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One Sky for Europe EUROCONTROL © 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) Aeronautical Communications Technologies Simulator.

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Presentation on theme: "One Sky for Europe EUROCONTROL © 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) Aeronautical Communications Technologies Simulator."— Presentation transcript:

1 One Sky for Europe EUROCONTROL © 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) Aeronautical Communications Technologies Simulator Bertrand Desperier - EEC Patrick Delhaise - Eurocontrol

2 One Sky for Europe EUROCONTROL © 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) Simulating the air/ground sub-network (i.e physical and data-link layers in OSI model) A modular architecture for re-using parts First development for VDL mode 2 Multi platform supported (currently PC under windows)OVERVIEW Adaptation and validation of key air/ground sub-network Prediction of system performance and capacity limits. Optimisation of parameters, standards function, and implementation aspects respecting operational requirements

3 One Sky for Europe EUROCONTROL © 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) Area to be studied Principle Communication Channels Station 1 Station 3 Station N Station 2 Capacity/ Reliability Analyser AIR TRAFFIC INPUT MSG INPUT -Random -Deterministic Frequency Time GS1 SYSTEM PARAMETERS GS2 GS3

4 One Sky for Europe EUROCONTROL © 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) Relative channels AC 1 AC 2 AC 3 1/3 1/2 2/ Each station perceives differently the common channel at a given time 1/2 1/3 t(AC 3) Absolute time t(AC 2) t(AC 1) Level

5 One Sky for Europe EUROCONTROL © 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) CHANNEL FILTER STATION (AC or GS) SYSTEM Generic Architecture Channel Upper layers Messages Air traffic System parameters Relative channel information

6 One Sky for Europe EUROCONTROL © 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) Upper layers Messages Air traffic Analyse Capacity reliability Average delay... CHANNEL FILTER STATION (AC or GS) System parameters Channel Monitor Relative position calculator Propagation model Power Delay Data Rx Transmitter Data Link SYSTEM Generic Architecture Receiver Channel

7 One Sky for Europe EUROCONTROL © 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) Inputs Air traffic For each station (airborne and ground) 3-D positions in a given area Can be extracted from any air traffic simulator (RAMS, TAAM, SAAM…) or radar plots record Messages profiles Messages transmission rate distribution Message length distribution Messages exchange based on events System parameters Propagation model (several accuracy levels) Physical layer Medium access control layer Data-link layer

8 One Sky for Europe EUROCONTROL © 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) Application of Certification tests for single station Theoretical models-comparison for the whole sub-network (Mathematical checks for simple cases) Field trials Cross check with other simulators Initial operation feedback Validation achieved Other ACTS application areas Other VDL modes (3,4) 1090 E.S. UAT 3G systems Satellites systems ……………………..

9 One Sky for Europe EUROCONTROL © 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) VDL Mode 2-ACTS VDL Mode 2-ACTS

10 One Sky for Europe EUROCONTROL © 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) ACARS Ground-Stations ACARS applications in a Management Unit, CMU or ATSU Analogic VHF radio or VDR running in ACARS mode Current ACARS configuration ACARS applications ACARS network ACARS, VDL 2, AOA, ATN, ACARS, VDL 2, AOA, ATN,... ATN New CNS/ATM applications VDL 2 Ground-Stations Unchanged ACARS applications AVLC VDR running VDL mode2 CMU/ ATSU D8PSK Tx/Rx CSMA AOA phase VDL 2 AOA data path Unchanged New CNS/ATM applications ATN Router 8208 ATN phase

11 One Sky for Europe EUROCONTROL © 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) VDL2 Simulation Objectives Accurate evaluation of capacity and performance of any VDL2 channel: Net Throughput Vs Channel load Collisions rate, retransmission rate Transmission delays Identifying the critical aspects: The impact of the hidden and the exposed stations The ground-station density as providers currently plan Critical capacity environment (airport or en-route domains...? ) Best frequency scenarios for current and future ( ) air traffic demands both supporting ATS and AOC needs

12 One Sky for Europe EUROCONTROL © 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) Optimising the VDL Mode 2 MAC sub-layer (CSMA) and data-link layer (AVLC) parameters : CSMA persistence (p) Different timers values (e.g M1, TM1, T1) Evaluating the possible benefit of improvements to VDL Mode 2 standard: among others evaluating the impact of Different p-values given to avionics (static or dynamic value), ground- stations (en-route) and ground-stations (at airport). Hand-off mechanism (SQP scale, HO criteria) VDL2 Simulation Objectives Giving input for future real time ATC simulations including data-link : To evaluate impact on operations of Transmission delays Lost messages

13 One Sky for Europe EUROCONTROL © 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) Accurate Propagation delay (1m- precision) VHF propagation model including large scale fading D8PSK behaviour => BER calculation Reed Solomon FEC-function, and related Frame error rate VDL2 specific p-persistent CSMA Mac layer mechanism Hidden/Exposed terminal effects AVLC Data link layer aspects including hand-off Dynamic Air traffic and tuneable Ground stations location AOC and ATS Traffic Messages distribution in time AOC and ATS message sizes distribution ACTS VDL2 Capabilities Standards: SARPS - VDL2 Technical Manual MOPS ARINC 618-5, MASPS RTCA/DO-224 A

14 One Sky for Europe EUROCONTROL © 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) Sept 02 High Level Simulation Requirements Oct/Nov 02 Architecture Jan 03 First Software release including VDL2 physical and MAC layer Feb 03 AVLC implementation March 03 First Simulation Inputs Scenarios definition March-December 03 Theoretical and cross check validation June 03 Discussion of initial results with AEEC, SITA and ARINC Nov 03 Definition of second set of simulations Jan- June 04 Presentation of results and contributions (in AEEC, ICAO WGM, with manufacturers, airlines, standard bodies…) Main Milestones

15 One Sky for Europe EUROCONTROL © 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) Technical aspects ACTS VDL Mode 2

16 One Sky for Europe EUROCONTROL © 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) Time sampling The simulator is not real time => Time has to be sampled. However, the simulator is triggered on events Time sampling frequency is critical for the simulation accuracy: eg : with Fs = 300 MHz (period of 33 ns) =>Position accuracy = 1m

17 One Sky for Europe EUROCONTROL © 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) Hidden and exposed terminal GS 2 GS 1 Hidden terminal can create collisions on the uplink Exposed terminal can delay the downlink messages Cases to be considered RH AC1 RH GS1 Area to be studied RH AC1 Interfering Area GS1 and GS2 can not see each other, Aircraft sees both GS

18 One Sky for Europe EUROCONTROL © 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) VHF Propagation Models Free space propagation model commonly used by other simulators Large scale fading (2 rays model vertical polarisation) which have been validated by STNA Free Space Large scale

19 One Sky for Europe EUROCONTROL © 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) Receiving process Reception success rate can be derived from the transmitter/ receiver relative position Propagation model P Received power No Modulation Scheme BER Tx and Rx filter loss SNR process Receiver N0 Collided Frames power SNR Rx filter width Correcting Code Frame length FER Success /Failure Random Relative Tx/Rx positions Out of LOS ?

20 One Sky for Europe EUROCONTROL © 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) Message collision process For collision, worst cases are always considered: Frames involved in collision are considered as additional WGN => BER and FER are then computed as previously with the specific noise level

21 One Sky for Europe EUROCONTROL © 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) List of system parameters Propagation model Model in use ground type Physical parameters Transmission power Antenna gain Cable loss VSWRPossibility to define range for these values Noise figure Filter width Channel frequency Mac sub-layer (CSMA) Stations persistence TM1 : timer between two attempts M1 TM2 AVLC AVLC (VME, DLS) timers Number of retransmission Hands off algorithm

22 One Sky for Europe EUROCONTROL © 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) INPUTS Collection Process High- Level ECTL Analysis and Statistics LINK ECTL CFMU Flight DB Traffic Simulator Replay ACTS ARINCSITA

23 One Sky for Europe EUROCONTROL © 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) Air Traffic input TimeIDLatLongAltStatus 04:40:18 TYR413D ON TAXI TO GATE 04:40:18 TYR531L ON APPROACH 04:40:18 TYR541G ON TAXI TO GATE 04:40:21 TYR413D ON TAXI TO GATE 04:40:21 TYR531L ON APPROACH 04:40:21 TYR541G ON TAXI TO GATE 04:40:24 TYR413D ON TAXI TO The first step shall consist in using an Air traffic simulator log file. The second step shall be to run an external library using CFMU flight plan as an input and able to give at any time any flight information. RAMS will provide such tool. For more accurate simulations other information about aircraft behaviour, such as pitch, roll… could be integrated to achieve a more realistic link budget.

24 One Sky for Europe EUROCONTROL © 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) Formal co-operation with ARINC and SITA is setup to provide under NDA typical AOC traffic message profiles for airlines flying in Europe. 4 classes of airlines in terms of data-link usage: Class 0No data-link Class SSmall Class MMedium Class LLarge Both deterministic and stochastic message distribution : The number of exchanged messages depends on : The airline The flight phase (random distribution into the Flight Phase) AOC Message profiles

25 One Sky for Europe EUROCONTROL © 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) 4 classes of data-link users : Class 0No data-link Class SSmall Class MMedium Class LLarge AOC Messages profile A message size distribution is also implemented for uplink and downlink, it depends on the airline class.

26 One Sky for Europe EUROCONTROL © 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) ATS- Link Applications CM Application Service DLIC (Datalink initiation Capability) CPDLC Application Service ACM (ATC communication management) ACL (ATC clearance) AMC (ATC Microphone check) DCL (Departure clearance) DSC (Downstream clearance) DFIS Application Service D-ATIS ADS Application Service FLIPCY (Flight plan consistency) Transactions per flight 1 DLIC / FIR (ATSU) 1 FLIPCY / FIR (ATSU) 1 D-ATIS / Departure airport 1 D-ATIS / Departure TMA 1 D-ATIS / Arrival TMA 1 D-ATIS / Arrival airport 1 DCL / Departure airport 1 ACM / ATSU sector 5 ACL (3U,2D) / Departure TMA 16 ACL (1-2 per ATSU) in En-Route 10 ACL (6U,4D) / Arrival TMA 1DSC / En-Route 1 AMC / Sector

27 One Sky for Europe EUROCONTROL © 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) Simulator Output (per station) Transmitter Number of INF transmission request Number of INF transmitted % Re-transmission 0, 1, 2 …N 2 Average and maximum CSMA delay % of TM2 occurrence Receiver Number of received INF Transmission delay (Average, maximum) (CSMA, propagation) in s Round trip delay in s % of msg out of delay (depending on the application) % of successfully acknowledged transmitted messages Application related statistics: %CPDLC within allowed round trip delay % CAP within allowed one way delay Others statistics: % of lost frames : % collision + % low SNR Hands off successes and failure Log on delay

28 One Sky for Europe EUROCONTROL © 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) Average and maximum uplink and downlink transmission delay Average and maximum uplink, downlink round trip delay Real channel load (for each GS point of view) (in % of time) Net Throughput :with regards to INF0 frames (in kbits/s) User data rate (without layers overhead) (in kbit/s) Uplink and downlink success rate Hands off success rate Simulator Output ( common to all stations )

29 One Sky for Europe EUROCONTROL © 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) 2 main scenarios based on a critical sector : CDG-airport, Paris The air traffic will be the peak hour of the peak day of 2002 (30 August) 2005 Single VDL 2 channel across Europe GS deployment as shown on map All AOC traffic assumed migrated to VDL Stepwise, from 2 possibly up to 4 frequencies GS configuration as shown on map Increased AOC traffic, all ATS/Link2000 applications considered Aircraft equipment rate according to EUROCONTROL STATFOR inputsScenarios

30 One Sky for Europe EUROCONTROL © 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) Sita VDL2 Ground stations in 2005 Area to be studied Interfering area

31 One Sky for Europe EUROCONTROL © 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) For further information please contact : Bertrand DESPERIER EEC / Brétigny CNS Tel Fax Patrick DELHAISE EUROCONTROL DAS/CSM Tel Fax


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