Presentation on theme: "The Human Mosaic Chapter 7"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Human Mosaic Chapter 7 Folk GeographyThe Human MosaicChapter 7
2 Differences between popular and folk culture Popular cultureConsists of large masses of people who conform to and prescribe to ever-changing normsLarge heterogeneous groupsOften highly individualistic and groups are constantly changingPronounced division of labor leading to establishment of specialized professionsPolice and army take the place of religion and family in maintaining order
3 Differences between popular and folk culture Popular cultureMoney based economy prevailsReplacing folk culture in industrialized countries and many developing nationsFolk-made objects give way to their popular equivalentItem is more quickly or cheaply producedEasier or time-saving to useLends prestige to owner
4 Differences between popular and folk culture Made up of people who maintain the traditionalDescribes people who live in an old-fashioned way-simpler life-styleRural, cohesive, conservative, largely self-sufficient group, homogeneous in customStrong family or clan structure and highly developed ritualsTradition is paramount — change comes infrequently and slowly
5 Differences between popular and folk culture Little specialization in labor though duties may vary between gendersSubsistence economy prevailsIndividualism and social classes are weakly developedIn parts of the less-developed world, folk cultures remain commonIndustrialized countries no longer have unaltered folk cultures
6 Differences between popular and folk culture The Amish in the United StatesPerhaps the nearest modem equivalent in Anglo-AmericaGerman-American farming sectLargely renounces products and labor-saving devices of the industrial ageHorse-drawn buggies still used, and faithful own no autos or appliancesCentral religion concept of demut, ”humility,” reflects weakness of individualism and social classRarely marry outside their sect
7 Differences between popular and folk culture Typically, bearers of folk culture combine folk and nonfolk elements in their livesIncludes both material and nonmaterial elementsMaterial culture includes all objects or “things” made and used by members of a cultural group—material elements are visibleNomnaterial culture, including folklore, can be defined as oral, including the wide range of tales, songs, lore, beliefs, superstitions, and customsOther aspects of nonmaterial culture include dialects, religions, and worldviewsFolk geography—defined as the study of the spatial patterns and ecology of folklife
8 Culture Regions Folk Culture Regions Folk Cultural Diffusion Folk EcologyCultural Integration in Folk GeographyFolk Landscapes
9 Material folk culture regions Vestiges of material folk culture remain in various parts of the United States and CanadaMaterial artifacts of 15 culture regions in North America survive in some abundance though they are in general decline
11 Material folk culture regions Each region possesses many distinctive items of material cultureGermanized Pennsylvanian folk region—has an unusual SwissGerman type of barnYankee folk region—traditional gravestone art, with “winged death heads,” and barns attached to the rear of houses
13 Material folk culture regions Each region possesses many distinctive items of material cultureUpland South region—notched-log construction, used in building a variety of distinctive house types such as the “dogtrot”
15 Material folk culture regions Each region possesses many distinctive items of material cultureAfrican-American folk region—scraped-earth cemetery, banjo that originated in Africa, and head scarfs worn by women
17 Material folk culture regions Each region possesses many distinctive items of material cultureQuebec French folk region-grist windmills with stone towers, and a bowling game played with small metal ballsMormon folk culture — distinctive hay derricks and gridiron farm villagesWestern plains ranching folk culture — the “beef wheel,” a windlass used during butchering
23 Folk food regionsMexico—abundant use of chili peppers in cooking and maize for tortillasCaribbean areas — combined rice-bean dishes and various rum drinksAmazonian region — monkey and caimanBrazil — cuscuz (cooked grain) and sugarcane brandyPampas style — carne asada (roasted beef), wine and yerba mate (herbal tea)Pacific-coastal Creole — manjar blanco (a pudding)
24 Folk food regionsLatin American foods derive from Amerindians, Africans, Spaniards, and PortuguesePattern of Latin American is not simple and culinary regions are not as homogeneous as the map we saw suggests
26 Folklore regionsDisplays regional contrasts in much the same way as material folk cultureFolk geographers consider diverse nonmaterial phenomena as folktales, dance, music, myths, legends, and proverbsMost thoroughly studied in EuropeFirst research appeared early in the nineteenth centuryWe know more about vanished folk cultures than surviving onesExample of Switzerland
28 Folklore regionsFour cultural folk-song regions of North America as recognized by Alan LomaxNorthern traditionUnaccompanied solo singing in hard, open-voiced clear tonesBased on British ballads
29 Folklore regionsFour cultural folk-song regions of North America as recognized by Alan LomaxSouthern traditionUnison singing is rareSolo is high-pitched and nasalCombines English and Scotch-Irish elementsBallads more guilt-ridden and violent than those of the North
30 Folklore regionsFour cultural folk-song regions of North America as recognized by Alan LomaxWestern style-simply a blend of the Southern and Northern traditionsAfrican-American traditionContains both African and British elementsPolyrhythmic songs of labor and worship with instrumental accompanimentChorus group singing, clapping, body swaying, and strong, surging beatEach tradition shows distinctive melodies, instrumentation, and motifs
31 Culture Regions Folk Culture Regions Folk Cultural Diffusion Folk EcologyCultural Integration in Folk GeographyFolk Landscapes
32 Folk cultural diffusion Diffuses by the same methods as other cultural elements, but more slowlyWeakly developed social stratification tends to retard hierarchical diffusionInherent conservatism produces resistance to changeEssential difference between folk and popular culture is speed by which expansion diffusion occurs
33 NetherlandsThe town of Bunschoten Spakensburg is one of several in the Netherlands retaining elements of folk tradition.Many people continue to dress in traditional garb.Since costumes differ regionally, an expert can tell where a person is from by her clothing.
34 Folk cultural diffusion Folk songsSlow progress of expansion diffusion in Anglo-America religious folk songs in the United StatesEighteenth century core area based mainly in Yankee Puritan folk cultureWhite spiritual songs spread southwest into the Upland SouthToday, still retain greatest acceptance in Upland SouthDisappearance from northern source region may be because of urbanization and popularization of culture in the North
36 Folk cultural diffusion Folk songsSimple folk melodies of the spirituals diffused by means of outdoor “revivals” and “camp-meetings”Non-English-speaking people and non-protestants were little influenced by spiritual movementLanguage and religion proved absorbing barriers to diffusionFrench Canadians and Louisiana French were not affected by the movement
37 Agricultural fairsOriginated in the Yankee region, spread west and southwest by expansion diffusionA custom rooted in medieval European folk traditionFirst American agricultural fair was held in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, in 1810Idea gained favor throughout Western New England and adjacent Hudson ValleyDiffused into the Midwest where it gained its widest acceptance
39 Agricultural fairsOriginated in the Yankee region, spread west and southwest by expansion diffusionA custom rooted in medieval European folk traditionFirst American agricultural fair was held in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, in 1810Idea gained favor throughout Western New England and adjacent Hudson ValleyDiffused into the Midwest where it gained its widest acceptance
41 Agricultural fairs Normally promoted by agricultural societies Originally educational in purposeFarmers could learn about improved methods and breedsEntertainment function added — racetrack and midwayCompetition for prizes for superior agricultural products became commonBy the early twentieth century, fairs had diffused through most of the United States
42 Hay stackersMountain Western American folk culture produced innovationsBeaverslide hay stackerOriginated in 1907 in Montana’s Big Hole ValleyBecause of recent origin, we know more about its diffusion30-odd feet tall, wooden ramp structure used to raise hay to the top of a stack
46 BlowgunsOften past diffusion of a folk culture item is not clearly known or understood, which presents problems of interpretationExample of the blowgun — long, hollow tube through which a projectile is blown by force of breathGeographer Stephen Jett mapped distribution of blowgunFound among folk societies in both the Eastern and Western HemispheresUsed from the island of Madagascar to Amazonian jungles of South America
49 BlowgunsApparently first invented by Indonesian people on the island of BorneoDiffused with the Austronesian linguistic groupSpread through much of the equatorial island belt of Eastern HemisphereHard to account for its presence among Amerindian groups in Western HemisphereWas it independently invented by Amerindians?Was it brought by relocation diffusion in pre-Columbian times?Did it spread to New World after European discovery of America?No answers to above questions
51 African Stone Game, Malawi These men are playing a game commonly known as mancala. Archaeological evidence shows that the game was played in ancient times in many locations in Africa and Asia including Indonesia.
52 African Stone Game, Malawi The 200 million years ago existence of Pangaea, a single landmass that subsequently broke apart with continental drift, would account for the wide distribution of the stone game. Today it is sold in stores across America – an element of folk culture in a world of popular culture.
53 BlowgunsNonliterate condition of many folk cultures precludes written records that might reveal diffusionJett favors transpacific diffusion from Indonesia before the time of ColumbusYou must explain why it is not found in the South Pacific islands and AfricaIf you support independent invention, you must accept an identical device was invented two timesCultural diffusion presents such problems
54 Blowguns Independent invention is always possible Carl Sauer’s proposal that plant domestication occurred independently in both hemispheres helped free cultural geographers from deterministic view that each invention had a single originIf one or more nonfunctional features, of blowguns, such as a decorative motif, occurred in both hemispheres — diffusion would be the logical conclusion
55 Culture Regions Folk Culture Regions Folk Cultural Diffusion Folk EcologyCultural Integration in Folk GeographyFolk Landscapes
56 Folk ecologyFolk group’s close relationship with the physical environmentAdaptive strategies possess sustainabilityLivelihood gained directly through primary activities — farming, herding, hunting, gathering, and fishingLanguages bear vocabularies required to exploit the habitatReligions act to mitigate environmental hazards
57 Folk ecology Folk tales honor great hunters Proverbs offer wisdom concerning weather and proper time for plantingArchitecture reflects local building materials and climateOne is tempted to conclude folkways exist to facilitate the adjustment to physical environmentIt is easy to believe the path of environmental determinism
59 Folk ecology Folkways involve more than merely cultural adaptation A variety of folk cultures can exist in any particular ecosystemThey are not enslaved and wholly shaped by their physical surroundingsNot necessarily true that they live in close harmony with their environmentOften soil erosion, deforestation, and overkill of wild animals can be attributed to traditional rural folk
60 Geophagy Defined—the eating of earth Most common in parts of Africa and in the American South among Americans of African ancestryCertain kinds of clay are the preferred earth for eating
61 GeophagyIn African source regions, clays are consumed for a variety of reasonsAs a treatment for certain diseases and parasitesProvides nutrients for pregnant women and growing childrenConsumed as part of religious ceremoniesIn the African-American folk region of the South coastal plain, geophagy is confined mainly to pregnant black women and to black children under the age of five
63 Folk medicineCommon to treat diseases and disorders with drugs and medicines derived from the root, bark, blossom, or fruit of plantsIn the United States, folk medicine is best preserved in the Upland SouthParticularly southern AppalachiaOn some Indian reservationsThe Mexican borderland
64 Folk medicine Many folk cures have proven effectiveness Root digging in the AppalachiansMuch of the produce is now funneled to dealers, who serve a larger marketRemains at heart a folk enterprise carried on in the old waysRequires the traditional through knowledge of the plant environment
66 Folk medicineMexican folk culture region along the southern border of TexasStill widely practiced by curanderos, or “curers”Over four hundred medicines derived from wild and domestic plantsPerpetuates a tradition rooted in sixteenth century Indian and Spanish source
67 Folk medicineLocal folk medicine along the Texas southern border is based on the belief health and welfare depend on harmony between natural and supernaturalDisease and misfortune thought to involve some disharmonyThe curandero strives to restore harmony by use of counseling and botanical medicinesIn recent years fewer people have sought herbal remedies for infections, sprains, or broken bonesCuranderos now treat more cancer, diabetes, and hypertension than beforeIn response to change, some curanderos have become virtual paramedics and employ antibiotics in some cures
69 Folk Medicine in Zimbabwe Traditional healers in Africa use an array of environmental products for rituals and curatives. Various roots, seeds, and horns, as well as skins from endangered animals can be seen in this healer’s hut.In African culture, traditional medical practitioners are considered influential spiritual leaders.
70 Folk Medicine in Zimbabwe Some base their reputation on knowledge of biotica, some claim supernatural diagnostic and healing powers, and others are witch doctors able to intercept or exorcise evil spirits.All use plant and animal materials in their word.
71 Environmental perception When folk culture groups, or individuals, migrate they seek environments similar to their own homelandsThey function best in similar environments because the lore of the land passed down relates to one particular ecosystemOverpopulation or other “push’ factors cause folk groups to migrate
73 Environmental perception Migration of Upland Southerners from Appalachia between 1830 and 1930Moved as Appalachians filled upNormally moved in clan or extended-family groupsInitially found environmental twin of Appalachians in the Ozark-Ouachita Mountains of Missouri and ArkansasLater, others sought out hollows, coves, and gaps of the central Texas Hill CountryBetween 1880 and 1930 some 15,000 migrated to the Cascade and coastal mountain ranges of Washington State
74 Environmental perception People so close to nature remain sensitive to subtle environmental qualities“Planting by the signs,” is still found among folk farmers in the United States and elsewhere
75 Environmental perception Folk groups are much more observant of their ecosystems than those in popular cultureFolk groups strive for harmony with nature, though they do not always achieve itOften ascribe animistic religious sanctity to environmental forces and particular parts of their habitatMany people today lament the loss of a closeness to natureOnce the closeness of nature is lost, it is impossible to regain because it was the product of centuries of trial and error
76 Culture Regions Folk Culture Regions Folk Cultural Diffusion Folk EcologyCultural Integration in Folk GeographyFolk Landscapes
77 Cultural integration in folk geography Interaction between folk and popular culturesFew folk groups escape some interaction with the larger worldA lively exchange is constantly on-going between folk and popular culturesMost commonly, the folk absorb ideas filtering down from popular culture
79 Cuzco, PeruCuzco, an Inca capital, is a major tourist destinations. Here, llama wool sweaters, ponchos, and rugs are displayed for the tourist trade. Woven on hand-looms, they have natural wool
80 Cuzco, Peru colors or are colored with mineral or vegetable dyes. Similar products are also produced by factory machines using chemical dyes for trendy colors for appeal to mass market.
81 Cultural integration in folk geography Interaction between folk and popular culturesOccasionally elements of folk culture penetrate the popular societyFolk handicrafts and arts often fetch high prices among city dwellersThey may exhibit quality, attention to detail, and uniqueness absent in factory-made goodsSome folk goods are revised to make them more marketablePopular folk items include-Irish fisherman sweaters, Shaker furniture, and Panamanian Indian molas
82 Mountain moonshineHome manufacture of corn whiskey in the Upland South has been going on since the early pioneering days of the 1700sProbably diffused to America with the pioneering Scotch-IrishThe word whisky has a Celtic origin, probably from the Scottish Gaelic uisge beatha (“water of life”)Home manufacture of whisky has occurred in many Appalachian hill settlements for 200 years
84 Mountain moonshineWhiskey making withstood the prohibitionist attitudes of the nineteenth century religious revivalMany mountaineers are devout Baptists or Methodists, but defied antiliquor teachingsMany mountain people proved very willing to vote their areas legally “dry”Corn whiskey is very persistent in the folk diet
85 Mountain moonshineTraditionally corn liquor was intended mainly for family consumptionOver the years, Appalachian moonshine began to find its way to marketProved the best way for hill folk to participate in the money economyConverted a bulky grain crop of low cash value in a compact beverage of high value per unit of weight
86 Mountain moonshineEarly as 1791, the U.S. federal government began taxing manufacturers of whiskeyFrom the beginning, mountaineers found ways to avoid the taxStills lay concealed in remote coves and hollows to escape detectionWhen stills were discovered and destroyed, new ones in different locations replaced themRevenuers were no more successful in stopping whisky making than the churches had been
88 Mountain moonshineThe important effect was mountain folk accepted markets offered by popular culture but rejected its legal and political institutionsBy the 1950s, some 25,000 gallons of white lightning reached the market each week from the counties of eastern Tennessee aloneIn spite of numerous raids by federal authorities, production continued unabatedToday, a substantial amount of illicit whisky still reaches markets from southern Appalachia
89 Mountain moonshineWhiskey production, legal and illegal, in Kentucky and Tennessee represents an impressive survival of folk industry to serve a market in popular societyIllegal whisky production and popular culture integration led to the creation of the “folk automobile”A fast vehicle needed to outrun the law, but humble in appearanceSome have claimed these vehicles were the forerunners of the basic American stock carStock-car racing then is considered another result of interplay between folk and popular cultures
91 Country and Western music Upland Southern folk music had a very impressive impact upon American popular cultureDerived to a great degree, from folk ballads of English and Scotch-Irish, who settled in the upland-South in colonial timesSome have hypothesized use of the fiddle (violin) is an effort to recapture sounds of the Celtic Scottish bagpipeGradually, Upland Southern folk music absorbed influences of the American social experience
92 Country and Western music Derived to a great degree, from folk ballads of English and Scotch-Irish, who settled in the upland-South in colonial timesBecame a composite of Old World and New World folk traditionsLong remained confined to the traditional society that developed itDealt with themes such as love and hate, happiness and sorrow, comedy and tragedyGave expression to a unique life-style and a particular land
93 Country and Western music Entry of country music into popular culture began about the time of World War IDiffusion was facilitated by the invention of the radioPopularization brought changesSmall number of songs in folk culture exploded with the popular cultureElectrical amplification needed in crowded noisy night spots produced a curious mixture with the use of the electric guitarThemes of lyrics increasingly addressed life in the popular culture
94 Country and Western music Bluegrass, one of the many styles of country music, emerged in the 1930sDeveloped by Bill MonroeUnique sound is achieved by the joining of a lead banjo with fiddle, guitar, mandolin, and string bassUsing only electric instruments keep it faithful to its originsHigh-pitched, emotional vocal sound clearly reveals derivation from Scottish church singing
95 Country and Western music Bluegrass, one of the many styles of country music, emerged in the 1930sAcceptance remains greatest in its Upland Southern core area in Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, and North CarolinaMost performers come from this core areaMusic retains strong identification with Appalachian places
97 Country and Western music Impact of migration of Upland Southern folk on bluegrass musicMigrated to Missouri, Arkansas, Texas, and Oklahoma plus the Depression era movement of “Okies” and “Arkies” to the Central Valley of CaliforniaProvided natural areas for bluegrass expansion in the mid-twentieth century
98 Culture Regions Folk Culture Regions Folk Cultural Diffusion Folk EcologyCultural Integration in Folk GeographyFolk Landscapes
99 Folk landscapes Folk architecture most visible aspect of the landscape Comes from the memory of traditional peopleBuilt on mental images that change little from one generation to the nextFolk buildings are extensions of a people and their regionProvide the unique character of each district or provinceOffer a highly visible aspect of the human mosaic
101 Folk Architecture: Maasai House, Kenya The Maasai are pastoralists who bring their cattle into their circular housing compounds (engangs or manyattas) at night. Maasai bomas (houses) are built by women.Latticed frames are constructed with termite, ant and beetle resistant wood poles, insulated with packed leaves, and covered with cattle dung readily available in the engang.
102 Folk Architecture: Maasai House, Kenya A snail-shell entry inhibits entry of human or animal intruders.Lattice sleeping platforms covered with cowhide are attached to internal walls. There are no windows, only vents for the central fire. Insect damage and leakage call for ongoing maintenance. Using plastic sheeting as a roof cover is a modern luxury few can afford.
103 Folk landscapesSeek in folk architecture the traditional, the conservative, and the functionalExpect from it a simple beautyHarmony with the physical environmentA visible expression of folk culture
104 Building materialsOne way we classify folk houses and farmsteads is by the type of building materials used
112 Building materialsSedentary subsistence farming peoples of adjacent highlands, oases, and river valleys of the Old World zoneRely principally on earthen constructionSun-dried (adobe) bricksPounded earthIn more prosperous regions, kiln-baked bricks are availablePeople in the tropical grasslands, especially in Africa, construct thatched houses from coarse grasses and thorn bushes
113 Building materialsBuildings of Mediterranean farmers and some rural residents of interior Indian and the Andean highlandsMost live in rocky, deforested landsUse stone as principal building materialCreate entire landscapes of stoneWalls, roofs, terraces, streets, and fencesLends an air of permanence to the landscape
115 Folk architecture: China The Kazak practice transhumance, spending the summer with their horses, goats, sheep and cattle in high pastures of the Tien Shan (Heavenly Mountains) of northwestern China.These yurts have wooden trellis walls and are covered with felt which is pressed animal hair.
116 Folk architecture: China The top flap can be opened to vent a central fire or closed to keep out rain.As winter approaches, the yurt is dismantled and carried by pack animals to lower elevations.
117 Folk architecture: China Many Kazak now winter in Chinese style, mud-brick, sod-roofed houses.Yurts are experiencing technological change as wood gives way to plastic and felt to canvas.
118 Building materials Housing in the middle and higher latitudes Houses made of wood where timber is abundantIn the United States, log cabins and later frame housesFolk houses of northern Europe and in the mountains of eastern Australia are made of wood
121 Building materials Housing in the middle and higher latitudes In some deforested regions — Central Europe and parts of ChinaFarmers built half-timbered housesFramework of hardwood beams with fill in the interstices of some other materialSod or turf houses typify prairie and tundra areasRussian steppesIn pioneer times, the American Great PlainsNomadic herders often live in portable tents made of skins or wool
122 Floor plan Unit farmstead Single structure where family, farm animals, and storage facilities share spaceIn simplest form is one storied — People and animals occupy different ends of structureMore complex ones are multi-storied arranged so people and livestock live on different levels
125 Floor planCommunal unit housing common among some shifting cultivatorsMultiple families live under the same roofSleeping and cooking done in separate alcovesLiving space is shared
126 Floor planCommunal unit housing common among some shifting cultivatorsExample — the Sarawak longhouse found on the Malaysian portion of the island of BorneoAccommodates between 5 and 8 nuclear familiesAn elongated dwellingRaised above forest floor on stiltsReflect a clan or tribal social organization
128 Folk Architecture: Manali, India This house has been constructed by the Kullu people who live in the lower Himalayas of Himachal Pradesh. This is a steeply sloped, rocky and forested area and people make the best use of local materials.
129 Folk Architecture: Manali, India Noted for their woodwork, the Kulli carve and paint religious and tribal designs to propitiate the gods and ward off evilThe substantial stone roof will support a heavy winter snowfall.Fodder and cattle are kept below the living quarters.
130 Floor planMost common are farmsteads where the house, barn, and stalls occupy separate buildingsExample of the courtyard farmsteadVarious structures clustered around an enclosed yardAppears in several seemingly unrelated culture regionsFound in Inca-settled portions of Andes MountainsAlso found in the hills of central Germany, and eastern ChinaHave wide distribution — offer privacy and protection
134 Floor planStrewn farmstead prevails in countries where Germanic Europeans immigrated and settledAnglo-America, Australia, and New ZealandBuildings lie spaced apart each other in no consistent patternEspecially common in zones of wooden construction where fire is a hazardPoorly suited for defenseOften associated with rural regions of more than average tranquility
135 Irish folk housesOther characteristics that help classify farmsteads and dwellingsForm or shape of roofPlacement of chimneyDetails such as number and location of doors and windowsEstyn EvensUsed roof form and chimney placement, among other traits, in classifying Irish housesDetermined three major folk-housing culture regions
136 Irish folk housesIf floor plan and material composition had been included, more regions would have been identifiedOther features such as the bed outshot of far north Ireland, mud wall constructions of interior counties, and off-center door found in several districts
138 Folk housing in North America Few folk houses are being built todayPopular culture with its mass-produced, commercially built houses has overwhelmed folk traditionsMany folk houses survive in refuge regions
141 Folk housing in North America Yankee or New England folk housesWooden frame constructionShingle siding often covers exterior wallsHave a variety of floor plansNew England large house — huge two-and-a-half stories, built around a central chimney and two rooms deepAs Yankee folk moved west, they developed the upright and wing dwellingHouses are often massive because of cold winters
145 Folk housing in North America Upland Southern folk housesDogtrot house-two log rooms separated by an open roofed breezewayShotgun house-African-American, one room wide, but two to four rooms m depthCreole cottage-half-timbered with a central chimney and built-in porch, found in Acadiana, a French-derived folk region in Louisiana
146 Folk housing in North America Canadian folk housesHouse type found in French speaking QuebecMain story atop a cellar, attic rooms beneath a curved, bell-shaped roofBalcony-porch with railing extends across the front, which is sheltered by overhanging eavesSummer kitchen sealed off during the long cold wintersHouses often built of stone
148 Folk housing in North America Ontario farmhouse—occurs frequently in the Upper Canadian folk regionOne-and-a-half stories tall, usually built of brickHas distinctive gabled front dormer windowInterpretation of folk architecture is not a simple processProblem of independent invention versus diffusion is raised repeatedlyFolk cultures rarely leave behind many written records, making landscape artifacts all the more important