2Scientific Family name is Salmonidae Salmon FamilyScientific Family name is SalmonidaeIncludes three subfamilies:Salmon, Trout, and CharWhitefishGraylingEconomically the most important family of cold water fishes in North AmericaSport FisheriesCommercial FishingHatcheries and Fish Farms
3Salmon Species Pacific Salmon Pink or Humpback Chinook or King Coho or SilverChum or DogSockeye or RedAtlantic Salmon
4SalmonAnadromousSpends its life in the ocean but returns to fresh water to spawnPacific Salmon die shortly after spawningAtlantic Salmon may live to spawn two or more times
5Kokanee Salmon Landlocked Sockeye Salmon are called Kokanee Salmon. Lake Tahoe now has a self-sustaining population of Kokanee salmonEvery fall, thousands of kokanee ascend Taylor Creek (Tahoe tributary) to spawn.Landlocked Sockeye Salmon are called Kokanee Salmon.Kokanee were originally stocked into Lake Tahoe in Every fall, thousands of kokanee ascend Taylor Creek (Tahoe tributary) to spawn.
7Trout FactsAll salmonids are characterized by the presence of an adipose finAll salmonids require clean, cold water in which to live and have a low tolerance to habitat degradation.Primarily freshwater fish, however, many species develop seagoing races.Can you name the anadromous form of the rainbow trout?Steelhead
8True Trout Characteristics: Black spots on light background Stream obligate spawnersNevada’s True Trout:CutthroatLahontan (Threatened species)BonnevilleYellowstoneRainbow*BrownTrue TroutPhoto courtesy of Mike Sevon
9Char Characteristics: Light spots on dark background Prefer colder water than troutSpawn in the fallCan spawn in a lake environmentNevada’s Chars:Lake TroutBrook TroutBull Trout
11Cutthroat TroutOnce the predominant native trout in lakes and streams across the Great BasinCompetition with non-native trout and habitat degradation can be attributed to the decline in the speciesRecovery activities by NDOW and other agencies are ongoing to reestablish these fish in their historic rangeOfficial State Record Cutthroat Trout:23 pounds 8 ounces (Pyramid Lake, 1977)Unofficial Record: 41 pounds (Pyramid Lake, 1925)
13Rainbow TroutThe most important trout in North America based on its contribution to sport fisheriesComprise over 90% of the hatchery production from Nevada’s four hatcheriesRainbow are native to waters along the Pacific coastAll rainbow trout existing in Nevada are introduced with the exception of the Redband Trout which can be found in 12-mile Creek in the Northwest corner of NevadaState Record: 16 pounds 4 ounces (Lake Mohave, 1971)
15Brown TroutImported from Europe in the late 1800s and stocked throughout the United States. They were first introduced into the Truckee River in 1895.Often described as the wariest and hardest to catch of all troutWhile they prefer colder water, brown trout can tolerate temperatures as warm as 75°F and can be found in slower moving water that would be unsuitable to other troutState Record: 27 pounds 5 ounces (Cave Lake, 1984)
17Brook Trout Native to the Eastern U.S. Stocked extensively throughout the U.S. approximately 100 years ago.Usually found inhabiting high mountain lakes and streams due to their preference for cold water (rarely found where temps exceed 65°F.)Popular with anglers – considered the easiest trout to catch and the best tastingState Record: 5 pounds 10 ounces (Bull Run Reservoir, 1980)
19Lake Trout (Mackinaw)Native range is the northern portion of North America from Alaska to Labrador and includes the Great LakesHighly prized as a sport fish due to its large size (World Record – 72 pounds 4 ounces)Generally only found in deep, cold lakesIn Nevada, they’re found in Lake Tahoe where they have been reported at depths as deep as 1,400 feetState Record: 37 pounds 6 ounces (Lake Tahoe, 1974)
21Bull Trout Native to the Jarbidge River system north of Elko. The Jarbidge is a tributary to the Snake River in Idaho, however, the populations are separated by 150 miles of unsuitable trout habitat and several impassable dams.Federally listed as ThreatenedState Record: 4 pounds 6 ounces (Jarbidge River WF, 1985)World Record: 32 pounds 0 ounces (Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho)
23Spawning Spawning occurs in the spring for Rainbow and Cutthroat All other Nevada salmonids are fall spawnersFemale seeks out a suitable location for her nest and begins digging her reddVideo footage courtesy of Manu Esteve, University of Washington
24Factors Influencing Nest Location Water TemperatureDepthVelocitySubstrateCover for maturing fishSize of Spawners (Larger fish may choose larger streams with bigger substrate)Trout and Char often spawn in the transition area between pools and riffles where water velocity is accelerating.
25SpawningMales will fight for spawning rights to the female. The most dominant male will spawn.The process of courtship and nest building will last for hoursOnly when the female is ready will spawning commence.Video footage courtesy of Manu Esteve, University of Washington
26The female immediately begins to bury the newly laid eggs. When the female is ready, she will signify the male by arching her back and quivering over the redd (gravel nest) she has built with her tail.The male fertilizes them by covering them with a milky substance known as milt.The female immediately begins to bury the newly laid eggs.Video footage courtesy of Manu Esteve, University of Washington
27Egg DevelopmentFemales can lay between 200 to 8,000 eggs (depending on the size of the fish).Eggs are extremely vulnerable to predators, suffocation and fungus spores.Egg development depends entirely on water temperatureRainbow trout eggs will hatch in about three weeks at a water temperature of 54°F.
28Salmon are born in gravel beds in streams 10 to 700 miles (16 to 1200 km) from the sea. Laid in the fall, the eggs incubate over the winter, frequently under several feet (more than a metre) of snow and ice. Their pink eggs are always covered from direct sunlight. About a month after they have been deposited in the gravel, eyes begin to show. This normally happens in late November or early December. It is essential during this time that water flow and temperature are suitable. The period of greatest mortality in the salmon's life cycle is in the egg-to-fry stage.
32TROUT IN THE CLASSROOM FACTORS EFFECTING EGG DEVELOPMENT LIGHT -Direct sunlight or UV light will effect the development of the eggs.30 minutes of light will kill them-The optimal thing to do is minimize there light exposure.
33TROUT IN THE CLASSROOM TEMPERATURE -Fluctuation for developing eggs is a good thing within range.2°F to 3°F is an optimal temperature variation.
34Cutthroat Trout Eggs Eyed eggs 22 days old @ 47 DegreesF Our eggs were fertilized on Jan
35Alevin (sac fry) Development Stay in gravel1-6 wks after hatchingThe embryo produces an enzyme which dissolves the egg shell (a white foam on the surface at hatching time).Eggshells need to be removed to prevent fungusChange half the water and use the baster to remove shells.
36Alevin (sac fry) Development Newly hatched trout have a yolk sac that nourishes the young fish until it is mature enough to feed itself.Sac fry remain in the gravel until their yolk sack is absorbed.
37The vitelline vein, running through the centre of the sac, picks up oxygen from the water.
38Cutthroat Trout Alevin(sac fry) They will remain in the gravel and avoid light. Keep in darkness.Sac Fry35 days old@ 47 degrees F
39Cutthroat Trout Sac Fry Sac Fry in late development44days@ 47 Degrees F
41Fry DevelopmentOnce it is “buttoned-up”, the fry will work their way through the gravel to the top of the stream bed.These “swim-up” fry dart to the surface and gulp air to fill their air bladders.From this point, they are free swimming fish and begin to feed.
42Fingerlings/Parr2-5 “Most hatchery trout are stocked into lakes at this sizeDevelops “finger” markingsAt about 6” in length called Parr
43SmoltAt this point, the juvenile salmon loses its vertical markings on its body and turns silvery in color. Now considered Smolt, they will school together in large groups. It's at this time that the young salmon will adjust their bodies to saltwater, allowing them to swim out into the Pacific Ocean to feed and grow into adult salmon.
45Juvenile Development To reach maturity a juvenile fish must: avoid predators,Find adequate foodSurvive summer heat and winter coldRelease 5-7 days after “button up”…
46AdultLahontan Cutthroat Trout – Pyramid LakeOnly about 2% of fertilized eggs survive to become mature adults.Most salmonids reach sexual maturity at 3 to 5 years. Some precocious fish (usually males) mature at 2 years.