Presentation on theme: "The International Panel for Sustainable Resource Management"— Presentation transcript:
1 The International Panel for Sustainable Resource Management Janet SalemUnited Nations Environment ProgrammeDivision of Technology, Industry and Economics
2 Resources...?volume: Conceptual computer artwork of the total volume of water on Earth (left) and of air in the Earth’s atmosphere (right) shown as spheres (blue and pink).The water sphere measures 1390 kilometers across and has a volume of 1.4 billion cubic kilometers. This includes all the water in the oceans, seas, ice caps, lakes and rivers as well as ground water, and that in the atmosphere.The air sphere measures 1999 kilometers across and weighs 5140 trillion tonnes. As the atmosphere extends from Earth it becomes less dense. Half of the air lies within the first 5 kilometres of the atmosphere. Image by Dr Adam Nieman.
3 Global policy agenda evolving Environment in political agendaAir pollutionWater pollutionOzone DepletionWaste managementClimate ChangeBiodiversity…ResourcesMoving from:Local to globalEnd-of-pipe to start-of-pipeStraight forward to complexIncreasing attention to social and economic considerationsTime
4 Global policy agendaCommission for Sustainable Development (CSD) 2002: World Summit for Sustainable DevelopmentResource use contributing to MDGsDelinking economic growth and environmental degradation through improving efficiency and sustainability in use of resources and production processes and reducing resource degradation, pollution and waste.: CSD cycleFocusing on SCP, Waste, Chemicals, Mining, Transport2012: Rio+20Focusing on a ‘New development paradigm’ based on low carbon and resilient economies, Poverty eradication and Sustainable consumption and production.European Commission Resources StrategyUNEP Resource Efficiency identified as a priorityOther: G8 Environment Ministers (Kobe Action Plan on Resource Productivity), OECD (Sustainable Materials Management)
5 Science for policy?Climate change – IPCCBiodiversity – Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, now the International Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem ServicesHazardous substances – Basel ConventionOzone – Montreal Protocol’s scientific assessmentsAnd many others……but no international assessments to support decision making on resources.
6 Objectives Terms of Reference: To provide independent, coherent and authoritative scientific assessments of policy relevance on the sustainable use of natural resources and in particular their environmental impacts over the full life cycle;To contribute to a better understanding of how to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation.In short: To give decision-makers the information they need to respond to resource challenges
7 Background What are we talking about? Understanding how to decouple environmental impacts and resource use from economic growth…… while avoiding burden shifting between countries, generations, and trade-offs between impact categories and life cycle stages.Resource useEconomic activityEnvironmental impactsQuality of the environmentTime
8 Fundamental concepts - DPSIR Decoupling means breaking the links between (1) economic growth and (2) resource and environmental pressures and impacts and associated impactsDecoupling responses target the drivers of impacts and resource use, while maintaining economic growth and welfare.
9 Key issuesResources are important to many aspects of development: economic growth, poverty reduction, environmental impacts.We need a better understanding on many issues related to resources:More thought is needed about what this means for developed, emerging and developing countries.Policy making needs a sophisticated approach that considers burden-shifting and trade-offs.What are the economic impacts of resource policies?How do trade issues, resource rights and poverty reduction come into the picture?
10 International network of experts How it worksUNEP SecretariatDirection, procedures, outreachResource PanelInternationally recognized experts on sustainable resource managementScientific assessments and advice, networksDecouplingMetalsLand / SoilWaterImpactsBiofuelsOthersSteering CommitteeGovernments and civil Society OrganizationsStrategic guidance, political support, regional synergiesCross-cutting topicsSectoral entry pointsAssessments launched!International network of experts
11 Working Groups Assessing biofuels Scientific understanding of decoupling and resource productivityObjective: To provide a scientific understanding of decoupling and resource productivity and related policies and methodologies.The environmental impacts of products and materialsObjective: To provide authoritative, coherent, policy relevant assessments on which product groups and materials are most responsible for environmental impacts and resource scarcity and options for decreasing their impacts.Assessing biofuelsObjective: To improve the analytical basis for decision making towards sustainable production and use of biomass for energy purposes ("biofuels"), at the international, regional and national level.Global metals flowsObjective: To contribute to the promotion of reuse and recycling activities of metals and the establishment of the international sound material-cycle society by providing scientific and authoritative assessment studies on the global flows of metals.Water EfficiencyObjective: To improve the analytical basis for decision making on efficient utilization of water.
13 How it works Meet the Steering Committee: Government: Canada, China, Chile, EC, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Russia, South Africa, Switzerland, Tanzania and USA, OECDCivil Society Organisations: ICSU, IUCN, and WBCSDObservers: UK
14 Three reports have been released on the more urgent questions of policy makers. Ten further reports under development.
15 The metals challenge Metals are essential for economic development Base metals like steel and aluminum, mainly for buildings and infrastructurePrecious and specialty metals, like palladium and indium for modern/clean technologiesGlobal demand for metals is increasingE.g. copper and aluminum have doubled in the past 2 decadesRising demand in emerging economies and developing countriesVery strong demand growth for many precious and specialty ('technology') metalsThe increasing global demand for metals causes many problems and challengesIncreasing environmental pressures from extraction and manufacturing of raw materialsGrowing dependence on regional or economic concentrations of natural resourcesIncreasing risks of international crisis (e.g. war lord activities in parts of Africa)Social tensions among local populations (land owner issues etc.)
16 UNEP’s Global Metals Flows Group Promoting the recycling of metalsand a “circular economy”Work on a series of sixassessment reportsReport 1: Metal Stocks in Society (published now)Report 2: Recycling Rates (will be published in 2011.; first results presented today)Report 3: Environmental Impacts of MetalsReport 4: Geological Metal StocksReport 5: Future Demand Scenarios of MetalsReport 6: Critical Metals and Metals Policy Options
17 Metal stocks in society The metals stocks in society are increasing worldwideIn-use stock of copper has grown in the US from 73 to 238 kg per capita ( )The world average is 50 kg copper per capita (2000)In-use stock of steel in China is 1.5 tons (2004) per capita, but in the USA it is tons per capita (2004)If the whole world would copy the industrialized countries the global in-use metal stocks would be 3 to 9 times present levelsFor many technology metals, like indium and rhodium, more than 80% extracted from natural resources was in the past 3 decadesThere is a substantial shift in metals stocks from below ground to above groundThese “mines above ground” have growing potential for future metals supplyE.g. average lifetime of copper in buildings is 25 to 40 years, but for metals in cell phones and PCs it less than 5 years
18 The relevance of recycling Enhanced recycling of metals from in-use stocks is a key solution for SDThe production of metals from secondary raw materials reduces environmental impacts compared to primary metals productionHigh energy savings and reductions of greenhouse gas emissionsSecondary steel causes 75% less GHG emissions compared to primary steelGHG emissions of secondary aluminum production are about 12 times lower than of primary aluminum productionRecycling reduces the pressure on biodiversity, water resources etc.Recycling of metals moderates dependencies on natural resources, which are often concentrated in insecure regionsRecycling ensures sustainable access to potentially scarce metalsRecycling creates new jobs and income all over the world
19 Recycling rates of metals Investigation of 62 different metalsThe metals are grouped into four categories9 ferrous metals: iron, manganese, nickel, chromium etc.8 non-ferrous metals: aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, tin, magnesium etc.8 precious metals: gold, silver, platinum, palladium, rhodium etc.37 specialty metals: indium, gallium, lithium, tantalum, rare earth metals, tellurium etc.The most important metric is the end-of-life recycling rateA high end-of-life recycling rate for a metal indicates a high efficiency of the related post -consumer recycling systemOnly a few metals, like iron and platinum, currently have an end-of-life recycling rate of above 50%
21 Recycling rates of steel The most widely-used metal – construction, infrastructure, vehicles, etc.Current global production counts on 1.3 billion tons steel per year, which causes billion tons of greenhouse gas emissions (4-5% of total man-made emissions)Often used in very large pieces (steel beams, auto bodies), which makes recycling more probableRecycled iron requires only about 25% of the energy needed to produce virgin ironEstimated 2009 end-of-life recycling rate: >50% (varies among countries and iron-containing products)An additional substitution of just 100 million tons of primary steel by secondary steel has a GHG reduction potential of about 150 million tons CO2
22 Non-ferrous metals: copper example Courtesy of International Copper Association
23 Recycling rates of copper Common uses: power distribution, electrical wiring, plumbingUsually used in pure form and in rather large pieces, which makes recycling more probable (exception: electric and electronic devices)Increasing demand for infrastructure and innovative technologies , like electric vehiclesIncreasing small-scale applications in which copper is embedded in a complex matrix: cell phones, DVD players, electronic toys etc.Estimated 2009 end-of-life recycling rate: 25-50% (varies among countries and copper-containing products)Lack of adequate recycling infrastructure for WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) in most parts of the world causes total losses of copper and other valuable metals like gold, silver, palladium, tin etc.
25 Recycling rates of palladium Current global mine production about 220 tons/year; high regional concentrationMain applications are automotive catalysts (> 60%) and electronics (> 16%); further applications industrial catalysts, dental, jewelleryCurrent end-of-life recycling rate 60-70% (global average)Excellent rates for industrial applications: 80-90%Moderate rates for automotive applications: 50-55%Poor rates for electronic applications: 5-10%Increasing problems due to lack of recycling infrastructure for consumer goodsLess than 10% of post-consumer cell phones are recycled in an appropriate wayThe main problems are insufficient collection and pre-treatment schemes in the most countries of the world
26 Specialty metals: indium example telluriumCourtesy of Umicore Precious Metals Refining
27 Recycling rates of indium Strategic metal used for LCD glass, lead-free solders, semiconductors/LED, photovoltaic etc.Strong growth in gross demand is predicted for indium: from ca. 1,200 tons (2010) to ca. 2,600 tons (2020)Specialty metals like indium are crucial for future sustainable technologies like PV, battery technologies, catalysts, efficient lighting systems etc.The supply of indium from natural resources is crucial: so-called minor metal, which occurs just as a by-product (mainly zinc ores) in low concentrationsThe current end-of -life recycling rate of indium is below 1% like for the most other specialty metals: urgent progress is necessary to enhance their recycling
28 Critical metals for clean technologies - examples Tellurium, selenium for high efficiency solar cellsNeodymium and dysprosium for wind turbine magnetsLanthanum and cobalt for hybrid vehicle batteriesTerbium and indium for advanced metal imagingGallium for LEDPlatinum for automotive catalysts and fuel cellsThese and other critical metals become essentially unavailable for use in modern technology without enhanced end-of-life recycling rates in the future!
29 Conclusions Metal stocks in society are increasing continuously These “mines above ground” could contribute to decoupling of resource use from economic growth by efficient recyclingUNEP’s work on metals has shown just moderate or even poor end-of-life recycling rates for many metalsOnly for a limited number of metals, like iron/steel, palladium and platinum , could rates above 50% be statedMany metals show rates below 25%, or even below 1% (for many specialty metals)Serious data gaps on stocks in society and recycling rates have to be closedEnhanced recycling rates could help to reduce environmental pressures (GHG emissions, water and land consumption, waste, pressure on biodiversity), and it is crucial to secure sustainable supply of critical metalsImproved recycling schemes will give many people new jobs and a living
30 Thank you for your attention. For more information: resorucepanel@unep Thank you for your attention. For more information:
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