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G ROUNDWORK FOR C OLLEGE R EADING WITH PHONICS Fourth Edition John Langan © 2008 Townsend Press.

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Presentation on theme: "G ROUNDWORK FOR C OLLEGE R EADING WITH PHONICS Fourth Edition John Langan © 2008 Townsend Press."— Presentation transcript:

1 G ROUNDWORK FOR C OLLEGE R EADING WITH PHONICS Fourth Edition John Langan © 2008 Townsend Press

2 Part I, Chapter One: Phonics I: Consonants THIS CHAPTER IN A NUTSHELL Twenty-one of the twenty-six letters of the English alphabet are consonants. Fifteen consonants have only one sound when they appear by themselves: b, f, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, r, t, v, w, y, and z. Six consonants have more than one sound: c, d, g, q, s, and x. There are three types of consonant combinations: Consonant blends are combinations that blend the sounds of single consonants, such as score, splash, broke, and lift. Consonant digraphs are pairs that combine to make a new sound: phone, their, chip. Silent consonants are not pronounced in certain combinations: comb, write, know.

3 PHONICS Phonics tells you how to break a word into parts called syllables how to pronounce each syllable

4 CONSONANTS Twenty-one of the twenty-six letters in the English alphabet are consonants: bcdfghjklmnpqrstvwxyzbcdfghjklmnpqrstvwxyz

5 SINGLE CONSONANTS WITH ONLY ONE SOUND The fifteen consonants below generally have only one sound. b(bed)l(lump)t(tub) f(fan)m(mud)v(vine) h(hog)n(neck)w(web) j(jab)p(pat)y(yell) k(kiss)r(rub)z(zoom)

6 SINGLE CONSONANTS WITH MORE THAN ONE SOUND The six consonants below have more than one sound. c gdqsxc gdqsx

7 SINGLE CONSONANTS WITH MORE THAN ONE SOUND: Sounds of c The letter c can have the soft sound of c, as in: cell citycircus C can also have the hard sound, like a k, as in: can actorcircus What other words can you think of that are examples of the soft sound of c? of the hard sound of c?

8 SINGLE CONSONANTS WITH MORE THAN ONE SOUND: Sounds of g The letter g can have the soft sound, like a j, as in: gym angelmagic G can have the hard sound, as in: game guesspig What other words can you think of that are examples of the soft sound of g? of the hard sound of g?

9 SINGLE CONSONANTS WITH MORE THAN ONE SOUND: Sounds of d The letter d usually sounds like the d in dot, as in: date sidebleed Sometimes d can sound like j, as in: educate schedulesoldier

10 SINGLE CONSONANTS WITH MORE THAN ONE SOUND: Sounds of q (qu) The letter q is always followed by u in English. Qu usually sounds like kw, as in: queen quiltrequire Sometimes qu sounds like k, as in: antique plaquemosquito

11 SINGLE CONSONANTS WITH MORE THAN ONE SOUND: Sounds of s The consonant s usually sounds like the s in salt: soup unsafebus Sometimes s sounds like z, as in the word those. nose reasonhers

12 SINGLE CONSONANTS WITH MORE THAN ONE SOUND: Sounds of x The consonant x usually sounds like ks: fox nextMexico When ex is followed by a vowel, it usually sounds like gz. exact examexist When x begins a word, it sounds like z, as in the word Xerox.

13 A consonant combination is two or more consonants that work together. There are three kinds of consonant combinations: THREE TYPES OF CONSONANT COMBINATIONS Consonant blends: Combinations that blend the sounds of single consonants. Example: screen Consonant digraphs: Consonant pairs that combine to make a new sound. Example: rough Silent consonants: Consonants that are silent in certain combinations. Example: lamb

14 Consonant blends are two or more neighboring consonants that keep their own sounds but are spoken together. Example: monster There are four major types of consonant blends: 1Blends that begin with s 2Blends that end in l 3Blends that end in r 4Other blends in the middle or at the end of a word TYPES OF CONSONANT COMBINATIONS Consonant Blends

15 The consonant blends below begin with s. They are found at the beginning and in the middle of words. TYPES OF CONSONANT COMBINATIONS Consonant Blends: Blends that begin with s sc- scr-sk-sl- sn-sp-spl-spr- st-str-sw- Three of these blendssk, sp, stare also found at the end of words. Examples: scrapsmogwaspsproutbest sm- squ-

16 TYPES OF CONSONANT COMBINATIONS Consonant Blends: Blends that end in l The consonant blends below end in l. They may be at the beginning or in the middle of a word. bl- cl-fl-gl-pl- Examples: blessclamreflecteagleapply

17 TYPES OF CONSONANT COMBINATIONS Consonant Blends: Blends that end in r The consonant blends below end in r. They may be at the beginning or in the middle of a word. br- cr-dr-fr-gr- pr-tr- Examples: brokeincreasedreamafraidgreed praycontract

18 TYPES OF CONSONANT COMBINATIONS Consonant Blends: Other blends Below is a list of other consonant blends that may appear in the middle or at the end of a word. -ft -ld-lt-mp-nd -nk-nt Examples: softlychildmeltdown lamphand bankbookpainting

19 TYPES OF CONSONANT COMBINATIONS Consonant Digraphs A consonant digraph is a pair of consonants that combine together to make a new sound that is very different from the sound of either of the two letters. There are three types of digraphs: 1Digraphs that sound like f: gh and ph 2Digraphs with new sounds of their own: sh and th 3A digraph with three sounds: ch

20 TYPES OF CONSONANT COMBINATIONS Consonant Digraphs: Digraphs that sound like f The diagraphs gh and ph each have the sound of the single consonant f. Examples of words in which gh sounds like f: laughingenoughtough Examples of words in which ph sounds like f: phonedolphingraph

21 TYPES OF CONSONANT COMBINATIONS Consonant Digraphs: Digraphs with new sounds The diagraph sh does not sound like any single letter. It has a sound of its own. The diagraph th can have the voiced th sound or theunvoiced th sound. Examples of words with the digraph sh: showwasherfish Examples of words with the voiced th sound: theytherebathe Examples of words with the unvoiced th sound: thirdthankbath

22 TYPES OF CONSONANT COMBINATIONS Consonant Digraphs: A digraph with three sounds The diagraph ch has three different sounds. Most common is the hard and short ch sound as in the word check. Examples of words with the hard and short ch sound: chipchiefranch Sometimes, ch sounds like sh. Examples of words in which ch sounds like sh: chefchuteMichelle Finally, ch sometimes sounds like k. Examples of words in which ch sounds like k: choruscharacterchronic

23 TYPES OF CONSONANT COMBINATIONS Silent Consonants In certain letter combinations, one of the consonants is silent. b is silent after m:bombclimb c is silent before k:deckpacker g is silent before n:gnawsign h is often silent after w when wh begins a word: whisperwhite w is often silent when a word begins with who: whowhole k is silent before n:knowknife w is silent before r:wreckunwrap When two of the same consonant are next to each other, one of them is silent:addnarrow

24 CHAPTER REVIEW In this chapter, you learned the following: Fifteen consonants have only one sound when they stand alone: b, f, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, r, t, v, w, y, and z. Six consonants have more than one sound: c, g, d, q, s, and x. c certain, curtainqqueen, antique g wage, wag s soup, nose d date, educate x fox, exact, Xerox There are three types of consonant combinations: Consonant blends Consonant digraphs Silent consonants (Chapter Review continues on next slide)

25 CHAPTER REVIEW, continued Types of consonant combinations: Consonant blends are combinations that blend the sounds of single consonants, such as the following: Blends beginning with s: score, scrap, skate, slam, small, snore, spank, splash, sprout, squeak, steel, street, swear Blends ending with l: bless, clam, flag, glad, play Blends ending with r: broke, crime, dream, free, greed, pray, train Blends at the end of a syllable or word: lift, child, belt, dumpster, windbag, bankbook, wanting (Chapter Review continues on next slide)

26 Consonant digraphs are pairs of consonants that combine to make a new sound, such as the following: Digraphs that sound like f: ghlaughing phphone Digraphs with sounds of their own: sh fish th(voiced) their th(unvoiced) third A digraph with three soundsch: chip chef chorus Silent consonants are consonants that are not pronounced in certain combinations, including the following: mbcomb gn gnaw who whose wr write ck deck whwhite knknow Two consonants together: bell, narrow, fuss CHAPTER REVIEW, continued


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