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The Scientific Revolution

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1 The Scientific Revolution
Chapter 17 Section 1

2 The Scientific Revolution
The Scientific Revolution marked the beginning of a dramatic shift in how people viewed the world. The medieval and early modern European outlook had been dominated by religion. As a result of this revolution, many came to see the world predominantly in secular and scientific ways. In the short term, the Scientific Revolution set the stage for the Enlightenment; its long-term repercussions can still be felt today.

Questioning old knowledge & assumptions Rejection of religious authority and demystification of the universe Gradual rise of science & reason Scientists of this era differed from predecessors in combining mathematics and experiments

4 Models of the Universe: Geocentric vs. Heliocentric
Geocentric: the Earth is at the center of the universe; all heavenly bodies move around the Earth Heliocentric: the Sun is at the center of the universe; all heavenly bodies move around the Sun—including the Earth

5 Official view of the Catholic Church Geocentric: Earth-centered
Old Geocentric Theory Official view of the Catholic Church Geocentric: Earth-centered Sun rises Sun sets Earth seems still

6 Geocentric Theory Proof: Earth seems stationary
Sun seems to move across the sky Bible quotes Blind acceptance of Greek teachings Man views himself as focus of the universe

7 Teachings of Aristotle – 300 BCE
World is made up of 5 elements: Earth, air, water, fire and Quintessence Earth does not rotate.

8 Teachings of Aristotle
Clear, round, domes hold planets and stars. Laws of Motion: Things move by weight or violent force

9 Ptolemy 150 CE (Greek) Agrees with Aristotle
Used math and Geometry to “prove” the Geocentric Theory Problems: Planets must travel in loop orbits Does not fit calendar Math is forced

The theory is introduced by Copernicus (1473 – 1543) a Polish astronomer and mathematician Goal: Fix the problems of Ptolemy (Calendar and math) Make the sun the center and the math works!

11 HELIOCENTRIC THEORY Sun is the center of the universe.
The earth revolves around the sun and it rotates Problem: It goes against the teachings Aristotle and “common sense” On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres, the book written by Copernicus is not published until after his death

12 Laws: Johannes Kepler (1571 – 1630) German
The Proof: Used Brahe’s measurements –made one adjustment, and the math worked perfectly! Laws: Planets travel in an Ellipse Planets travel slow then fast Figure distance from sun by how long it takes to revolve around sun. T² = ka³

13 Explain the difference between the Geocentric and the Heliocentric theory’s.

14 Arabic Numerals During the Middle Ages, Europeans switched from Roman to Arabic numerals. This is very important for the Scientific Revolution. (Leonardo de Pisa) Without this system, Copernicus could not have made his mathematical calculations, Arabic numerals use a place number system consisting of ten numerals – when these are used up, a new number is added. Allows for fast calculations. Try to multiply: MDMCXLVII BY CCCLXXII without converting to Arabic Numerals

15 Tycho Brahe (Danish mathematician)
Really supported Aristotle- wanted to prove Copernicus wrong Provides the mathematical evidence that Copernicus is correct. Takes measurements for over 20 years Leaves his work to assistant Johannes Kepler

NICOLAUS COPERNICUS ( ) Polish monk Observed patterns of star and planet movement Called into question the literal truth of the Scriptures Copernicus waited until he was near death to publish his findings

JOHANNES KEPLER, ( ): Proved mathematically many of Copernicus’ theories Developed idea of elliptical planetary movement

18 Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) Italian mathematician, astronomer
“Father of Science” Telescopes and astronomical discoveries Theory of falling objects; disproved Aristotle Galileo’s telescopic drawing of the moon

19 GALILEO GALILEI (1564-1642) Italian scientist
Improved the telescope Made observations that proved the Copernican theory of the universe Described motion of bodies on earth Church forced Galileo to recant; placed under house arrest.

20 Galileo vs. the Catholic Church
The church condemned heliocentric conceptions of the universe The Roman Inquisition Galileo’s trial Galileo recants, put under house arrest 19th-century depiction of Galileo before the Inquisition tribunal

21 Why did the church put Galileo Galilei on trial?

22 ISAAC NEWTON ( ) mathematician and physicist, one of the foremost scientific intellects of all time. Universal Gravitation: combined laws of planetary & earth motion new developments in optics and chemistry developed calculus work had numerous practical applications

DISCOVERIES IN OTHER SCIENCES Botany: new medical applications Anatomy: better understand of how human body worked Microscope invented

24 Medicine Before the Scientific Revolution
Based on tradition The Church Before the Scientific Revolution, many practitioners of medicine relied on theories that were centuries old and rarely based on anatomical research or observation. Medical treatments were at best ineffective and at worst lethal. The Church banned dissection, a practice critical in understanding the human body and how illnesses affect it. In general, the Church viewed sickness not so much as a physical disorder but as a spiritual punishment for sin. Human intervention was seen as challenging the will of God.

25 William Harvey (1578–1657) English physician
On the Movement of the Heart and Blood in Animals Described the functioning of the heart and circulatory system Disproved Galen’s theories

26 New Invention: The Telescope
Invented in the Netherlands Galileo - Made improvements to it in the early 1600s, it had not really been widely used as a practical tool for scientific observation Newton - Made further refinements in the early 1700s when he invented the reflector telescope, which uses a curved mirror to magnify objects to a much greater degree than a simple glass lens is capable.

27 New Invention: The Microscope
Hans Janssen Anton Van Leeuwenhoek Robert Hooke Hooke’s drawing of a flea (from Micrographia) A Janssen microscope, c.1600

28 The Microscope Hans Janssen began to construct compound microscopes, which used several lenses and produced much greater magnification of objects. 1600’s - Anton Van Leeuwenhoek developed new methods for grinding and polishing tiny lenses of great curvature which gave magnifications up to 270 diameters, the finest known at that time. He used these lenses to build vastly improved microscopes and make several groundbreaking observations: he was the first to see bacteria, blood corpuscles, and the “life” found in a drop of water. 1660’s, - Robert Hooke of the Royal Society of London improved on Leeuwenhoek’s microscope and performed a series of weekly demonstrations to show the power of the instrument. In 1665, he wrote Micrographia, a finely illustrated compendium of microscopic observations that also used the word “cell” as a biological term for the first time; the book sparked increased public interest in microscopy.

29 New Invention: The Pendulum Clock
Invented by Christiaan Huygens, a 17th-century Dutch scientist Allowed scientists to more accurately measure time Huygens’s design for a pendulum clock

30 New Invention: Barometer
Invented by 17th-century Italian physicist Evangelista Torricelli The barometer measures air pressure Torricelli’s barometer experiment

31 New Invention: Thermometer
Invented in the 17th century by Santorio Santorio, an Italian scientist Ferdinand II – First Sealed Thermometer – Used Alcohol Gabriel Fahrenheit – Used Mercury and invented the first standard temperature scale Anders Celsius – Second temperature scale Illustration depicting Santorio’s thermometer

32 New Invention: Mechanical Calculator
Invented by Wilhelm Schickard, a 17th-century German inventor Gottfried von Leibniz’s “Step Reckoner”, Square Roots Forerunner to modern day Computers Wilhelm Schickard A 1624 sketch Schickard made of his calculator

33 Chemistry: Robert Boyle worked on the properties of gases; Boyle’s Law: the volume of a gas varies with the pressure exerted on it Antoine Lavoisier: invented system of naming chemical elements – regarded as founder of modern chemistry.

34 What inventions were created or improved during the scientific revolution?

35 Women and the Origins of Modern Science:
Margaret Cavendish: wrote Observations Upon Experimental Philosophy; in the book she was critical of the growing belief that humans, through science, were masters of nature Maria Winkelmann: discovered a comet; was refused a teaching position because of her sex

36 RENÉ DESCARTES ( ) Geometry: any algebraic formula could be plotted as curve in space Deductive Reasoning: predicting particular results from general principles Cogito ergo sum (“I think, therefore I am”)

37 Francis Bacon and the Scientific Method
1561–1626 English philosopher and empiricist Inductive reasoning Argued for experimental methodology

38 Science as a multiple-step process:
The Scientific Method Science as a multiple-step process: 1. Observe an object or phenomenon 2. Develop a theory that explains the object or phenomenon 3. Test the theory with experiments

39 What are the characteristics of the scientific method?

40 Significance of the Scientific Revolution
Contributions of these scientists made the universe comprehensible for the first time The individual became much more important; collective authority was not the source of wisdom…individual intellect was Began long adversarial relationship between science and religion The Revolution laid the foundation for the Enlightenment of the 18th century…

41 Identify examples of new ideas in the form of scientific discoveries or innovations that appeared during the 1500s and 1600s. New Scientific Ideas Idea Change Change Change Change Change

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