Presentation on theme: "Numerical Weather Prediction Parametrization of Diabatic Processes Clouds (1) Cloud Microphysics Richard Forbes and Adrian Tompkins"— Presentation transcript:
Numerical Weather Prediction Parametrization of Diabatic Processes Clouds (1) Cloud Microphysics Richard Forbes and Adrian Tompkins
3 Outline LECTURE 1: Cloud Microphysics 1.Overview of GCM cloud parametrization issues 2.Microphysical processes 2.1 Warm phase 2.2 Cold phase 3.Summary LECTURE 2: Cloud Cover in GCMs LECTURE 3: The ECMWF Cloud Scheme LECTURE 4: Validation of Cloud Schemes
4 1. Overview of GCM Cloud Parametrization Issues
5 1. Water Cycle 2. Radiative Impacts 3. Dynamical Impacts The Importance of Clouds
6 Clouds in GCMs - What are the problems ? convection Clouds are the result of complex interactions between a large number of processes radiation turbulence dynamics microphysics
7 Clouds in GCMs - What are the problems ? Many of these processes are only poorly understood - For example, the interaction with radiation Cloud-radiation interaction Cloud macrophysicsCloud microphysicsExternal influence Cloud fraction and overlap Cloud top and base height Amount of condensate In-cloud conden- sate distribution Phase of condensate Cloud particle size Cloud particle shape Cloud environment
Cloud Parametrization Issues: Which quantities to represent ? Cloud water droplets Rain drops Pristine ice crystals Aggregate snow flakes Graupel pellets Hailstones 9 Note for ice phase particles: Additional latent heat. Terminal fall speed of ice hydrometeors significantly less (lower density). Optical properties are different (important for radiation).
10 Cloud Parametrization Issues: Complexity ? Ice mass Ice number Small ice Medium ice Large ice Most GCMs only have simple single-moment schemes Ice Mass Liquid Mass Cloud Mass Complexity Single Moment Schemes Double Moment Schemes Spectral/Bin Microphysics
11 Cloud Parametrization Issues: Diagnostic or prognostic variables ? Cloud condensate mass (cloud water and/or ice), q l. Diagnostic approach Prognostic approach CAN HAVE MIXTURE OF APPROACHES Advection + sedimentation Sources Sinks
13 Microphysics - a complex GCM scheme Fowler et al., JCL, 1996 Similar complexity to many schemes in use in CRMs
14 2. Microphysical Processes
15 Cloud microphysical processes We would like to include into our models: –Formation of clouds –Release of precipitation –Evaporation of both clouds and precipitation Therefore we need to describe –Nucleation of water droplets and ice crystals from water vapour –Diffusional growth of cloud droplets (condensation) and ice crystals (deposition) –Collection processes for cloud drops (collision-coalescence), ice crystals (aggregation) and ice and liquid (riming) leading precipitation sized particles –The advection and sedimentation (falling) of particles –the evaporation/sublimation/melting of cloud and precipitation size particles
16 Microphysics: A complex system! Overview of (1)Warm Phase Microphysics T > 273K (2)Mixed Phase Microphysics ~250K < T < 273K (3)Pure ice Microphysics T < ~250K
17 2. Microphysical Processes 2.1 Warm Phase
18 Droplet Classification
19 Nucleation of cloud droplets: Important effects for particle activation Planar surface: Equilibrium when e=e s and number of molecules impinging on surface equals rate of evaporation Curved surface: saturation vapour pressure increases with smaller drop size since surface molecules have fewer binding neighbours. Surface molecule has fewer neighbours
20 Nucleation of cloud droplets: Homogeneous Nucleation Drop of pure water forms from vapour Small drops require much higher super saturations Kelvins formula for critical radius for initial droplet to survive Strongly dependent on supersaturation Would require several hundred percent supersaturation (not observed in the atmosphere).
21 Nucleation of cloud droplets: Heterogeneous Nucleation Collection of water molecules on a foreign substance, RH > ~80% (Haze particles) These (hydrophilic) soluble particles are called Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) CCN always present in sufficient numbers in lower and middle troposphere Nucleation of droplets (i.e. from stable haze particle to unstable regime of diffusive growth) at very small supersaturations.
22 Nucleation of cloud droplets: Important effects for particle activation Planar surface: Equilibrium when e=e s and number of molecules impinging on surface equals rate of evaporation Curved surface: saturation vapour pressure increases with smaller drop size since surface molecules have fewer binding neighbours. Effect proportional to 1/r (curvature effect) Presence of dissolved substance: saturation vapour pressure reduces with smaller drop size due to solute molecules replacing solvent on drop surface (assuming e sollute
23 Nucleation of cloud droplets: Heterogeneous Nucleation Curvature term Small drop – high radius of curvature easier for molecule to escape Solution term Reduction in vapour pressure due to dissolved substance e/e s equilibrium Haze particle in equilibrium
24 Diffusional growth of cloud water droplets For r > 1 m and neglecting diffusion of heat D=Diffusion coefficient, S=Supersaturation Note inverse radius dependency Once droplet is activated, water vapour diffuses towards it = condensation Reverse process = evaporation Droplets that are formed by diffusion growth attain a typical size of 0.1 to 10 m Rain drops are much larger -drizzle: 50 to 100 m -rain: >100 m Other processes must also act in precipitating clouds
25 Collection Collision-coalescence of water drops Drops of different size move with different fall speeds - collision and coalescence Large drops grow at the expense of small droplets Collection efficiency low for small drops Process depends on width of droplet spectrum and is more efficient for broader spectra – paradox Large drops can only be produced in clouds of large vertical extent – Aided by turbulence (differential evaporation), giant CCNs ? Rain drop shape Chuang and Beard (1990)
26 Parameterizing nucleation and droplet growth Nucleation: Since Activation occurs at supersaturations less than 1%, most schemes assumes all supersaturation is immediately removed as liquid water Note that this assumption means that models can just use one prognostic equation for the total water mass, the sum of vapour and liquid Usually, the growth equation is not explicitly solved, and in single-moment schemes simple (diagnostic) assumptions are made concerning the droplet number concentration when needed (e.g. radiation). These often assume more CCN in polluted air over land.
27 Microphysics - ECMWF Seminar on Parametrization 1-4 Sep Microphysical Parametrization Autoconversion of cloud drops to raindrops qlql q l crit GpGp qlql GpGp Linear function of ql (Kessler, 1969) Function of ql with additional term to avoid singular threshold and non- local precipitation term (Sundqvist 1978) Or, for example, for a more complex double-moment parametrization (Seifert and Beheng,2001), derived directly from the stochastic collection equation. Kessler Sundqvist
28 Heterogeneous Nucleation RH>78% (Haze) Schematic of Warm Rain Processes CCN ~10 microns RH>100.6%ActivationDiffusionalGrowth Different fall speeds Coalescence
33 Ice Nucleation Droplets do not freeze at 0 o C ! Ice nucleation processes can also be split into Homogeneous and Heterogeneous processes, but complex and not well understood. Homogeneous freezing of water droplets occurs below about -38 o C, Homogeneous nucleation of ice crystals dependent on a critical relative humidity (fn of T, Koop et al. 2000). Frequent observation of ice between 0 o C and colder temperatures indicates heterogeneous processes active. Number of activated ice nuclei increases with decreasing temperature. Fletcher 1962 Observations: –< -20 o C Ice free clouds are rare – > -5 o C ice is unlikely (unless ice falling from above!) –ice supersaturation ( > 10% ) observations are common
34 Ice Nucleation: Heterogeneous nucleation Supercooled drop aerosol I will not discuss heterogeneous ice nucleation in great detail in this course due to lack of time and the fact that these processes are only starting to be tackled in Large- scale models. See recent work of Ulrike Lohmann for more details
35 Pure ice Phase: Homogeneous Ice Nucleation At cold temperature (e.g. upper troposphere) difference between liquid and ice saturation vapour pressures is large. If air mass is lifted, and does not contain significant liquid particles or ice nuclei, high supersaturations with respect to ice can occur, reaching 160 to 170%. Long lasting contrails are a signature of supersaturation Institute of Geography, University of Copenhagen
36 Equation for the rate of change of mass for an ice particle of diameter D due to deposition (diffusional growth), or evaporation Diffusional growth of ice crystals Deposition Deposition rate depends primarily on the supersaturation, s the particle shape (habit), C the ventilation factor, F The particular mode of growth (edge growth vs corner growth) is sensitive to the temperature and supersaturation
37 Diffusional growth of ice crystals Ice Habits Ice habits can be complex, depend on temperature: influences fall speeds and radiative properties
38 Diffusional growth of ice crystals Animation
39 Ice Saturation Homogeneous Freezing Temperature Water Saturation Diffusional growth of ice crystals Mixed Phase Clouds: Bergeron Process (I) The saturation water vapour pressure with respect to ice is smaller than with respect to water A cloud, which is saturated with respect to water is supersaturated with respect to ice !
40 Diffusional growth of ice crystals Mixed phase cloud Bergeron process (II) Ice particle enters water cloud Cloud is supersaturated with respect to ice Diffusion of water vapour onto ice particle Cloud will become sub-saturated with respect to water Water droplets evaporate to increase water vapour Ice particles grow at the expense of water droplets
41 Ice crystals can aggregate together to form snow Sticking efficiency increases as temperature exceeds –5C Irregular crystals are most commonly observed in the atmosphere (e.g. Korolev et al. 1999, Heymsfield 2003) Collection processes: Ice Crystal Aggregation Lawson, JAS99 Field & Heymsfield m CPI Model T=-46 o C Westbrook et al. (2008)
Some schemes represent ice processes very simply, removing ice super-saturation (as for warm rain process). Others, have a slightly more complex representation allowing ice supersaturation (e.g. current ECMWF scheme). Increasingly common are schemes which represent ice, supersaturation and the diffusional growth equation, and aggregation represented as an autoconversion to snow or parametrization of an evolving particle size distribution (e.g. Wilson and Ballard, 1999). See Lohmann and Karcher JGR 2002(a,b) for another example of including ice microphysics in a GCM. Parametrization of ice crystal diffusion growth and aggregation 42
43 Collection processes: Riming – capture of water drops by ice Graupel formed by collecting liquid water drops in mixed phased clouds (riming), particulaly when at water saturation in strong updraughts (convection). Round ice crystals with higher densities and fall speeds than snow dendrites Hail forms if particle temperature close to 273K, since the liquid water spreads out before freezing. Generally referred to as Hail – The higher fall speed (up to 40 m/s) imply hail only forms in convection with strong updraughts able to support the particle long enough for growth
44 Rimed Ice Crystals
45 Rimed Ice Crystal emu.arsusda.gov
46 Heavily Rimed Ice Crystal emu.arsusda.gov
Most GCMs with parametrized convection dont explicitly represent graupel or hail (too small scale) In cloud resolving models, traditional split between ice, snow and graupel and hail but this split is rather artificial. Degree of riming can be light or heavy. Alternative approach: –Morrison and Grabowski (2008) have three ice prognostics, ice number concentration, mixing ratio from deposition, mixing ratio from riming. –Avoids artificial thresholds between different categories. Parametrization of rimed ice particles 47
48 Other microphysical processes Splintering, Shedding Evaporation, Melting Other processes include evaporation (reverse of condensation), ice sublimation (reverse of deposition) and melting. Shedding: Large rain drops break up – shedding to form smaller drops, places a limit on rain drop size. Splintering of ice crystals, Hallet-Mossop splintering through riming around -5°C. Leads to increased numbers of smaller crystals.
49 Particle Size Distributions Mass DistributionSize Distribution From Fleishauer et al (2002, JAS) Field (2000), Field and Heymsfield (2003)
50 Falling Precipitation Need to know size distribution For ice also affected by ice habit Poses problem for numerics From R Hogan Courtesy: R Hogan, U. Reading
51 Image from Robin Hogan. Data from RCRU RAL. Typical time-height cross section of a front from the vertically pointing 94GHz radar at Chilbolton, UK Microphysics at the Cloud Scale Melting Ice Nucleation and diffusion growth Aggregation Warm phase
54 3. Summary
55 Summary: Warm Cloud E.g: Stratocumulus Condensation (Rain formation - Fall Speeds - Evaporation of rain) Evaporation
56 Summary: Deep Convective Cloud Precipitation Falls Speeds Evaporation in Sub-Cloud Layer Heteorogeneous Nucleation of ice Splintering/Bergeron Process Melting of Snow and Graupel
57 Summary: Cirrus cloud Homogeneous Nucleation (representation of supersaturation) Heterogeneous Nucleation (representation of nuclei type and concentration) Diffusional growth, Aggregation Sedimentation of ice crystals
59 Microphysics - a complex GCM scheme Fowler et al., JCL, 1996 Similar complexity to many schemes in use in CRMs
60 Summary 1: A complex system! Molecular Scale –Nucleation/activation, Diffusion/condensation/evaporation Particle Scale –Collection/collision-coalescence/aggegation, Shedding/splintering Parcel Scale –Particle Size Distributions Cloud Scale –Heterogeneity –Interaction with the dynamics (latent heating)
61 Summary 2: Simplifying assumptions Parametrization of cloud and precipitation microphysical processes: –Need to simplify a complex system –Accuracy vs. complexity vs. computational efficiency trade off –Appropriate for the application and no more complexity than can be constrained and understood –Dynamical interactions (latent heating), radiative interactions –Still many uncertainties (particularly ice phase) –Particular active area of research is aerosol-microphysics interactions. –Microphysics often driven by small scale dynamics….. Next lecture: Cloud Cover –Sub-grid scale heterogeneity –Linking the micro-scale to the macro-scale
62 References Reference books for cloud and precipitation microphysics: Pruppacher. H. R. and J. D. Klett (1998). Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation (2 nd Ed). Kluwer Academic Publishers. Rogers, R. R. and M. K. Yau, (1989). A Short Course in Cloud Physics (3 rd Ed.) Butterworth-Heinemann Publications. Mason, B. J., (1971). The Physics of Clouds. Oxford University Press. Hobbs, P. V., (1993). Aerosol-Cloud-Climate Interactions. Academic Press. Houze, Jr., R. A., (1994). Cloud Dynamics. Academic Press. Straka, J., (2009). Cloud and Precipitation Microphysics: Principles and Parameterizations. Cambridge University Press. Not yet released!