2 The Scientific Revolution The Scientific Revolution marked the beginning of a dramatic shift in how people viewed the world. The medieval and early modern European outlook had been dominated by religion. As a result of this revolution, many came to see the world predominantly in secular and scientific ways. In the short term, the Scientific Revolution set the stage for the Enlightenment; its long-term repercussions can still be felt today.
3 THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION Questioning old knowledge & assumptionsRejection of religious authority and demystification of the universeGradual rise of science & reasonScientists of this era differed from predecessors in combining mathematics and experiments
4 Models of the Universe: Geocentric vs. Heliocentric Geocentric: the Earth is at the center of the universe; all heavenly bodies move around the EarthHeliocentric: the Sun is at the center of the universe; all heavenly bodies move around the Sun—including the Earth
5 Official view of the Catholic Church Geocentric: Earth-centered Old Geocentric TheoryOfficial view of the Catholic ChurchGeocentric: Earth-centeredSun risesSun setsEarth seems still
6 Geocentric Theory Proof: Earth seems stationary Sun seems to move across the skyBible quotesBlind acceptance of Greek teachingsMan views himself as focus of the universe
7 Teachings of Aristotle – 300 BCE World is made up of 5 elements:Earth, air, water, fire and QuintessenceEarth does not rotate.
8 Teachings of Aristotle Clear, round, domes hold planets and stars.Laws of Motion:Things move by weight or violent force
9 Ptolemy 150 CE (Greek) Agrees with Aristotle Used math and Geometry to “prove” the Geocentric TheoryProblems:Planets must travel in loop orbitsDoes not fit calendarMath is forced
10 NEW HELIOCENTRIC THEORY The theory is introduced by Copernicus (1473 – 1543) a Polish astronomer and mathematicianGoal: Fix the problems of Ptolemy (Calendar and math)Make the sun the center and the math works!
11 HELIOCENTRIC THEORY Sun is the center of the universe. The earth revolves around the sun and it rotatesProblem: It goes against the teachings Aristotle and “common sense”On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres, the book written by Copernicus is not published until after his death
12 Laws: Johannes Kepler (1571 – 1630) German The Proof: Used Brahe’s measurements –made one adjustment, and the math worked perfectly!Laws:Planets travel in an EllipsePlanets travel slow then fastFigure distance from sun by how long it takes to revolve around sun. T² = ka³
13 Explain the difference between the Geocentric and the Heliocentric theory’s.
14 Arabic NumeralsDuring the Middle Ages, Europeans switched from Roman to Arabic numerals. This is very important for the Scientific Revolution. (Leonardo de Pisa)Without this system, Copernicus could not have made his mathematical calculations,Arabic numerals use a place number system consisting of ten numerals – when these are used up, a new number is added. Allows for fast calculations.Try to multiply: MDMCXLVII BY CCCLXXII without converting to Arabic Numerals
15 Tycho Brahe (Danish mathematician) Really supported Aristotle- wanted to prove Copernicus wrongProvides the mathematical evidence that Copernicus is correct.Takes measurements for over 20 yearsLeaves his work to assistant Johannes Kepler
16 NEW DIRECTIONS IN ASTRONOMY & PHYSICS NICOLAUS COPERNICUS ( )Polish monkObserved patterns of star and planet movementCalled into question the literal truth of the ScripturesCopernicus waited until he was near death to publish his findings
17 NEW DIRECTIONS IN ASTRONOMY & PHYSICS JOHANNES KEPLER, ( ):Proved mathematically many of Copernicus’ theoriesDeveloped idea of elliptical planetary movement
18 Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) Italian mathematician, astronomer “Father of Science”Telescopes and astronomical discoveriesTheory of falling objects; disproved AristotleGalileo’s telescopic drawing of the moon
19 GALILEO GALILEI (1564-1642) Italian scientist Improved the telescopeMade observations that proved the Copernican theory of the universeDescribed motion of bodies on earthChurch forced Galileo to recant; placed under house arrest.
20 Galileo vs. the Catholic Church The church condemned heliocentric conceptions of the universeThe Roman InquisitionGalileo’s trialGalileo recants, put under house arrest19th-century depiction of Galileo before the Inquisition tribunal
21 Why did the church put Galileo Galilei on trial?
22 ISAAC NEWTON ( )mathematician and physicist, one of the foremost scientific intellects of all time.Universal Gravitation: combined laws of planetary & earth motionnew developments in optics and chemistrydeveloped calculuswork had numerous practical applications
23 THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION DISCOVERIES IN OTHER SCIENCESBotany: new medical applicationsAnatomy: better understand of how human body workedMicroscope invented
24 Medicine Before the Scientific Revolution Based on traditionThe ChurchBefore the Scientific Revolution, many practitioners of medicine relied on theories that were centuries old and rarely based on anatomical research or observation.Medical treatments were at best ineffective and at worst lethal.The Church banned dissection, a practice critical in understanding the human body and how illnesses affect it.In general, the Church viewed sickness not so much as a physical disorder but as a spiritual punishment for sin.Human intervention was seen as challenging the will of God.
25 William Harvey (1578–1657) English physician On the Movement of the Heart and Blood in AnimalsDescribed the functioning of the heart and circulatory systemDisproved Galen’s theories
26 New Invention: The Telescope Invented in the NetherlandsGalileo - Made improvements to it in the early 1600s, it had not really been widely used as a practical tool for scientific observationNewton - Made further refinements in the early 1700s when he invented the reflector telescope, which uses a curved mirror to magnify objects to a much greater degree than a simple glass lens is capable.
27 New Invention: The Microscope Hans JanssenAnton Van LeeuwenhoekRobert HookeHooke’s drawing of a flea (from Micrographia)A Janssen microscope, c.1600
28 The MicroscopeHans Janssen began to construct compound microscopes, which used several lenses and produced much greater magnification of objects.1600’s - Anton Van Leeuwenhoek developed new methods for grinding and polishing tiny lenses of great curvature which gave magnifications up to 270 diameters, the finest known at that time. He used these lenses to build vastly improved microscopes and make several groundbreaking observations: he was the first to see bacteria, blood corpuscles, and the “life” found in a drop of water.1660’s, - Robert Hooke of the Royal Society of London improved on Leeuwenhoek’s microscope and performed a series of weekly demonstrations to show the power of the instrument. In 1665, he wrote Micrographia, a finely illustrated compendium of microscopic observations that also used the word “cell” as a biological term for the first time; the book sparked increased public interest in microscopy.
29 New Invention: The Pendulum Clock Invented by Christiaan Huygens, a 17th-century Dutch scientistAllowed scientists to more accurately measure timeHuygens’s design for a pendulum clock
30 New Invention: Barometer Invented by 17th-century Italian physicist Evangelista TorricelliThe barometer measures air pressureTorricelli’s barometer experiment
31 New Invention: Thermometer Invented in the 17th century by Santorio Santorio, an Italian scientistFerdinand II – First Sealed Thermometer – Used AlcoholGabriel Fahrenheit – Used Mercury and invented the first standard temperature scaleAnders Celsius – Second temperature scaleIllustration depicting Santorio’s thermometer
32 New Invention: Mechanical Calculator Invented by Wilhelm Schickard, a 17th-century German inventorGottfried von Leibniz’s “Step Reckoner”, Square RootsForerunner to modern day ComputersWilhelm SchickardA 1624 sketch Schickard made of his calculator
33 Chemistry:Robert Boyle worked on the properties of gases; Boyle’s Law: the volume of a gas varies with the pressure exerted on itAntoine Lavoisier: invented system of naming chemical elements– regarded as founder ofmodern chemistry.
34 What inventions were created or improved during the scientific revolution?
35 Women and the Origins of Modern Science: Margaret Cavendish: wrote Observations Upon Experimental Philosophy; in the book she was critical of the growing belief that humans, through science, were masters of natureMaria Winkelmann: discovered a comet; was refused a teaching position because of her sex
36 RENÉ DESCARTES ( )Geometry: any algebraic formula could be plotted as curve in spaceDeductive Reasoning: predicting particular results from general principlesCogito ergo sum (“I think, therefore I am”)
37 Francis Bacon and the Scientific Method 1561–1626English philosopher and empiricistInductive reasoningArgued for experimental methodology
38 Science as a multiple-step process: The Scientific MethodScience as a multiple-step process:1. Observe an object or phenomenon2. Develop a theory that explains the object or phenomenon3. Test the theory with experiments
39 What are the characteristics of the scientific method?
40 Significance of the Scientific Revolution Contributions of these scientists made the universe comprehensible for the first timeThe individual became much more important; collective authority was not the source of wisdom…individual intellect wasBegan long adversarial relationship between science and religionThe Revolution laid the foundation for the Enlightenment of the 18th century…
41 Identify examples of new ideas in the form of scientific discoveries or innovations that appeared during the 1500s and 1600s.New Scientific IdeasIdeaChangeChangeChangeChangeChange