Presentation on theme: "Licensed Psychologist"— Presentation transcript:
1Licensed Psychologist Compassion FatiguePresented by:Jim Messina, Ph.D.Licensed PsychologistLead Disaster Mental Health ServicesTampa Bay Chapter of American Red CrossPsychologist with: St. Joseph’s Hospital, Vericare, Argosy UniversityPresentation Available on:
2"The pessimist complains about the wind; The optimist expects it to change;The realist adjusts the sails."William Arthur Ward
3Goals for Our ProgramIdentify the signs and symptoms of Compassion FatigueIdentify strategies for the prevention of Compassion FatigueProblem solve solutions for recovering from or dealing with acute Compassion Fatigue
4What is Compassion Fatigue (CF)? Compassion fatigue is thought to be a combination of secondary traumatization and burnout precipitated by the care delivery that brings health-care professionals into contact with the sufferingSzabo, B. (2006). Compassion fatigue and nursing work: Can we accurately capture the consequences of caring work? International Journal of Nursing Practice: 12: 136–142.
5Difference between CF and Burnout "Compassion fatigue is when caregivers have such deep empathy they develop symptoms of trauma similar to the patient” according to director of the Army Institute of Surgical Research Col Kathryn GaylordThe disorder can also resemble burn out which occurs when emotional exhaustion is experienced due to increased workload & institutional stress & does not involve traumaCompassion fatigue can have detrimental effects on doctor patient relationships since doctors suffering from the disorder often either grow distant from patients or get too closeWilson, E. (2008). New Program Offers Care for Caregivers. Department of Defense Military Health System News, 23 May 2008.
6Secondary Traumatic Stress People who come into continued, close contact with trauma survivors may also experience emotional disruption, becoming indirect victims of the traumaThe natural, consequent behaviors & emotions resulting from knowledge about a traumatizing event experienced by a significant otherThe stress resulting from helping or wanting to help a traumatized or suffering personBride, B. (2007). Prevalence of Secondary Traumatic Stress Among Social Workers. Social Work: 51(2):
7Compassion Satisfaction Compassion satisfaction is the ability for clinicians to derive a great sense of meaning & purpose from their workIt may aid in alleviating existential terror endemic to the human condition when a society is at warIt may be an important buffer in managing and transcending alterations in belief systems, and physiological or emotional reactions seen in compassion fatigueStamm (1999 and 2002) as quoted in: Tyson, J. (2007). Compassion Fatigue in the Treatment of Combat-Related Trauma During Wartime. Clinical Social Work Journal; 35:183–192
8Major factors contributing to CF Poor self-carePrevious unresolved traumaInability or refusal to control work stressorsLack of satisfaction for the workFigley, C. R. (Ed.) (1995). Compassion fatigue: Coping with secondary traumatic stress disorder in those who treat the traumatized. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
9Predictors of CF among Hospice Nurses TraumaAnxietyLife demandsExcessive empathy (leading to blurred professional boundaries)Abendroth, M. & Flannery, J. (2006). Predicting the Risk of Compassion Fatigue: A Study of Hospice Nurses. Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing: 8(6):
10Reason for Our Focus on CF It is imperative that clinicians take steps to ensure that they are functioning at their best in the therapeutic relationshipFacilitating their own personal well–being and avoiding burnout is clearly one way in which this can be achievedLinley, P.A. & Joseph, S. (2007). Therapy work and therapists’ positive and negative well-being. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology: 26(3):385–403.
11Self-Assessment Take the Compassion Self-Assessment Rate each item on a scale from 1 to 101 = never experienced5 = occasionally experienced10 = frequently experienced
12What does this Assessment Tell You? If you rated three or more items over 8 or if you rated 5-10 over 5You are most likely experiencing some level of compassion fatigue already
13Characteristics of clinicians experiencing compassion fatigue Physically: Chronic sense of exhaustion and fatigue, insomnia, headaches, stomachaches, lack of appetite, physical agitation or retardation, frequent bouts of sickness (e.g., colds, sore throats)Psychologically: often feel irritable, are overwhelmed by the volume and content of their workRelationship with Clients: sense a reduction in their baseline empathy for others, feel numb to patients’ and families’ pain, are cynical regarding clients’ ability to change and/or perceive them as being responsible for many of their problemsOrganizationally: often report a sense of feeling scattered and unable to meet their professional & personal obligationsMendenhall, T. (2006). Trauma-Response Teams: Inherent Challenges and Practical Strategies in Interdisciplinary Fieldwork. Families Systems, & Health: 24(3):
14So Why Assess for CFIt is expected that most clinicians will at times experience symptoms of compassion fatigue, as these are normal reactions to trauma work.However, for some clinicians the experience of compassion fatigue may become so severe as to interfere with their clinical effectiveness and their personal mental health.It is for this reason that ongoing monitoring is necessary.Bride, B., Radey, M. & Figley, C.R. (2007). Measuring Compassion Fatigue. Clinical Social Work Journal: 35:
15Early Assessment Impact Instead of waiting for the clinicians to become symptomatic use inventory tools to look for the presence of challenges to their fundamental assumptions, values & beliefsWith early assessment clinicians have the opportunity to transform their discomfort into personal growth & developmentThis should be the aim of a professional supervision and support model to address CFTehrani, N. (2007). The cost of caring – the impact of secondary trauma on assumptions, values and beliefs. Counselling Psychology Quarterly: 20(4): 325–339.
16So What Does One Do to Overcome Compassion Fatigue? Please break up into teams of 3-5 member to brainstorm 3 ideas to help individuals overcome or prevent compassion fatigue in their livesOK let’s go!
17What You Can Do! Recognize the symptoms of compassion fatigue Learn to ask for helpBe aware and accept the limitations of your family, your job, and yourselfMaintain discipline in daily responsibilities and dutiesTake “time out” during the dayTake short vacations at least twice a yearTry to change little things that gnaw at you and accommodate to those you can't changeOrganize your time so you can concentrate on vital tasksAdmit compassion fatigue is a real problem for you and don't try to cover it upDistinguish between stressful aspects of your job or home life that you can change, and those you can't change-change what you can
18What clinicians need to ward off CF Boundary maintenanceSelf-careGood trainingGood supervisionIf given all 4 clinicians will thrive as compassionate professionalsRadey, M. & Figley, C.R. (2007). The Social Psychology of Compassion. Clinical Social Work: 35(1):207–214
19So What Can Be Done On the Job to Lessen Compassion Fatigue? In your teams brainstorm three things which can be done on the job to lessen or prevent the impact of Compassion Fatigue!Ok Let’s Go!
20What can be done on the job! Identify realistic attainable goals for each department and evaluate accordinglyHelp staff to maintain personal growth both at home and on the jobEncourage and support staff to develop an active outside life with a variety of interestsEncourage staff to personalize the work environment with meaningful pictures, objects, colors, etc.Encourage staff to be comfortable with themselves by setting limits how far to become involved with clients and colleaguesEncourage and practice good communication skills on the jobProvide for flexible working conditions on the jobEncourage trying new ideas “outside of the box”Sponsor “decompression techniques” activities such as meditation or exercise that relieve tension and put staff into a more relaxed stateBuild support systems among staff to discuss problems and help each other look for solutions. Don't just air gripes - look for solutions
21What one group is doing: This program offered staff a safe place, among colleagues to discuss their recent feelings and de-stressParticipants were provided services such as yoga, meditation and therapeutic massageAll staff completed a Compassion Fatigue SurveyAll staff were treated with a 45 minute therapeutic massagePolitsky, S. (2007) Revitalizing Yourself. Oncology Nursing Forum: 34(2): 494.
22Training like this helps!!! Sprang et al, found that specialized trauma training did enhance Compassion Satisfaction and reduced levels of Compassion Fatigue and Burnout, suggesting that knowledge and training might provide some protection against the deleterious effects of trauma exposureSprang, G., Clark, J. & Whitt-Woosley, A. (2007). Compassion Fatigue, Compassion Satisfaction, and Burnout: Factors Impacting A Professional’s Quality of Life. Journal of Law and Trauma, 12:259–280.
23So there you have IT!Dealing with Compassion Fatigue is a TEAM effort which requires administration, co-workers, your families and significant others to understand that it takes a lot of effort to prevent and deal with this insidious and disabling condition!Best of Luck!