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1 Numerical Weather Prediction Parametrization of diabatic processes Convection II The parametrization of convection Peter Bechtold, Christian Jakob, David Gregory (with contributions from J. Kain (NOAA/NSLL)

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2 Outline Aims of convection parametrization Overview over approaches to convection parametrization The mass-flux approach

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3 Task of convection parametrisation(1) total Q1 and Q2 To calculate the collective effects of an ensemble of convective clouds in a model column as a function of grid-scale variables Recall: these effects are represented by Q 1 -Q R, Q 2 and Q 3 Hence: parametrization needs to describe CONVECTIVE CONTRIBUTIONS to Q1/Q2: condensation/evaporation and transport terms and their vertical distribution.

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4 Task of convection parametrization (2) Convective contributions to Q1 and Q2 Conservation: Vertical integral of Q1 convective = surface convective precipitation

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5 Task of convection parametrisation: in practice this means : Determine vertical distribution of heating, moistening and momentum changes Cloud model Determine the overall amount of the energy conversion, convective precipitation=heat release Closure Determine occurrence/localisation of convection Trigger

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6 Constraints for convection parametrisation Physical –remove convective instability and produce subgrid-scale convective precipitation (heating/drying) in unsaturated model grids –maintain a realistic vertical thermodynamic and wind structure –produce a realistic mean tropical climate –maintain a realistic variability on a wide range of time-scales –produce a realistic response to changes in boundary conditions (e.g., El Nino) –be applicable to a wide range of scales (typical 10 – 200 km) and types of convection (deep tropical, shallow, midlatitudinal and front/post-frontal convection) Computational –be simple and efficient for different model/forecast configurations (T511, EPS, seasonal prediction)

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7 Types of convection schemes Schemes based on moisture budgets –Kuo, 1965, 1974, J. Atmos. Sci. Adjustment schemes –moist convective adjustement, Manabe, 1965, Mon. Wea. Rev. –penetrative adjustment scheme, Betts and Miller, 1986, Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc., Betts-Miller-Janic Mass-flux schemes (bulk+spectral) –entraining plume - spectral model, Arakawa and Schubert, 1974, J. Atmos. Sci. –Entraining/detraining plume - bulk model, e.g., Bougeault, 1985, Mon. Wea. Rev., Tiedtke, 1989, Mon. Wea. Rev., Gregory and Rowntree, 1990, Mon. Wea. Rev., Kain and Fritsch, 1990, J. Atmos. Sci., Donner, 1993, J. Atmos. Sci., Bechtold et al 2001, Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. –episodic mixing, Emanuel, 1991, J. Atmos. Sci.

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8 The Kuo scheme Closure: Convective activity is linked to large-scale moisture convergence Vertical distribution of heating and moistening: adjust grid-mean to moist adiabat Main problem: here convection is assumed to consume water and not energy -> …. Positive feedback loop of moisture convergence

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9 Adjustment schemes e.g. Betts and Miller, 1986, QJRMS: When atmosphere is unstable to parcel lifted from PBL and there is a deep moist layer - adjust state back to reference profile over some time-scale, i.e., T ref is constructed from moist adiabat from cloud base but no universal reference profiles for q exist. However, scheme is robust and produces smooth fields.

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Procedure followed by BMJ scheme… 1) Find the most unstable air in lowest ~ 200 mb 2) Draw a moist adiabat for this air 3) Compute a first-guess temperature- adjustment profile (T ref ) 4) Compute a first-guess dewpoint- adjustment profile (q ref )

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11 Adjustment schemes: The Next Step is an Enthalpy Adjustment First Law of Thermodynamics: With Parameterized Convection, each grid-point column is treated in isolation. Total column latent heating must be directly proportional to total column drying, or dH = 0.

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Enthalpy is not conserved for first-guess profiles for this sounding! Must shift T ref and q vref to the left…

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13 Imposing Enthalpy Adjustment:

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14 Adjustment scheme: Adjusted Enthalpy Profiles :

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15 The mass-flux approach Aim: Look for a simple expression of the eddy transport term Condensation termEddy transport term

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16 The mass-flux approach Reminder: with Hence == 00 and therefore

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17 The mass-flux approach: Cloud – Environment decomposition Total Area: A Cumulus area: a Fractional coverage with cumulus elements: Define area average:

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18 The mass-flux approach: Cloud-Environment decomposition (see also Siebesma and Cuijpers, JAS 1995 for a discussion of the validity of the top-hat assumption) With the above: and Average over cumulus elementsAverage over environment Use Reynolds averaging again for cumulus elements and environment separately: and = 0 = 0 Neglect subplume correlations

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19 The mass-flux approach Then after some algebra (for your exercise) : Further simplifications : The small are approximation

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20 The mass-flux approach Then : Define convective mass-flux: Then

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21 The mass-flux approach With the above we can rewrite: To predict the influence of convection on the large-scale with this approach we now need to describe the convective mass-flux, the values of the thermodynamic (and momentum) variables inside the convective elements and the condensation/evaporation term. This requires, as usual, a cloud model and a closure to determine the absolute (scaled) value of the massflux.

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22 Mass-flux entraining plume cloud models Cumulus element i Continuity: Heat: Specific humidity: Entraining plume model

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23 Mass-flux entraining plume cloud models Simplifying assumptions: 1. Steady state plumes, i.e., Most mass-flux convection parametrizations today still make that assumption, some however are prognostic 2. Bulk mass-flux approach Sum over all cumulus elements, e.g. with e.g., Tiedtke (1989), Gregory and Rowntree (1990), Kain and Fritsch (1990) 3. Spectral method e.g., Arakawa and Schubert (1974) and derivatives Important: No matter which simplification - we always describe a cloud ensemble, not individual clouds (even in bulk models)

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24 Large-scale cumulus effects deduced using mass-flux models Assume for simplicity: Bulk model, Combine:

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25 Large-scale cumulus effects deduced using mass-flux models Physical interpretation (can be dangerous after a lot of maths): Convection affects the large scales by Heating through compensating subsidence between cumulus elements (term 1) The detrainment of cloud air into the environment (term 2) Evaporation of cloud and precipitation (term 3) Note: The condensation heating does not appear directly in Q 1. It is however a crucial part of the cloud model, where this heat is transformed in kinetic energy of the updrafts. Similar derivations are possible for Q 2.

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26 Deducing mass-flux model parameters from observations (1) Yanai and Johnson, 1993, Meteor. Monogr. The mass-flux entraining plume models (both bulk and spectral) have been used to interpret observations of Q 1 and Q 2. (in all following figures M is defined in units of omega!)

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27 Deducing mass-flux model parameters from observations (2) - use cloud model Yanai and Johnson, 1993

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28 Deducing mass-flux model parameters from observations (3) Yanai and Johnson, 1993 Mass flux models can also be applied to convective downdraughts

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29 Deducing convective and stratiform heating profiles from Cloud Res. Model (1) Heat Budget of Squall Line Caniaux, Redelsperger, Lafore, JAS 1994 The convective and stratiform parts are computed by partitioning the whole domain as function of rainfall and/or updraft intensity important: Q1c is dominated by condensation term

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30 Deducing convective and stratiform heating profiles from Cloud Res. Model (2) Heat Budget of Squall Line Caniaux, Redelsperger, Lafore, JAS 1994, Guichard et al. 1997 Note again that the stratiform (mesoscale) heating maximum occurs above the convective maximum but for Q2 the transport and condensation terms are equally important

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31 Alternatives to the entraining plume model - Episodic mixing Observations show that the entraining plume model might be a poor representation of individual cumulus clouds. Therefore alternative mixing models have been proposed - most prominently the episodic (or stochastic) mixing model (Raymond and Blyth, 1986, JAS; Emanuel, 1991, JAS) Conceptual idea: Mixing is episodic and different parts of an updraught mix differently Basic implementation: assume a stochastic distribution of mixing fractions for part of the updraught air - create N mixtures Version 1: find level of neutral buoyancy of each mixture Version 2: move mixture to next level above or below and mix again - repeat until level of neutral buoyancy is reached Although physically appealing the model is very complex and practically difficult to use

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32 Closure in mass-flux parametrizations The cloud model determines the vertical structure of convective heating and moistening (microphysics, variation of mass flux with height, entrainment/detrainment assumptions). The determination of the overall magnitude of the heating (i.e., surface precipitation in deep convection) requires the determination of the mass-flux at cloud base. - Closure problem Types of closures: Deep convection: time scale ~ 1h Equilibrium in CAPE or similar quantity (e.g., cloud work function) Boundary-layer equilibrium Shallow convection: time scale ? ~ 3h idem deep convection, but also turbulent closure (F s =surface heat flux, Z PBL =boundary-layer height) Grant (2001)

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33 CAPE closure - the basic idea large-scale processes generate CAPE Convection consumes CAPE

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34 CAPE closure - the basic idea Surface processes also generate CAPE (difficult to include in closure) Downdraughts Convection consumes CAPE

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35 Boundary Layer Equilibrium closure (1) as used for shallow convection in the IFS 1)Assuming boundary-layer equilibrium of moist static energy h s 2)What goes in goes out Therefore, by integrating from the surface (s) to cloud base (LCL) including all processes that contribute to the moist static energy, one obtains the flux on top of the boundary- layer that is assumed to be the convective flux M c (neglect downdraft contributions) F s is surface moist static energy flux

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36 Boundary Layer Equilibrium closure (2) – as suggested for deep convection Postulate: tropical balanced temperature anomalies associated with wave activity are small (<1 K) compared to buoyant ascending parcels ….. gravity wave induced motions are short lived Convection is controlled through boundary layer entropy balance - sub-cloud layer entropy is in quasi-equilibrium – flux out of boundary-layer must equal surface flux ….boundary-layer recovers through surface fluxes from convective drying/cooling Raymond, 1995, JAS; Raymond, 1997, in Smith Textbook F s is surface heat flux

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37 Summary (1) Convection parametrisations need to provide a physically realistic forcing/response on the resolved model scales and need to be practical a number of approaches to convection parametrisation exist basic ingredients to present convection parametrisations are a cloud model and a closure assumption the mass-flux approach has been successfully applied to both interpretation of data and convection parametrisation …….

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38 Summary (2) The mass-flux approach can also be used for the parametrization of shallow convection. It can also be directly applied to the transport of chemical species The parametrized effects of convection on humidity and clouds strongly depend on the assumptions about microphysics and mixing in the cloud model --> uncertain and active research area …………. Future we already have alternative approaches based on explicit representation (Multi-model approach) or might have approaches based on Wavelets or Neural Networks

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39 Trigger Functions CAPE Cloud Depth CIN Moist. Conv. Sub-cloud Mass conv. Cloud-layer Moisture (CAPE)/t BMJ (Eta) Grell (RUC, AVN) KF (Research) Bougeault (Meteo FR) Tiedtke (ECMWF) Bechtold (Research) Emanuel (NOGAPS,research) Gregory/Rown (UKMO)

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40 Closure Assumptions (Intensity) CAPE Cloud-layer moisture Moisture Converg. (CAPE)/tSubcloud Quasi-equil. BMJ (Eta) Grell (RUC, AVN) KF (Research) Bougeault (Meteo FR) Tiedtke (ECMWF) shallow Bechtold (Research) Emanuel (Research) Gregory/Rown (UKMO)

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41 Vertical Distribution of Heat, Moisture Entraining/Detraining Plume Convective Adjustment Buoyancy Sorting Cloud Model BMJ (Eta) Grell (RUC, AVN) KF (Research) Bougeault (Meteo FR) Tiedtke (ECMWF) Bechtold (Research) Emanuel (Research) Gregory/Rowntree (UKMO)

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