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**Power Series Definition of Power Series Convergence of Power Series**

Generating Function for Fibonacci Numbers Radius of Convergence Finding Power Series Using Power Series

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**Mika Seppälä: Power Series**

Definition A power series is a series of the type Here x is a variable. Substituting a numeric value x=x0 for the variable x one gets a regular series P(x0). If this regular series converges, then we say that the power series P(x) converges at the point x=x0. Example We conclude that the power series P(x) converges for all values of x, -1<x<1. The series diverges otherwise. Mika Seppälä: Power Series

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**Convergence of a Power Series**

Theorem Proof Mika Seppälä: Power Series

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**Convergence of a Power Series**

Remark Observation Mika Seppälä: Power Series

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**Power Series as Functions**

The Fibonacci Numbers Fn, n = 0,1,2,… are defined recursively by setting F0 = 0, F1 = 1 and Fn+1 = Fn + Fn-1. The sequence of Fibonacci numbers starts (0,1,1,2,3,5,8, …). Example In an exercise we have seen that the series P(x) converges for x=1/2. Historical Link: Leonardo Pisano aka Leonardo Fibonacci (c1175 – 1250) Mika Seppälä: Power Series

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**Generating Function for Fibonacci Numbers**

Example All these terms are 0 by the definition of the Fibonacci numbers. Definition The function P(x) is the generating function for Fibonacci numbers. Mika Seppälä: Power Series

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**Mika Seppälä: Power Series**

Radius of Convergence Definition The limit is the radius of convergence of the power series P(x) provided that the limit exists. The power series P(x) converges for |x|<R and diverges for |x|>R. At the points x=R and x=-R the series may converge or diverge. Mika Seppälä: Power Series

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**Mika Seppälä: Power Series**

Example Mika Seppälä: Power Series

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**Mika Seppälä: Power Series**

Finding Power Series Geometric Power Series The Geometric Power Series converges for |x| < 1 and diverges otherwise. Using power series representations for known functions one can derive power series respresentation for other functions by the following tricks: substitution, differentiation, integration. Within the interval of convergence, powers series can be differentiated and integrated term by term. Mika Seppälä: Power Series

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**Mika Seppälä: Power Series**

Examples 1 Solution 2 Solution Mika Seppälä: Power Series

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**Mika Seppälä: Power Series**

Examples 3 Solution To determine the constant of integration C, set x = 0 to get ln(1+0) = C Hence C = 0. Mika Seppälä: Power Series

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**Mika Seppälä: Power Series**

Examples 4 Solution Next integrate term by term. You can change the order of these operations. Mika Seppälä: Power Series

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**Mika Seppälä: Power Series**

Examples 4 Solution (cont’d) When approximating the sum of this alternating series by finite partial sums, the error is less than the absolute value of the first term left out. Direct computation yields (3k + 1)23k+1 = if k = 3. The value k = 3 corresponds to the fourth term of the above alternating series since summations starts from k = 0. Hence it suffices to compute the first three terms of the above alternating series for the integral in question. Mika Seppälä: Power Series

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1.1 Lesson – Evaluating Algebraic Expressions

1.1 Lesson – Evaluating Algebraic Expressions

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