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Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) Plan & Metrics.

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Presentation on theme: "Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) Plan & Metrics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) Plan & Metrics

2 Agenda Executive Overview of CAST Progress Historical Background Progress to Date Annual Safety Plan Inclusion of R & D Business model Action Plan Garner support for continued CAST activities

3 CAST Origin

4 In the U.S., our focus was set by the White House Commission on Aviation Safety 1.1 Government and industry should establish a national goal to reduce the aviation fatal accident rate by a factor of five within ten years and conduct safety research to support that goal 1.2The FAA should develop standards for continuous safety improvement, and should target its regulatory resources based on performance against those standards 5.3-2

5 The National Civil Aviation Review Commission (NCARC) on Aviation Safety Provided Additional Direction FAA and the aviation industry must develop a strategic plan to improve safety, with specific priorities based on objective, quantitative analysis of safety information and data Government should expand on their programs to improve aviation safety in other parts of the world 5.3-3

6 In Response l Ongoing Industry and FAA Safer Skies Initiatives were Combined into CAST l Data-Driven, Consensus-Based, Integrated Strategic Safety Plan Developed l In place and fully supported by Government and Industry with Worldwide Recognition - CAST

7 Excluding all security events

8 HUMAN FACTORS IN OPERATIONS & MAINTENANCE Carry-on Baggage Child Restraint Passenger Interference CABIN SAFETY IMPROVED DATA & ANALYSIS GENERAL AVIATION Loss of Control Weather Survivability Aeronautical Decisionmaking Controlled Flight Into Terrain Approach and Landing COMMERCIAL AVIATION Controlled Flight Into Terrain Loss of Control Weather Uncontained Engine Failures Runway Incursion Passenger Seat Belt Use Runway Incursions Safer Skies Turbulence

9 CAST Goals l Reduce the U.S. commercial aviation fatal accident rate by 80% by 2007 l Work together with airlines, JAA, ICAO, IATA, FSF, IFALPA, other international organizations and appropriate regulatory/ government authorities to reduce worldwide commercial aviation fatal accident rate

10 Industry Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) Government *Representing GE and RR DOD FAA Aircraft Certification Flight Standards System Safety Air Traffic Operations Research NASA ICAO JAA TCC NATCA AIA Airbus ALPA APA ATA NACA Boeing P&W* RAA FSF IATA AAPA ATAC APFA Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST)

11 Safety enhancement development Master safety plan Enhancement effectiveness Future areas of study CAST Data analyses Joint Safety Analysis Teams (JSAT) Joint Safety Implementation Teams (JSIT) Joint Implementation Measurement Data Analysis Team (JIMDAT) Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST)

12 CAST A Three-Stage Process Influence Safety Enhancements - Worldwide Data Analysis Set Safety Priorities Achieve consensus on priorities Integrate into existing work and distribute Implement Safety Enhancements - U.S. Agree on problems and interventions

13 Additional Safer Skies Activities l Although the primary purpose of our briefing focuses on CAST, there are other Safer Skies focus areas: –General Aviation Joint Steering Committee (JSC) –Cabin Safety

14 Integrated Strategic Safety Plan l Data-Driven, Consensus-Based, Integrated Strategic Safety Plan Developed –46 Prioritized Safety Enhancements –8 R&D Projects and 2 Studies l 46 safety enhancements optimized to include those actions with the best effectiveness vs. resource relationships - 22 complete/24 committed and underway l Initially combines short-term liveware-based enhancements with transition to design change enhancements long term l Projected 73% Risk Reduction by 2007 (75% by 2020) l Foundation for U.S-supported continuous improvements in worldwide aviation safety

15 CAST Safety Plan

16 Completed Safety Enhancements l Terrain avoidance warning system (TAWS) l CFIT Standard Operating Procedures l Precision approach implementation (PAI) Vertical Angles – Increase constant angle approaches l Minimum Safe Altitude Warning (MSAW) Systems l Proactive Safety Programs (FOQA + ASAP) l CFIT Crew Resource Management (CRM) training l CFIT Prevention training l Air Traffic Controller CFIT training l PAI-VGSI at runway ends l PAI-DME at airports l RI SOPs –Ground Operations (General Aviation) –Tow tug operators –ATC

17 Completed Safety Enhancements (contd) l Safety Culture –Industry will include essential safety information in the appropriate airline manuals (i.e., training programs) –FAA inspectors will utilize the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) database –CEO and Director of Safety (DOS) more visible l Maintenance Procedures –FAA published guidance on: Servicing landing struts Surveillance of maintenance subcontractors Minimum Equipment List (MEL) (covers recurring maintenance events) –Air Carriers Directors of Safety completed internal surveys to verify guidance was being followed l ALAR Flight crew training l Uncontained Engine Failures –FAA issued Airworthiness Directives requiring the Inspection of High-Energy Rotating Parts

18 Committed Plan Elements l Policies and Procedures –Industry will develop/implement Risk Management tools –Industry will develop a process to inform personnel/flight crew of critical safety information –Industry will develop a process to enhance flight crew proficiency –FAA/Industry will develop standard operating procedures for loss of control related accidents l Aircraft Design –FAA will issue guidance on Continuing Airworthiness –FAA will issue guidance on Critical System Maintenance –FAA will amend guidance to include recommendations surrounding autoflight designs for new type designs –Manufacturers will implement Flight Deck Equipment Upgrades for new type designs (i.e. interactive checklists) –FAA/JAA will amend guidance to include recommendations regarding Displays and Alerting Systems for new designs –Manufacturers agree to install Vertical Situation Displays in new aircraft –FAA/JAA will issue amended icing certification criteria for criteria for new airplane designs not equipped with evaporative systems –Manufacturers agree to install Flight Envelope Protection in new type designs

19 Committed Plan Elements (cont.) l Runway Incursions –Enhanced airport surveillance equipment –Standard operating procedures (SOPs) Ground operations (121/135) Vehicle operators Clearance readback requirements –Training Pilots ATC -Enhanced Tower Controller Training -CRM

20 Committed Plan Elements (cont.) l Flight Crew Training –Advanced Maneuvers Training will be provided by all operators –Industry will incorporate a human factors-related training guide into training programs and SOPs l Precision approach implementation (PAI) FAA and Industry will develop: –Recommended procedures, displays and training that will enable pilots of commercial aircraft to fly a stabilized vertical path to the runway for all instrument approaches –Criteria and guidance for reduced landing minima –Laterally and vertical guided approach paths to runway ends not served by Instrument Landing System (ILS)

21 CAST R&D Plan l CFIT – Synthetic Vision Systems Develop capabilities that permit flight crews to operate in a day VMC-like environment, regardless of visibility l CFIT – FOQA & ASAP Develop low cost analytical tools (including decision making) and methods that both large and small operators can apply to FOQA and ASAP information l CFIT – Datalink Develop datalink capabilities and systems for automatic digital transmission

22 CAST R&D Plan (contd) l CFIT Precision-Like Approach Conduct research necessary to determine human factors guidelines for design of instrument procedures l ALAR - Health & Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) Conduct research and develop technology for detection, prediction and/or annunciation of impending equipment failures l ALAR – Human Factors Conduct research into correcting and eliminating the underlying reasons/causes for procedural noncompliance.

23 CAST R&D Plan (contd) l LOC – Icing For aircraft that incorporate non-evaporative ice protection systems, develop systems that sense the presence of ice accretion on the aircraft, automatically activate and manage the ice protection systems, and provide the pilot with feedback including the effect on measured aircraft performance, stability, and control l LOC - Envelope Protection -Existing Airplanes Complete study and determine feasibility of modifying existing aircraft to include angle-of-attack / low speed protection (e.g., stick pushers/nudgers, column force ramps/gradients, automatic elevator/stabilizer inputs); thrust asymmetry compensation; and bank angle protection using hard or soft limits

24 CAST R&D Plan (contd) l RI - ATC Procedures -Review Capacity Enhancement Program - LAHSO) Complete review of capacity enhancement programs to determine if they are contributory to runway incursions l RI - RI Visual Aids Enhancement and Automation Technology - Airports - Runway occupancy signal Develop, evaluate and install a visual signal to indicate runway occupancy to flight crews on final approach to that runway

25 Resource Cost vs. Risk Reduction APPROVED PLAN Completed + Plan (2007 Implementation Level) Completed + Plan (2020 Implementation Level) All JSIT Proposed Enhancements (2020 Implementation Level) Resource Cost ($ Millions) Risk Reduction Total Cost in $ (Millions) % 25% 50% 75% 100% Risk Eliminated by Safety Enhancements Completed

26 Safety Plan Benefits l Prediction of a 73% risk reduction that also results in approximately $620 million annual savings to the industry –Current accident cost per flight is approximately $76 cycle –Implementation of the 46 selected safety enhancements reduces this cost by $56 per flight cycle Safety is morally required and is also good for business

27 Dollars/Flt. Cyc Part 121 Aviation Industry Cost Due to Fatal/Hull Loss Accidents Historical cost of accidents per flight cycle 73% Risk reduction Savings ~ $56/Flight Cycle Or ~ $620 Million Dollars/Year Cost of accident fatalities following implementation of the CAST 2007 levels Cost Savings

28 U.S. Hull Loss & Fatal Accidents Portion of Total Fatality Risk Mitigated by the CAST Plan (2007 Implementation Values) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Total LOC Flt CFIT Fire/Explosion Runway Collision LOC GND Midair Crew Inc Eng-UCEF Sys-Comp Turbulence Evac Portion of Risk Risk Eliminated Risk Remaining CAST Fatal/Hull Loss Database – Security events excluded

29 All Regions Combined Worldwide Hull Loss & Fatal World Wide Accidents Portion of Fatality Risk Mitigated If CAST Plan is Adopted Worldwide (2007 Implementation Values) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% TotalCFIT LOC-I SCF-PP SCF-NP ICE Midair FIRE-NI FUEL RI ARC RE USOS WSTRW ADRM OTHER-BIRD Portion of Risk Risk Eliminated Risk Remaining Accident Classes Defined by CAST/ICAO Common Taxonomy

30 The CAST Process is Flexible It may be used to analyze: Suggestions from outside industry Regulatory initiatives Accident lessons learned Incident data Other

31 Safety Metrics l Purpose: Measure to determine if program is resulting in desired risk reduction. Identify issues needing more detailed analysis if desired result is not occurring l Assumption: Measurement of accident rate is not effective means of identifying program success l Concentrate on using reporting systems currently in existence (ex: FOQA, Partnership programs, SDR, NAOMS, etc.) l Direct link is through the problem statements identified by data analysis –Identify events that reflect the problem –Identify available method for measuring the event frequency –Establish event baseline –Identify trend

32 Safety Metrics Examples Safety EnhancementIndicator 1. Terrain Avoidance Warning System (TAWS) l Reduction in MSAW alerts l Reduction in valid GPWS alerts (CFIT) 4. CFIT PAI-Vertical Angles (7- 11,18) l Percentage of operators who have adopted constant angle approaches l Continuous reduction in selected metrics 21. ALAR Flight Deck Equipment Upgrades – New Type Designs (1- 3) l Reduction in number of inadvertent descents below decision height 23. ALAR Flight Crew Training – one project l Continuous reduction in the number of busted approach gates l Continuous reduction in altitude busts 27. LOC Policies and Procedures – Risk Assessments and Management – one project l Percentage of operators/manufacturers with risk assessment/management processes in place l Continuous reduction in the number of operations with recurring intermittent failures in flight critical systems l Percentage of operators with a process to include safety information in manuals

33 CAST Links to International Safety Activities l Asia/Pacific –ICAO COSCAP (Cooperative Development of Operational Safety and Continuing Airworthiness) – NARAST, SARAST, SEARAST –Association of Asia Pacific Airlines l Europe –JSSI: JAA Safety Strategy Initiative l Central / South America –PAAST: Pan American Aviation Safety Team l East Africa –African Airlines Safety Council, AFRASCO l West Africa –ASECNA (Agence pour la Securite de la Navigation Aerienne en Afrique et a Madagascar) l Flight Safety Foundation –CAAG (CFIT & Approach and Landing Action Group) l ICAO –Global Aviation Safety Plan (GASP)

34 Future Vision l Execute the CAST-approved Safety Plan l Measure Plan effectiveness and modify Plan based on metrics and results l Continue the development of a proactive incident-based risk mitigation methodology l Improve the CAST process l Expand CAST influence on worldwide safety programs l Integrate safety program with R & D initiatives l Catalog the many on-going safety initiatives that dilute limited resources and identify opportunities for program integration and efficiency improvements

35 Safety Plan Development Accident JSATs Accident JSITs Safety Enhancements CAST Plan Incident Analysis Process Metrics JIMDAT Process Emerging Risk Changing Risk Safety Enhancements Aviation System Changes Present In Master Factors Yes No Demographic Changes Identify Hazards Identify Factors Develop Contributing Factors (new or emerging) Safety Enhancements Identify Hazards Identify Factors Master Contributing Factors CAST-051 CAST Plan Rev. FAST Hazards Metrics

36 Conclusions l CAST has an effective data-driven process l CAST has become the model for US Industry/Government consensus building on safety l CAST brings together all the key players – Air Carriers – Manufacturers – Employee Groups – Government l Predicted 73% risk reduction by 2007 l Industry is voluntarily implementing CAST recommendations l CAST is committed to worldwide participation l CAST is moving to develop proactive processes to identify changing and emerging risks

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