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Marine SDI to facilitate Spatially Enabled Government and Society Marine SDI to facilitate Spatially Enabled Government and Society IHO-Workshop on Marine.

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Presentation on theme: "Marine SDI to facilitate Spatially Enabled Government and Society Marine SDI to facilitate Spatially Enabled Government and Society IHO-Workshop on Marine."— Presentation transcript:

1 Marine SDI to facilitate Spatially Enabled Government and Society Marine SDI to facilitate Spatially Enabled Government and Society IHO-Workshop on Marine SDI, Havana, Cuba Abbas Rajabifard Centre for SDIs and Land Administration Department of Geomatics The University of Melbourne

2 Abbas Rajabifard/IHO-Marine SDI Workshop/Havana, Feb Introduction Worlds oceans cover approx. 65% of the surface of the earth. Current policy and institutional frameworks for the governing of this ocean territory are complex. Multifaceted relationship and interaction between overlapping and sometimes competing rights of various players in the marine environment. Deficiency in the availability of reliable and accurate spatial data. Administering the Marine Environment – the Spatial Dimensions

3 Abbas Rajabifard/IHO-Marine SDI Workshop/Havana, Feb The Significance of Data Spatial Data is further shaped by the decision-making process to which it is subject SpatialData People Information AccessPolicyStandards Decision Making Process Management / Administration underpinned by access to spatial information

4 Abbas Rajabifard/IHO-Marine SDI Workshop/Havana, Feb The Role of the Spatial Dimension Marine administration requires… –the definition of, –access to, and –information about… the location (and accuracy) of… –the coastline and other –legally defined offshore boundaries, as well as the rights, restrictions and responsibilities linked to those boundaries. Rights Fishing rights are available If access to the spec areas can marine safety Restrictions No fishing within Marine Parks. No boating within Marine Parks. unrestricted Access is Responsibilities I is the responsibility of the oil company to submit an environmental report containing relevant information pertaining to the area which is being excavated.t T

5 Abbas Rajabifard/IHO-Marine SDI Workshop/Havana, Feb Spatial Complexity… Marine boundaries can be more spatially complex than their terrestrial counterparts. Some examples : –They are virtual rather than physical –They may be ambulatory (time varying) –They are defined in 3D (and sometimes 4D) –They can delineate overlapping rights, restrictions and responsibilities.

6 Abbas Rajabifard/IHO-Marine SDI Workshop/Havana, Feb National and international maritime boundaries

7 Abbas Rajabifard/IHO-Marine SDI Workshop/Havana, Feb Number of Datasets Availability Accessibility Applicability Data options Availability & Accessibility of data for Decision-Making (Feeney et al. 2002)

8 Abbas Rajabifard/IHO-Marine SDI Workshop/Havana, Feb In response to this situation, Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) have been developed to create an environment that will enable users to access and retrieve spatial datasets in an easy and secure way. SDI is developed to enable the use and sharing of spatial information and services to support decision-making at different scales for multiple purposes. People Access Network Policy Standards Data Dynamic

9 Abbas Rajabifard/IHO-Marine SDI Workshop/Havana, Feb Current SDI Development Many countries have developed SDI at national, state and local levels, Most of these initiatives stop at the coastline, institutionally and/or spatially. Current SDI design is mainly focused on access to and use of land related datasets as well as land related problems, However, decision-makers in both land and marine related areas also need to access marine related datasets in order to effectively achieve their economic, social and environmental objectives. Organisational SDI Global SDI Regional SDI National SDI State SDI Local SDI LandSea

10 Abbas Rajabifard/IHO-Marine SDI Workshop/Havana, Feb Marine SDI Development of SDI in the marine environment would provide basis for integration of marine & terrestrial environments. The ultimate aim is to include a marine dimension to SDI models so that they work seamlessly both on land and at sea through. The end result is an extended model that will facilitate the development of aseamless infrastructure – Seamless SDI which a id in facilitating sustainable management objectives across a countries entire jurisdiction. Coastal Zone Terrestrial Cadastre Marine Cadastre Spatial Data Infrastructure Seamless SDI

11 Abbas Rajabifard/IHO-Marine SDI Workshop/Havana, Feb Marine Development Coastal Management Marine Use Resource Management Marine Administration Sustainable Development Marine Policies Institutional Framework Planning & Management Communications DB Datasets Other Datasets SPATIAL DATA INFRASTRUCTURE Oil & Gas Data Maritime Boundaries Navigation Data SDI and Marine Administration

12 Abbas Rajabifard/IHO-Marine SDI Workshop/Havana, Feb Increasing realisation that the interests of a nation do not stop at the land sea interface: Environmental Economic Social Spatial Key Factors Driving Marine SDI

13 Abbas Rajabifard/IHO-Marine SDI Workshop/Havana, Feb Key Factors Driving Marine SDI Environmental –9 of the worlds 17 fisheries are over- fished. –Land-Sea interface and coastal zone management -75% of all marine pollution comes from land-based sources. –Need to implement legal & institutional mechanisms to support sustainable development.

14 Abbas Rajabifard/IHO-Marine SDI Workshop/Havana, Feb Economic –Extension of the outer limit of a States continental shelf gives an extended area to exploit and explore. –Recognition of potential economic value of resources is rapidly developing. –Competition increasing for control over marine areas with vast arrays of natural resources (e.g. oil & gas, fisheries). Key Factors Driving Marine SDI

15 Abbas Rajabifard/IHO-Marine SDI Workshop/Havana, Feb Key Factors Driving Marine SDI Social/Cultural –Growing pressure to recognise the rights of indigenous people to both land & sea. –Forced governments to change management practices. –Varying perceptions & knowledge of coastal and marine environments. –Varying use of oceans: Australia – oil & gas exploration Indonesia – major source of food Pacific Islands – tourism/recreation

16 Abbas Rajabifard/IHO-Marine SDI Workshop/Havana, Feb Spatial Data –Aids in effective decision making to achieve Sustainable Development objectives. BUT –Data agencies continue to collect & disseminate data individually & without consultation, WHICH –Encourages data to be held in various formats, at various accuracies within data silos. Key Factors Driving Marine SDI

17 Abbas Rajabifard/IHO-Marine SDI Workshop/Havana, Feb Key Factors Driving Marine SDI Other Factors –Various co-management arrangements, –Multiple and unclear jurisdictional limits, –No single agency managing offshore rights and boundaries, –Enormous maritime areas to manage.

18 Abbas Rajabifard/IHO-Marine SDI Workshop/Havana, Feb Marine Management Initiatives To meet environmental, economic & social factors many countries such as USA, Canada, NZ and Australia are developing spatial boundary management systems. Titles vary: –Marine SDI –Marine Cadastre –Marine GIS BUT aims of each system are closely aligned.

19 Abbas Rajabifard/IHO-Marine SDI Workshop/Havana, Feb Australia Collaborative research project which aims to define and develop a marine cadastre within the context of Australian SDI. Objective: –Provide a comprehensive SDI whereby rights, restrictions and responsibilities in the marine environment can be assessed, administered and managed. –The design of this SDI should be done in line with the terrestrial environment in order to create a Seamless SDI model that bridges the gap between the terrestrial and marine environments, creating a spatially enabled land-sea interface.

20 Abbas Rajabifard/IHO-Marine SDI Workshop/Havana, Feb Australian Concept ASDI

21 Abbas Rajabifard/IHO-Marine SDI Workshop/Havana, Feb SDI and the Marine Environment Interoperability

22 Abbas Rajabifard/IHO-Marine SDI Workshop/Havana, Feb Marine Cadastre Research Four research areas –Definition of the tidal interface –Natural rather than geometric boundaries –Offshore extension of the SDI –Marine policy, legal and security issues Low Tide High Tide Land Sea ?

23 Abbas Rajabifard/IHO-Marine SDI Workshop/Havana, Feb Seamless SDI Components Access network (web portal) Wireless data transfer Standards IHO S-57 data standards Accuracy Standards for Nautical Charting Hydrographic Surveys (FGDC,2002) Interoperability standards such as Marine XML Policies Pricing and access Policy National ocean policy Privacy Policy Quality Policy Data Fundamental datasets are : Marine cadastre, bathymetry, water currents, salinity, water quality, protected areas, boundary data, political boundaries, oceanography…. People Department of environment and heritage, shipping, oil and gas, fishing industry, tourism, conservation, Defense, local state and national government Access network (web portal) Fixed line data transfer Standards ISO TC/211 data standards Content,access and exchange standard Policies Data Fundamental datasets are: Geodetic framework, cadastre, address, Transport, topography, administration…. People Land administration, defense, and natural resource management Department of environment and heritage,oil and gas, fishing industry, tourism, conservation, Defense, local, state and national government Access network (web portal) Standards No common data standards National Hydrography Data Content Standard for Inland and Coastal Waterways (FGDC 2000) Policies Data Fundamental datasets are coastline, bathymetry, marine cadastre, coastal imagery, marine navigation, tidal benchmarks and benthic habitat People Local,State and national government,tourism,conservation, fisheries, transport,urban planning,cadastre,national mapping agency, hydrographic services,agriculture, environment

24 Abbas Rajabifard/IHO-Marine SDI Workshop/Havana, Feb th United Nations RCC-AP, Bangkok, September th United Nations RCC-AP, Bangkok, September 2006 Resolution 3: Marine SDI to support marine administration Recommendation: countries with an extensive marine jurisdiction and administrative responsibilities be encouraged to include the development of a marine administration component as part of a Seamless SDI that covers both land and marine jurisdictions to ensure a continuum across the coastal zone.

25 Abbas Rajabifard/IHO-Marine SDI Workshop/Havana, Feb PCGIAP-International Workshop on Administering Marine Environment-The Spatial Dimension, Malaysia, 4-7 May 2004 Resolution : Defining the Spatial Dimension of the Marine Environment Recommends that the term Marine Administration System is adopted for the administration of rights, restrictions and responsibilities in the marine environment, with the spatial dimension facilitated by the Marine SDI, And further recommends that a marine cadastre is defined as a management tool which spatially describes, visualises and realises formally and informally defined boundaries and associated rights, restrictions and responsibilities in the marine environment as a data layer in a Marine SDI, allowing them to be more effectively identified, administered and accessed.

26 Abbas Rajabifard/IHO-Marine SDI Workshop/Havana, Feb What do we need to do? Include the Marine Environment in the sphere of National SDI initiatives. Understand the sustainable development factors driving the development of Marine SDIs. Assess current systems in order to identify: –Technical, legal and institutional arrangements hindering coordination & effective management. Consider international perspectives in order to create Global and Regional Marine SDIs that crosses jurisdictional boundaries.

27 Abbas Rajabifard/IHO-Marine SDI Workshop/Havana, Feb Conclusion SDI is a new and evolving concept; Research is central; SDI development is multi-disciplinary with policy, legal, institutional and technical dimensions; Need for marine component to SDIs increasing driven by need to break down data silos and create access to accurate and up-to-date data;

28 Abbas Rajabifard/IHO-Marine SDI Workshop/Havana, Feb Conclusion Need to understand link between the terrestrial and marine environments – they cannot be treated isolation; Must have cooperation between nations as maritime actions transcend national boundaries.

29 Centre for SDIs and Land Administration Centre for SDIs and Land Administration www,marineadministration.org World Class Research Supporting Sustainable Development DataPeople Access Network Policy Standards Dynamic

30 Thank you


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