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Creating, Protecting, and Using Crop Biotechnologies Worldwide in an Era of Intellectual Property Philip G Pardey Professor of Science and Technology Policy.

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Presentation on theme: "Creating, Protecting, and Using Crop Biotechnologies Worldwide in an Era of Intellectual Property Philip G Pardey Professor of Science and Technology Policy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Creating, Protecting, and Using Crop Biotechnologies Worldwide in an Era of Intellectual Property Philip G Pardey Professor of Science and Technology Policy Department of Applied Economics WIPO-UPOV Symposium, Geneva, October 24, 2003

2 Location of Agricultural R&D Public and Private Ag. R&D, 1995 Bioengineered Crop Trials $33.2 billion 11, 523 trials Developed 64% Developing 36%

3 U.S. Bioengineered Crop Trial Permits

4 Plant Breeders Rights Applications Worldwide Total = 1,582 Total = 42,323

5 US PVP Applicants Data from 1971 to end of 2002

6 Biotechnology Patent Applications

7 Freedom to Operate and LDC Research Increasing number and breadth of IPRs Concerns of a lock out phenomenon Extent of exclusionary rights determined by Jurisdictional limitations on IP and the location of R&D Bilateral South-North trade patterns

8 Area Shares of Modern Varieties of Rice, Wheat, and Maize

9 Area Sown to Bioengineered Crops Worldwide

10 Bioengineered Cropping IntensitiesU.S vs Rest-of-World, 2002

11 Changing Rich Country Roles? Segmenting crop biotechnology demands Less applicable technologies for LDCs? Implications of increased private participation Beyond basic adaptive research Increasing pressures for LDC self reliance?

12 End of talk

13 IP Economics Appropriability and the incentive to invent The social contract Circumscribed exclusionary rights for public disclosure Static costs of patents Transitory– for the life of the patent Cumulative innovation processes and dynamic costs

14 Total Agricultural R&D Worldwide, 1995 Developing Total - $33.2 billion Developed $11.5 billion $10.8 billion $0.7 billion $10.2 billion PublicPrivateTotal (percentage) Developed Countries Developing Countries53636 Total100 Public Private Public Private

15 Field Trials of Bioengineered Crops Worldwide Data through to December 2000

16 Plant Breeders Rights Applications Worldwide

17 Plant Breeders Rights Applications, U.S. vs Europe


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