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Introduction to Chaos by Tim Palmer

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**Introduction to chaos for:**

Weather prediction

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Wilhelm Bjerknes ( ) Proposed weather forecasting as a deterministic initial value problem based on the laws of physics

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**Lewis Fry Richardson (1881-1953)**

The first numerical weather forecast

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“Why have meteorologists such difficulty in predicting the weather with any certainty? Why is it that showers and even storms seem to come by chance ... a tenth of a degree (C) more or less at any given point, and the cyclone will burst here and not there, and extend its ravages over districts that it would otherwise have spared. If (the meteorologists) had been aware of this tenth of a degree, they could have known (about the cyclone) beforehand, but the observations were neither sufficiently comprehensive nor sufficiently precise, and that is the reason why it all seems due to the intervention of chance” Poincaré, 1909

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Edward Lorenz (1917 – ) “… one flap of a sea-gull’s wing may forever change the future course of the weather” (Lorenz, 1963)

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**The Lorenz (1963) attractor, the prototype chaotic model…..**

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Tangent propagator Isopleth of forecast pdf Isopleth of initial pdf Nb M*M symmetric operator therefore eigenvectors form a complete orthogonal basis

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**Because M is not a normal operator (M. MMM**

Because M is not a normal operator (M*MMM *) , M’s eigenmodes are not orthogonal Substantial perturbation growth is possible over finite time, even if M has no growing eigenmodes

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**400 million trees blown down **

Lothar: 08Z, 26 Dec. 1999 Lothar +Martin 100 Fatalities 400 million trees blown down 3.5 million electricity users affected for 20 days 3 million people without water

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**Ensemble Initial Conditions 24 December 1999**

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Lothar (T+42 hours) Figure 4

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Headlines: Oct Thanks to Rob Hine

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**Charlie is planning to lay concrete tomorrow.**

NO ? Charlie is planning to lay concrete tomorrow. Consensus forecast: frost free YES Frost free Frosty Should he? Charlie loses L if concrete freezes. But Charlie has fixed (eg staff) costs There may be a penalty for late completion of this job. By delaying completion of this job, he will miss out on other jobs. These cost C Is Lp>C? If p > C/L don’t lay concrete! NO Let p denote the probability of frost

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Value of EPS over high-res deterministic forecast for financial weather-derivative trading based on Heathrow temperature (Roulston and Smith, London School of Economics, 2003)

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**Introduction to chaos for: Seasonal climate prediction**

Atmospheric predictability arises from slow variations in lower-boundary forcing

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**What is the impact of f on the attractor?**

Edward Lorenz (1917 – ) What is the impact of f on the attractor?

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**Add external steady forcing f to the Lorenz (1963) equations**

The influence of f on the state vector probability function is itself predictable.

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**The tropical Pacific ocean/atmosphere**

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**Introduction to chaos for:**

Stochastic parametrisation

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**Eg 2) Lorenz(1963) in an EOF basis**

3rd EOF only explains 4% of variance (Selten, 1995) . Parametrise it?

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**Lorenz(1963) in a truncated EOF basis with parametrisation of a3**

Good as a short-range forecast model (using L63 as truth), but exhibits major systematic errors compared with L63, as, by Poincaré-Bendixon theorem, the system cannot exhibit chaotic variability – system collapses onto a point attractor.

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**Stochastic-Lorenz(1963) in a truncated EOF basis**

Stochastic noise

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**Error in mean and variance**

Lorenz attractor Truncated Stochastic-Lorenz attractor –weak noise Error in mean and variance Truncated Stochastic-Lorenz attractor Palmer, 2001 (acknowledgment to Frank Selten)

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“He believed in the primacy of doubt; not as a blemish upon our ability to know, but as the essence of knowing” Gleick (1992) on Richard Feynman’s philosophy of science.

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