Presentation on theme: "Urbanization & Human Behavior?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Urbanization & Human Behavior? Which is which?Urban ecosystem[life] shapes/reshapes human behavior?Human behavior determines/shapes urban ecosystem[life]?
2 Urbanization & Human Behavior? How does urban ecosystem/life influence human behavior?
3 Urbanization & Human Behavior? Thickly PopulatedUrbanEcosystem/Life
4 Urban areas grow in 2 ways: Urban GrowthUrban areas grow in 2 ways:Natural increase of its population (births)Immigration (mostly from rural areas – the biggest cause of urban growth)Proportion of the global population living in urban areas:2% (pre-industrial period)46% (2001) (~160,000 people added to world’s urban areas each day)UN projections: by 2050, ~63% of world’s people will be living in urban areas, with 90% of this urban growth in developing countriesNumber of large cities (>1 million people): increasing rapidly throughout the 20th century
5 2001: more than 400 cities have >1 million people Megacities1900: 19 cities had >1 million people (95% of the population then were rural)2001: more than 400 cities have >1 million peopleIncreasingly, there are more megacities (cities with populations >10 million people)1985: 8 megacities2001: 16 (13 of them in developing countries)As they grow and sprawl outward, separate urban areas may merge to form a megalopolis (= a very large city, or a region made up of several large cities and their surrounding areas in sufficient closeness to be considered a single urban complex)
6 World’s Largest Cities Population in MillionsUnited Nations Population Division 2001
7 Urbanization & Human Behavior? Thickly PopulatedUrbanEcosystem/LifeBuilt environment
9 Urbanization & Human Behavior? Thickly PopulatedUrbanEcosystem/LifeBuilt environmentNon-self-sustaining
10 Urban areas are not self sustaining! Survive only by importing food, water, energy, minerals, and other resources from somewhere elseProduce vast quantities of wastesAffect the health of their inhabitantsbut also the environmental health of rural areasand the health of the planetOften, agriculture and cities develop in similar areas expanding urban areas = using up agricultural land
11 U.S. city of 1 million people Daily InputsDaily OutputsU.S. city of 1 million peopleWater625,000 tonnesSewage500,000tonnesAir pollutants950 tonnesFuel9,500 tonnesRubbish9,500tonnesFood2,000 tonnes
12 Most cities: have few trees and other plants Most cities: produce little of their own foodMany cities: have water supply and flooding problemsMany coastal areas: popular for urban development Many natural coastal habitats have been cleared, drained, and filled in for urban development
13 Urbanization & Human Behavior? Thickly PopulatedUrbanEcosystem/LifeBuilt environmentNon-self-sustainingMicroclimate
14 Urban MicroclimateMaterials used in urban construction: conduct more heat than vegetated areasBuildings and vehicles: release significant amounts of heat energy from burning of fossil fuelsUrbanization can therefore its own microclimateTemperature of a city: several degrees warmer than surrounding rural areasCities are urban heat islands
15 Urban Heat Island Profile This means cities tend to be warmer, rainier, foggier, and cloudier.
16 Noise levels in decibels (dbA) Urban PollutionUrban residents suffer higher pollution levels than surrounding rural areas.Sheer numbers of people in cities mean urban areas are major contributors to air pollution and enhanced greenhouse effect.Most urban residents suffer from excessive noise.Noise levels in decibels (dbA)85150Normal breathingQuietruralareaVacuumcleanerPermanentdamage beginsafter 8-hrsRockconcertMilitaryrifle
19 Urbanization & Human Behavior? How does human behavior shape urban ecosystem/life?
20 Urbanization & Human Behavior? CompetitionUrbanHuman BehaviorDeviancyBlasé attitudeCooperation
21 Urbanization & Human Behavior? CompetitionCulture of corruption, greed,Exploitation, consumerism,Sexism, ageism, classism,Organized crime (smuggling,gambling, prostitution, kidnapping)Gated environment,culture of insecurity, cultureof resistance, discrimination,Fatalism, ghettoism/slumizationUrbanHuman BehaviorDeviancyBlasé attitudeProtectionism, elitism,solidarity/protestmovements, undergroundeconomyCommunalism, Fraternism,Familism, ecumenism,nepotismCooperation
22 Urbanization & Human Behavior? Way of lifeSociologyPsychologyEconomicsGeographyAnthropologyHistorySocialBehaviorSpatialBehaviorCulturalBehaviorUrban EcologyPoliticalEconomyAnthro ofPoverty/CitiesCulturalEvolutionCulturalgeographySocialPsychologySocialPsychologyCriticalHistoriographyPostmodernismUrbanizationGlobalization
23 Urbanization & Human Behavior? Which is which?Urban ecosystem[life] shapes/reshapes human behavior?Human behavior determines/shapes urban ecosystem[life]?