

20 In the equation, q = the heat absorbed or released, c = the specific heat of the substance, m = the mass of the sample in grams, and T is the change in temperature in °C. Calculating heat evolved and absorbed Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 T is the difference between the final temperature and the initial temperature or, T final – T initial.

21 In the construction of bridges and skyscrapers, gaps must be left between adjoining steel beams to allow for the expansion and contraction of the metal due to heating and cooling. Calculating Specific Heat Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 The temperature of a sample of iron with a mass of 10.0 g changed from 50.4°C to 25.0°C with the release of 114 J heat. What is the specific heat of iron?

22 You are given the mass of the sample, the initial and final temperatures, and the quantity of heat released. Calculating Specific Heat Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 The specific heat of iron is to be calculated. The equation that relates these variables can be rearranged to solve for c. Known joules of energy released = 114 J T= 50.4°C – 25.0°C = 25.4°C mass of iron = 10.0g Fe

23 Calculating Specific Heat Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 specific heat of iron, c = ? J/(g°C) Rearrange the equation q = c x m x T to isolate c by dividing each side of the equation by m and T. Unknown

24 Calculating Specific Heat Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 Solve the equation using the known values.

25 Measuring Heat Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 Heat changes that occur during chemical and physical processes can be measured accurately and precisely using a calorimeter. A calorimeter is an insulated device used for measuring the amount of heat absorbed or released during a chemical or physical process.

26 Determining specific heat Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 Suppose you put 125 g of water into a foam-cup calorimeter and find that its initial temperature is 25.6°C. You can use a calorimeter to determine the specific heat of an unknown metal.

27 Determining specific heat Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 Then, you heat a 50.0-g sample of the unknown metal to a temperature of 115.0°C and put the metal sample into the water. Heat flows from the hot metal to the cooler water and the temperature of the water rises. The flow of heat stops only when the temperature of the metal and the water are equal.

28 Determining specific heat Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 Both water and metal have attained a final temperature of 29.3°C. Assuming no heat is lost to the surroundings, the heat gained by the water is equal to the heat lost by the metal. This quantity of heat can be calculated using the equation you learned, q = c x m x ΔT. First, calculate the heat gained by the water. For this you need the specific heat of water, J/(g°C).

29 Determining specific heat Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 The heat gained by the water, 1900 J, equals the heat lost by the metal, q metal, so you can write this equation.

30 Determining specific heat Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 Now, solve the equation for the specific heat of the metal, c metal, by dividing both sides of the equation by m x T.

31 Determining specific heat Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 The change in temperature for the metal,T, is the difference between the final temperature of the water and the initial temperature of the metal (115.0°C – 29.3°C = 85.7 °C ). Substitute the known values of m and T (50.0 g and 85.7 °C) into the equation and solve.

32 Determining specific heat Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 The unknown metal has a specific heat of 0.44 J/(g·°C). From the table, you can infer that the metal could be iron.

33 Using Data from Calorimetry Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 A piece of metal with a mass of 4.68 g absorbs 256 J of heat when its temperature increases by 182°C. What is the specific heat of the metal? Known mass of metal = 4.68 g metal quantity of heat absorbed, q = 256 J T = 182°C Unknown specific heat, c = ? J/(g·°C)

34 Using Data from Calorimetry Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 Solve for c by dividing both sides of the equation by m x T.

35 Using Data from Calorimetry Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 Substitute the known values into the equation. The calculated specific heat is the same as that of strontium.

36 Chemical Energy and the Universe Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 Thermochemistry is the study of heat changes that accompany chemical reactions and phase changes. In thermochemistry, the system is the specific part of the universe that contains the reaction or process you wish to study.

37 Chemical Energy and the Universe Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 Everything in the universe other than the system is considered the surroundings. Therefore, the universe is defined as the system plus the surroundings. universe = system + surroundings

38 Enthalpy and enthalpy changes Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 For many reactions, the amount of energy lost or gained can be measured conveniently in a calorimeter at constant pressure. Many reactions of interest take place at constant atmospheric pressure; for example, those that occur in living organisms on Earths surface, in lakes and oceans, and in open beakers and flasks in the laboratory.

39 Enthalpy and enthalpy changes Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 To more easily measure and study the energy changes that accompany such reactions, chemists have defined a property called enthalpy. Enthalpy (H) is the heat content of a system at constant pressure.

40 Enthalpy and enthalpy changes Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 Although you cannot measure the actual energy or enthalpy of a substance, you can measure the change in enthalpy, which is the heat absorbed or released in a chemical reaction. The change in enthalpy for a reaction is called the enthalpy (heat) of reaction (H rxn ). You have already learned that a symbol preceded by the Greek letter means a change in the property.

41 Enthalpy and enthalpy changes Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 Thus, H rxn is the difference between the enthalpy of the substances that exist at the end of the reaction and the enthalpy of the substances present at the start. Because the reactants are present at the beginning of the reaction and the products are present at the end, H rxn is defined by this equation.

42 Enthalpy and enthalpy changes Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 Recall that q was defined as the heat gained or lost in a chemical reaction or process. When the reaction takes place at constant pressure, the subscript p is sometimes added to the symbol q.

43 Enthalpy and enthalpy changes Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 The enthalpy change, H, is equal to q p, the heat gained or lost in a reaction or process carried out at constant pressure. Because all reactions presented in this textbook occur at constant pressure, you may assume that q = H rxn.

44 Enthalpy and enthalpy changes Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20

45 Enthalpy and enthalpy changes Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 A thermochemical equation is a balanced chemical equation that includes the physical states of all reactants and products and the energy change, usually expressed as the change in enthalpy, H. The nature of the reaction or process described by a thermochemical equation is often written as a subscript of H.

46 Enthalpy and enthalpy changes Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 For example, the highly exothermic combustion (comb) of glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) occurs in the body as food is metabolized to produce energy for activities. The thermochemical equation for the combustion of glucose is

47 Enthalpy and enthalpy changes Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 The energy released (–2808 kJ) is the enthalpy of combustion. The enthalpy (heat) of combustion (H comb ) of a substance is the enthalpy change for the complete burning of one mole of the substance.

48 Enthalpy and enthalpy changes Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 Standard enthalpy changes have the symbol H°. The zero superscript tells you that the reactions were carried out under standard conditions. Standard conditions are one atmosphere pressure and 298 K (25°C) and should not be confused with standard temperature and pressure (STP).

49 Enthalpy and enthalpy changes Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 Heat is also absorbed or released during changes of state. The heat required to vaporize one mole of a liquid is called its molar enthalpy (heat) of vaporization (H vap ). The heat required to melt one mole of a solid is its molar enthalpy (heat) of fusion (H fus ).

50 Calculating Enthalpy of Reaction Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 The enthalpy of combustion for methanol (CH 3 OH) is –726 kJ/mol. How much heat is released when 82.1 g of methanol is burned? The enthalpy of combustion is negative, so the reaction is exothermic and heat is released. The molar mass of methanol is g/mol.

51 Calculating Enthalpy of Reaction Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 First, calculate the number of moles of methanol that is burned. Now find the enthalpy of reaction for the combustion of 82.1 g (2.56 mol) of methanol.

52 Calculating Enthalpy Change Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 A theoretical way to determine H for a chemical reaction is provided by Hesss law, which states that if two or more thermochemical equations can be added to produce a final equation for a reaction, then the enthalpy change for the final reaction equals the sum of the enthalpy changes for the individual reactions.

53 Applying Hesss Law Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 Use thermochemical equations a and b to determine H for the oxidation of ethanol (C 2 H 5 OH) to form acetaldehyde (C 2 H 4 O) and water.

54 Applying Hesss Law Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 Acetaldehyde should be on the right side of the equation, so reverse equation a. Note that you must change the sign of H. The desired equation has two moles of ethanol, so double equation b and its H.

55 Applying Hesss Law Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 Add these two equations, and cancel any terms common to both sides of the combined equation. Note that H is negative, and the reaction is moderately exothermic.

56 The change in enthalpy that accompanies the formation of one mole of a compound in its standard state from its constituent elements in their standard states is called the standard enthalpy (heat) of formation of the compound. Standard enthalpy (heat) of formation Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20

57 Standard enthalpy (heat) of formation Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 For example, the standard heat of formation for magnesium oxide is given by this equation. The following formula summarizes the procedure. Standard enthalpies of formation may be used with Hesss law to calculate enthalpies of reaction under standard conditions.

58 Standard enthalpy (heat) of formation Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Basic Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 The equation states that the standard heat of reaction equals the sum of the standard heats of formation of the products minus the sum of the standard heats of formation of the reactants. In this equation, the standard heat of formation of an element in its standard state is zero.

59 Basic Assessment Questions Question 1 A 15.6-g sample of ethanol absorbs 868 J as it is heated. If the initial temperature of the ethanol was 21.5°C, what is the final temperature of the ethanol? Topic 20 Topic 20

60 Basic Assessment Questions Answer 44.3°C Topic 20 Topic 20

61 Basic Assessment Questions Question 2 If 335 g water at 65.5°C loses 9750 J of heat, what is the final temperature of the water? Topic 20 Topic 20

62 Basic Assessment Questions Answer 58.5°C Topic 20 Topic 20

63 Basic Assessment Questions Question 3 How much heat is evolved when 24.9 g of propanol (C 3 H 7 OH) is burned?H comb = –2010 kJ/mol Topic 20 Topic 20

64 Basic Assessment Questions Answer 833 kJ Topic 20 Topic 20

65 Basic Assessment Questions Question 4 Use reactions a and b to determine H for this single-displacement reaction. Topic 20 Topic 20 a. b.

66 Basic Assessment Questions Answer H rxn = –112 kJ Topic 20 Topic 20

67 Energy and Chemical Change: Additional Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Additional Concepts Topic 20 Topic 20 Additional Concepts

68 Energy and Chemical Change: Additional Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Additional Concepts Reaction Spontaneity Entropy (S) is a measure of the disorder or randomness of the particles that make up a system. Spontaneous processes always result in an increase in the entropy of the universe. Topic 20 Topic 20 The change in the entropy of a system is given by the following equation.

69 Energy and Chemical Change: Additional Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Additional Concepts Reaction Spontaneity Whether S system is positive or negative can be predicted in some cases by examining the reaction or process. Several factors affect the change in entropy of a system. Topic 20 Topic 20 Changes of state Entropy increases when a solid changes to a liquid and when a liquid changes to a gas because these changes of state result in freer movement of the particles.

70 Energy and Chemical Change: Additional Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Additional Concepts Reaction Spontaneity Dissolving of a gas in a solvent When a gas is dissolved in a liquid or solid solvent, the motion and randomness of the particles are limited and the entropy of the gas decreases. Topic 20 Topic 20 Change in the number of gaseous particles When the number of gaseous particles increases, the entropy of the system usually increases because more random arrangements are possible.

71 Energy and Chemical Change: Additional Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Additional Concepts Reaction Spontaneity Dissolving of a solid or liquid to form a solution When solute particles become dispersed in a solvent, the disorder of the particles and the entropy of the system usually increase. Topic 20 Topic 20 Change in temperature A temperature increase results in increased disorder of the particles and an increase in entropy.

72 Energy and Chemical Change: Additional Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Additional Concepts Free energy Topic 20 Topic 20 For a reaction or process occurring at constant temperature and pressure, the energy that is available to do work is the free energy (G). The change in free energy is related to the change in enthalpy and the change in entropy by the following equation.

73 Energy and Chemical Change: Additional Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Additional Concepts Free energy Topic 20 Topic 20 In this equation, T is the Kelvin temperature. If G system is negative, the reaction or process is spontaneous; if G system is positive, the reaction or process is nonspontaneous.

74 Energy and Chemical Change: Additional Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Additional Concepts Determining Reaction Spontaneity Topic 20 Topic 20 For a chemical reaction, H system = – 81 kJ and S system = –215 J/K. Is the reaction spontaneous at 50°C? Convert the temperature to kelvins.

75 Energy and Chemical Change: Additional Concepts Energy and Chemical Change: Additional Concepts Determining Reaction Spontaneity Topic 20 Topic 20 Find G system. Because G system is negative, the reaction is spontaneous.

76 Additional Assessment Questions Question 1 Topic 20 Topic 20 Predict the sign of S system for

77 Additional Assessment Questions negative Answer Topic 20 Topic 20

78 Additional Assessment Questions Predict the sign of S system for Question 2 Topic 20 Topic 20

79 Additional Assessment Questions positive Answer Topic 20 Topic 20

80 Additional Assessment Questions Predict the sign of S system for Question 3 Topic 20 Topic 20

81 Additional Assessment Questions positive Answer Topic 20 Topic 20

82 Additional Assessment Questions Calculate G system for each of the following processes, and state if the process is spontaneous or nonspontaneous. Question 4 Topic 20 Topic 20

83 H system = 147 kJ, T = 422 K,S system = – 67 J/K 175 kJ; nonspontaneous Answer 4a Question 4a Additional Assessment Questions Topic 20 Topic 20

84 H system = –43 kJ, T = 21°C,S system = – 118 J/K –8 kJ; spontaneous Answer 4b Question 4b Additional Assessment Questions Topic 20 Topic 20

85 H system = 227 kJ, T = 574 K,S system = – 349 J/K 27 kJ; nonspontaneous Answer 4c Question 4c Additional Assessment Questions Topic 20 Topic 20

86 To advance to the next item or next page click on any of the following keys: mouse, space bar, enter, down or forward arrow. Click on this icon to return to the table of contents Click on this icon to return to the previous slide Click on this icon to move to the next slide Click on this icon to open the resources file. Help Click on this icon to go to the end of the presentation.

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