2 The Notetaking Process involves condensing or reducing large amounts of information into more manageable units.requires you to think carefully about information, break it down, analyze it, and select what is important to learn.is a multisensory process that uses visual, kinesthetic, and auditory encoding.for individual chapters may include using more than one notetaking system to create study and review tools.
3 The Importance of Notetaking Taking notes combats memory fading and interference.Effective notes back up and reinforce memory.Research shows a high correlation between the quality of notes and test performance and grades.Studying from effective notes is more time efficient than rereading chapters multiple times.Well-developed notes provide you with effective study tools to rehearse and review.Using effective notetaking strategies saves you study time.
4 Essential Strategies for Textbook Note-taking Label your notes.Use spaced practice to make several contacts with your notes over different time periods.Use feedback strategies, such as reciting, visualizing, or Look-Away Techniques.Review your notes immediately and on an ongoing basis.Understanding what you read before taking notes.Be selective by capturing only main ideas and supporting details so your notes are a condensed version of printed materials.Paraphrase or reword.Include textbook reminders in your notes to review specific sections or charts in the textbook.
5 Annotation Learning Objectives: Discuss and apply strategies for marking or annotating textbook passages.
6 AnnotationAnnotating: the process of highlighting, underlining, making marginal notes, or marking specific information in printed materials.Annotating:is an active learning process.holds information longer in working memory.reduces the risk of information fading.incorporates the Twelve Principles of Memory.
7 Essential Strategies for Annotating Make brief marginal notes to emphasize important points or integrate information:-list of key ideas-study questions-vocabulary terms-definitions-comments/questions-brackets-abbreviationsHighlight the complete topic sentence (the main idea sentence).Selectively highlight key words, phrases, or details that support the topic sentence.Circle terminology and highlight key words in the definitions.Enumerate steps or lists of information by adding ordinals.
8 Essential Strategies to Study Annotations Use spaced practice, immediate and ongoing review.Use previously discussed strategies:-Understand first.-Be selective.-Paraphrase for marginal notes.-Add reminders.-Use feedback.Reread out loud only the annotations; it will sound fragmented.Verbally string the ideas together by adding your own words to connect ideas.Recite without looking.Write summaries to reinforce learning.
9 The Cornell Note-taking System Learning Objective:Discuss and apply the five steps of the Cornell system for taking notes.
10 The Cornell Note-taking System RecordTake notes in the right column.ReduceCondense notes in the left column, the 2 ½” wide recall column.ReciteExplain information in the recall call; talk out loud and in complete sentences. Check accuracy.ReflectUse a variety of strategies to work with the information in new ways.ReviewUse immediate and ongoing review.
12 Tips for Recording Notes Introductions: Create and underline a heading for the information; then list and number key points.Headings and Subheadings: Copy and underline headings and subheadings in your notes. Number key points under each heading or subheading.New Headings: Add new headings if you want to reorganize or insert more helpful headings.Marginal Notes: Take notes on any important marginal notes in the textbook
13 Tips for Recording Notes Double Spacing: Double space before beginning a new heading; this chunks or groups information into meaningful units.Sufficient Information: Avoid being too brief; record sufficient details to support main ideas.Meaningful Phrases or Sentences: Check that phrases or shortened sentences are clear and will not lose meaning at a later time.Annotations: Use your annotations to guide you in deciding what information to place in your notes.
14 Tips for Recording Notes Number Details: Number details under headings to create a stronger impression and organize information into meaningful units.Minor Details: Indent or use dashes to show minor details under main supporting details.Graphs and Charts: Copy smaller graphs or charts into your notes, or summarize conclusions about the graphs. Include textbook page numbers for reference.Summary: Write a summary or a conclusion at the end of your notes.
16 Tips to Create the Recall Column Copy Headings: Place headings from the right column directly across into the left column; then underline the headings to add structure to your notes.Reread Your Notes: Reread notes. Add more notes if your notes are too vague or limited.Add Study Questions: Write brief, abbreviated study questions across from the information in your notes.Add Key Words to Define: Write only the term to define, but do not write the definition.Do Not Write Too Much: Do not include answers or you will only read with little to recite in the next step.
17 Explain information in the recall column by using complete sentences Explain information in the recall column by using complete sentences. Use feedback. Pull the paper down to check your accuracy. Adjust the recall column if you need more cue words for reciting.
18 Cornell: Reflect StepThink and ponder. Take time to think about the topic, relationships, and importance of the information.Line up your recall columns to see an informal outline and overview of the chapter and your notes.Write a summary at the bottom of your notes.Write on the back side of your notes. Make lists of information, write study questions, add diagrams, or jot down questions for class.Make study tools such as index cards, visual mapping, charts, or mnemonics.
20 Theories of Forgetting Describe each of the following forgetting theories:Decay TheoryDisplacement TheoryIncomplete EncodingInterference TheoryRetrieval Failure Theory
21 Forgetting and Memory In the Decay Theory, why does forgetting occur? What strategies can prevent the decay process?What is the relationship between the Displacement Theory and the theory of overloading working memory?How do retroactive and proactive interference differ?What strategies combat the effects of the Incomplete Encoding Theory?Why does retrieval failure occur?What does Ebbinghaus’s Curve of Forgetting show?When does the greatest initial drop in memory occur?
22 Two- and Three-Column Note-taking Systems Learning Objective:Discuss and apply effective strategies for creating two- and three-column notes.
23 The Two-Column Note-taking System TopicVoc. TermStudy QuestionFormula1.2.3.DefinitionAnswerExampleStep 1: Write the topics, vocabulary terms, questions, or math problems in the left column.Step 2: Write any explanations, details, or definitions in the right column.
24 The Two-Column Notetaking System Simplified Cornell formatEffective for textbook and lecture notesEffective for factual information, discussions, and math processesWidth of columns can be adjusted to match the notetaking situation
25 Tips for Creating Two-Column Notes Be Selective: Only include important information.Use the Read-Record-Recite Cycle: Read one paragraph, pause, take notes, and then recite.Write Items in the Left Column: The kinds of items will vary depending on the textbook or lecture content.Space Your Notes: Leave a space between each new group of items.
26 Tips for Creating Two-Column Notes Sketch Diagrams or Charts: Sketch in the left column and explain or summarize in the right column.Practice Your Notes: Cover your right column. Recite. Uncover to check your accuracy.Highlight Difficult Sections of Your Notes: Highlighting signals sections to practice further.Use Immediate and Ongoing Review.
27 Three-Column Notes Write the topics in the left column. ProblemSource 1DefinitionReworkStepsSource 2ExampleSolutionWrite the topics in the left column.Identify labels or categories of information in the middle and the last column.Work with all three columns: cover a column, recite, and then check your accuracy.
28 Ways to Use Three-Column Notes Use to take notes for comparative reading.Use to define and expand or show applications for vocabulary terms.Use to write math problems, provide a column to rework problems, and a column with the steps to solve the problem.Use to compile textbook and lecture notes.
29 The Outline Note-taking System Learning Objective:Discuss and apply effective strategies for taking informal outline notes.
31 The Informal Outline Note-taking System Outlines provide a skeleton or overview of the chapter’s structure and sequence of topics.Modify the formal outlining rules for lower-level information by using bullets or dashes for minor details instead of numerals or letters, such as 1), a), b), 2), a), b), c), and d).
32 You can create outline notes: before reading to get an overview of the chapterduring the reading process to organize notes of key pointsafter reading a chapter to create a new kind of study tool.
33 How to Study from Outline Notes Read and explain line by line.Recite what you know about the topic.Speak in complete sentences.Integrate and link ideas and show relationships.Check your accuracy or completeness of information you recite.Add clue words to the right of the lines or items to guide your reciting the next time you review your notes.
34 Repeat the process of reciting from the outline. Use the outline to write a summary.
35 Discussion QuestionsWhy are note-taking skills essential skills for students to master?Which Principles of Memory are activated when you create and study from textbook notes?What strategies are effective for annotating or marking your textbooks?How should you study from highlighting?
36 What are the Five R’s of Cornell? Can a reflect process or step be used in all note-taking systems? Why or why not?Which notetaking system do you prefer? Why?
38 Discussion TopicsRegardless of how many years it has been since you were in high school, did your high school experience prepare you for the demands of college academics? Did you learn strategies to read and understand difficult textbooks? Did you learn effective notetaking systems and strategies to study your notes? Explain with details.
39 2. How will you use the five different note-taking systems to take notes from your textbooks? Are the five notetaking systems you learned in this chapter similar to or different from what you previously used to take textbook notes?
40 Discussion TopicsTaking notes engages the reader in the learning process, but the process of taking notes is not enough to boost memory and learn the information in the notes. Why is studying your notes so important? What strategies can you use to gain the most benefits from your notes?
41 4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of copying or using someone else’s notes to study? After handwriting textbook notes on paper, is rewriting your notes by typing them on a computer beneficial or a waste of time? Explain your reasoning.