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EXPLORATION OF NEW MINERAL RESOURCES – THE ROLE OF GEOLOGICAL MAPPING, GEOCHEMISTRY, GEOPHYSICS AND NATIONAL GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS Earth Sciences for Namibias.

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Presentation on theme: "EXPLORATION OF NEW MINERAL RESOURCES – THE ROLE OF GEOLOGICAL MAPPING, GEOCHEMISTRY, GEOPHYSICS AND NATIONAL GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS Earth Sciences for Namibias."— Presentation transcript:

1 EXPLORATION OF NEW MINERAL RESOURCES – THE ROLE OF GEOLOGICAL MAPPING, GEOCHEMISTRY, GEOPHYSICS AND NATIONAL GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS Earth Sciences for Namibias Sustainable Development G SCHNEIDER by A member of the Organisation of African Geological Surveys

2 Earth Sciences for Namibias Sustainable Development A member of the Organisation of African Geological Surveys THE NAMIBIAN COMMODITIES Diamonds and semi-precious stones semi-precious stones Uranium and fossil fuels Base metals Rare metals Precious metals Industrial minerals Dimension stone Industrial rocks

3 Earth Sciences for Namibias Sustainable Development A member of the Organisation of African Geological Surveys THE IMPORTANCE OF MINING FOR THE NAMIBIAN ECONOMY 17 % GDP 11 % Taxes 50 % Export-earnings Diamonds: 6 % of world production (value) 95-98% Gemstone quality But: 2009 uranium > diamonds Royalties: 5% on unprocessed dimension stone 10% on rough diamonds 1% - 5% on all other commodities

4 Earth Sciences for Namibias Sustainable Development A member of the Organisation of African Geological Surveys CURRENT NAMIBIAN LICENSES

5 Earth Sciences for Namibias Sustainable Development A member of the Organisation of African Geological Surveys The Ministry of Mines and Energy promotes exploration and mining through the services of a vibrant Geological Survey and the Directorate of Minings efficient administration of modern mining legislation. PROMOTION OF MINERAL POTENTIAL Centrally located in Windhoek, it houses information about some 100 years of exploration in Namibia, as well as modern geological, geophysical and geochemical data; and provides licensing services.

6 Earth Sciences for Namibias Sustainable Development A member of the Organisation of African Geological Surveys Source: OAGS survey. 20 countries Core

7 Earth Sciences for Namibias Sustainable Development A member of the Organisation of African Geological Surveys Investors and decision makers need access to geo- scientific data Comprehensive Comprehensive Easy to use Easy to use Logically represented, well structured Logically represented, well structured Digital Digital The Geological Survey of Namibia has embarked on several initiatives: Digital geological mapping Digital geological mapping Development of laboratories Development of laboratories Regional geochemical sampling programme Regional geochemical sampling programme Historical data archive Historical data archive Airborne geophysical survey programme Airborne geophysical survey programme

8 Earth Sciences for Namibias Sustainable Development A member of the Organisation of African Geological Surveys DIAMONDS

9 Earth Sciences for Namibias Sustainable Development A member of the Organisation of African Geological Surveys MANAGEMENT OF MINING AND DRILLING ACTIVITIES Regional Consultation Framework Policy Harmonization Cumulative Impact Assessment MANAGEMENT OF POLLUTION Harmonizing environmental quality objectives Oil pollution contingency plans and regional policy MAINTAINANCE OF ECOSYSTEM HEALTH + PROTECTION OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY PROTECTION OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY Vulnerable species and habitats Ballast water policy Marine biological diversity conservation BENGUELA CURRENT COMMISSION

10 Earth Sciences for Namibias Sustainable Development A member of the Organisation of African Geological Surveys HIGH-RESOLUTION AIRBORNE GEOPHYSICS Millions Line km flownData Sales [N$] Exploration Expenditure [Mio $]Licenses active before

11 Earth Sciences for Namibias Sustainable Development A member of the Organisation of African Geological Surveys HIGH RESOLUTION AIRBORNE GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY PROGRAMME IMPACT

12 Earth Sciences for Namibias Sustainable Development A member of the Organisation of African Geological Surveys URANIUM AND GEOPHYSICS Rössing South – one of the most significant discoveries in decades Highest grade uranium deposit in the World Resources of 267 million 488 ppm U 3 O 8 Planned commissioning million lbs/a U 3 O 8

13 Earth Sciences for Namibias Sustainable Development A member of the Organisation of African Geological Surveys URANIUM AND GEOPHYSICS

14 Earth Sciences for Namibias Sustainable Development A member of the Organisation of African Geological Surveys STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESS- MENT OF THE NAMIB URANIUM RUSH There was a clear need to establish comprehensive Environmental Baseline data to underpin environmental assessments (EIAs), contribute to EMPs and to the over-all process of progressing with exploration and potential mining license applications in a National Park. There was also an urgent need for a a process of systematic analysis of environmental impacts which extends the aims and principles of EIA upstream in the decision making process, beyond the project level and when major alternatives are still open (SEA definition according to UNDP, 2002) and a Land use Strategy of all areas affected by uranium mining, and in particular in the Namib Naukluft Park.

15 Earth Sciences for Namibias Sustainable Development A member of the Organisation of African Geological Surveys Key objectives of the Stragtegic Environmental Assessment Analyse environmental, economic and social impacts of uranium exploration and mining, and assess cumulative, synergistic and exploration and mining, and assess cumulative, synergistic and antagonistic aspects antagonistic aspects Formulate development options to avoid or minimize negative impacts and to enhance positive impacts impacts and to enhance positive impacts Provide recommendations in the form of Strategic Management Plans (which indicate actions, responsible actors + timeframes) for Plans (which indicate actions, responsible actors + timeframes) for sustainable development and trigger their implementation. sustainable development and trigger their implementation. Assessment of cumulative, synergistic + antagonistic aspects Practical issues Public concerns Opportunities + threats Constraints The way forward

16 Earth Sciences for Namibias Sustainable Development A member of the Organisation of African Geological Surveys Rare Earth Elements Mapping Geochemical analysis Hyper-spectral survey Research into the genesis of carbonatites of carbonatites

17 Earth Sciences for Namibias Sustainable Development A member of the Organisation of African Geological Surveys SMALL SCALE MINING Taylor-made assistance Interpretation of geological data Alternative resources TrainingValue-addingMarketing

18 Earth Sciences for Namibias Sustainable Development A member of the Organisation of African Geological Surveys RECOMMENDATIONS Geology underlies everything Developed countries have a good geological data base The first geological map was published in England in 17.. and triggered the industrial revolution triggered the industrial revolution Developing countries need strong Geological Surveys Developing countries need strong Geological Surveys Geo-scientists need better recognition and must be involved in decision making processes decision making processes Good investment (funding) for Geological Surveys will be returned manyfold in the form of mineral investment, reduction returned manyfold in the form of mineral investment, reduction of opportunity costs and improved environmental economics of opportunity costs and improved environmental economics Quality high-resolution airborne geophysical data are essential Environmental; research is a pre-requisite for sustainability Support to Small Scale Mining is an ideal tool to broaden the benefit derifed from a countrys mineral endowment benefit derifed from a countrys mineral endowment Geo-data must be accessable and available at resonable prices We only have one planet, use Geo-scientists to manage it to the best advantage of mankind best advantage of mankind

19 Earth Sciences for Namibias Sustainable Development A member of the Organisation of African Geological Surveys THANK YOU!


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