Presentation on theme: "Timeline 20001000300 AD American Independence (1776) Issac Newton (1642 - 1727) 400 BC Greeks (Democratus ~450 BC) Discontinuous theory of matter ALCHEMY."— Presentation transcript:
Timeline 20001000300 AD American Independence (1776) Issac Newton (1642 - 1727) 400 BC Greeks (Democratus ~450 BC) Discontinuous theory of matter ALCHEMY Greeks (Aristotle ~350 BC)) Continuous theory of matter
Democritus (400 B.C.) proposed that matter was composed of tiny indivisible particles called atomos not scientifically tested "Nothing exists but atoms and empty space; everything else is opinion."
Democritus (400 B.C.) rejected by Aristotle and others who believed that matter could be endlessly divided
The Greeks History of the Atom Not the history of atom, but the idea of the atom In 400 B.C the Greeks tried to understand matter (chemicals) and broke them down into earth, wind, fire, and air. Democritus and Leucippus Greek philosophers
Greek Model Greek philosopher Idea of ‘democracy’ Idea of ‘atomos’ –Atomos = ‘indivisible’ –‘Atom’ is derived No experiments to support idea Continuous vs. discontinuous theory of matter Democritus’s model of atom No protons, electrons, or neutrons Solid and INDESTRUCTABLE Democritus “To understand the very large, we must understand the very small.”
Four Element Theory Plato was an atomist Thought all matter was composed of 4 elements: –Earth (cool, heavy) –Water (wet) –Fire (hot) –Air (light) –Ether (close to heaven) ‘MATTER’ FIRE EARTHAIR WATER Hot Wet Cold Dry Relation of the four elements and the four qualities Blend these “elements” in different proportions to get all substances
Anaxagoras Anaxagoras (Greek, born 500 B.C.) seeds –Suggested every substance had its own kind of “seeds” that clustered together to make the substance, much as our atoms cluster to make molecules. Some Early Ideas on Matter Empedocles Empedocles (Greek, born in Sicily, 490 B.C.) – earth, air, fire, and water –Suggested there were only four basic seeds – earth, air, fire, and water. The elementary substances (atoms to us) combined in various ways to make everything. Democritus (Thracian, born 470 B.C.) proposed the word atom –Actually proposed the word atom (indivisible) because he believed that all matter consisted of such tiny units with voids between, an idea quite similar to our own beliefs. It was rejected by Aristotle and thus lost for 2000 years. Aristotle Aristotle (Greek, born 384 B.C.) – heat, cold, dryness, moisture – as basic elements –Added the idea of “qualities” – heat, cold, dryness, moisture – as basic elements which combined as shown in the diagram (previous page). Hot + dry made fire; hot + wet made air, and so on.
Who Was Right? Greek society was slave based Beneath famous to work with hands did not experiment Greeks settled disagreements by argument Aristotle was more famous He won! His ideas carried through middle ages. Alchemists change lead to gold California WEB
“Cast to him the body of the King, and when he has devoured it…in a great fire…the King will be liberated” –antimony is alloyed with gold and heated in order to purify the gold “…fierce gray wolf…subject to the sway of warlike Mars…” –antimony is found mixed with iron “…offspring of the ancient Saturn…” –antimony is derived from lead
Alchemy.............. GOLDSILVERCOPPER IRONSAND Alchemical symbols for substances… transmutation: changing one substance into another In ordinary chemistry, we cannot transmute elements.
Early Ideas on Elements Robert Boyle stated... –A substance was an element unless it could be broken down to two or more simpler substances. –Air therefore could not be an element because it could be broken down in to many pure substances. Robert Boyle
Contributions of alchemists: Information about elements - the elements mercury, sulfur, and antimony were discovered - properties of some elements Develop lab apparatus / procedures / experimental techniques - alchemists learned how to prepare acids. - developed several alloys - new glassware
Foundations of Atomic Theory Law of Definite Proportions The fact that a chemical compound contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by mass regardless of the size of the sample or source of the compound. Law of Multiple Proportions If two or more different compounds are composed of the same two elements, then the ratio of the masses of the second element combined with a certain mass of the first elements is always a ratio of small whole numbers. Law of Conservation of Mass Mass is neither destroyed nor created during ordinary chemical reactions.
Law of Definite Proportions Joseph Louis Proust (1754 – 1826) Each compound has a specific ratio of elements It is a ratio by mass Water is always 8 grams of oxygen for every one gram of hydrogen
Law of Definite Proportions 103 g of copper carbonate 53 g of copper 40 g of oxygen10 g of carbon + + Whether synthesized in the laboratory or obtained from various natural sources, copper carbonate always has the same composition. Analysis of this compound led Proust to formulate the law of definite proportions.
Law of Multiple Proportions John Dalton (1766 – 1844) If two elements form more than one compound, the ratio of the second element that combines with 1 gram of the first element in each is a simple whole number. e.g. H 2 O & H 2 O 2 water hydrogen peroxide Ratio of oxygen is 1:2 (an exact ratio)
John Dalton (1807) British Schoolteacher based his theory on others’ experimental data Billiard Ball Model atom is a uniform, solid sphere Dalton model
Dalton’s Four Postulates 1.Elements are composed of small indivisible particles called atoms. 2.Atoms of the same element are identical. Atoms of different elements are different. 3.Atoms of different elements combine together in simple proportions to create a compound. 4.In a chemical reaction, atoms are rearranged, but not changed.
Conservation of Atoms John Dalton 2 H 2 + O 2 2 H 2 O 4 atoms hydrogen 2 atoms oxygen 4 atoms hydrogen 2 atoms oxygen H H O O O O H H H H H H H2H2 H2H2 O2O2 H 2 O H2OH2O +
Daltons Atomic Theory Dalton stated that elements consisted of tiny particles called atoms He also called the elements pure substances because all atoms of an element were identical and that in particular they had the same mass.
Dalton’s Theory Continued He also said the reason why elements differed from one another was that atoms of each element had different masses. He also said that compounds consisted of atoms of different elements combined together. Dalton's model was that the atoms were tiny, indivisible, indestructible particles and that each one had a certain mass, size, and chemical behaviour that was determined by what kind of element they were.
Structure of Atoms Scientist began to wonder what an atom was like. Was it solid throughout with no internal structure or was it made up of smaller, subatomic particles? It was not until the late 1800’s that evidence became available that atoms were composed of smaller parts.
Daltons’ Models of Atoms Carbon dioxide, CO 2 Water, H 2 O Methane, CH 4
Dalton’s Atomic Theory 1.All matter consists of tiny particles. Dalton, like the Greeks, called these particles “atoms”. 2.Atoms of one element can neither be subdivided nor changed into atoms of any other element. 3.Atoms can neither be created nor destroyed. 4. All atoms of the same element are identical in mass, size, and other properties. 6.In compounds, atoms of different elements combine in simple, whole number ratios. 5.Atoms of one element differ in mass and other properties from atoms of other elements.
II. Periodic Table A. Introduction 1869 - Dmitri Mendeleev (Russian chemist) & Julius Lothar Meyer (German chemist) independently arranged the known atoms by atomic weight (now by atomic number).