Presentation on theme: "Testosterone Synthesized mainly by leydig cells in the testes, other sources (adrenal cortex and ovarian stroma). Transported bound to plasma proteins."— Presentation transcript:
Testosterone Synthesized mainly by leydig cells in the testes, other sources (adrenal cortex and ovarian stroma). Transported bound to plasma proteins (albumin, globulin and other proteins). Converted in the tissue (by binding to 5 α reductase) to dihydrotestosterone (active form). Metabolized in the liver and excreted in the urine and bile.
Actions Maintain and develop the male primary and secondary sex characteristics. FSH with testosterone is required for spermatogenesis. Has protein anabolic effect causes growth spurt at puberty and closure of epiphysis.
Spermatogenesis (primary sex characteristic) Definition: formation of the male germ cell or mature sperm. Spermatogenesis is a sign of reproductive maturity. It takes 74 days to form mature sperm from a primitive germ cell.
The first phase – the primitive germ cells (spermatogonia) divide by mitotic division to form primary spermatocytes The second phase – the primary spermatocytes undergo meiotic division (reduction division) reducing the number of chromosome to half into secondary spermatocytes, the secondary spermatocytes divide to give spermatids
The third phase Spermatids develop and changes to spermatozoa. Spermatozoa mature around the sertoli cell before they reach the lumen of the seminiferous tubules. Spermatids mature into spermatozoa in the cytoplasm of the sertoli cells. Mature spermatozoa are released from the sertoli cells and become free in the lumens of the tubules.
Sertoli cells secrete androgen-binding protein (ABP), inhibin and MIS (mullerian inhibiting substance). The stages from spermatogonia to spermatids androgen independent. Maturation from spermatid to mature spermatozoa is androgen dependent, ABP to maintain a high stable supply of androgen in the tubular fluid. Inhibin inhibits FSH secretion. MIS causes regression of the mullerian ducts in males during fetal life.
Endocrine control of spermatogenesis by LH and FSH from the pituitary. LH acts on the leydig cells to stimulate the production of testosterone (primary and secondary sexual characteristics). FSH acts on the sertoli cells. Both FSH and testosterone act on sertoli cells to produce a high affinity androgen-binding protein (ABP) which maintain high concentration of androgen in the seminiferous tubule essential for normal spermatogenesis. Sertoli cells secrete inhibin which control FSH release by negative feedback,
Composition of seminal fluid different from the plasma High concentration of K +, glutamic acid, aspartic acid and inositol, androgens and estrogens,fructose,citric acid,nutrient substances,large quantites of prostaglandins and fibrinogens. Low levels of glucose and protein
The blood testes barrier Due to tight junctions between the sertoli cells near the basal lamina of the seminiferous tubules. This barrier prevents harmful substances e.g., drugs in the blood from reaching the lumen. Also it prevents antigenic products that formed during cell division from reaching the blood stream (autoimmune reaction).
Development of secondary sex characteristics External genitalia – enlargement of penis Internal genitalia – enlargement of seminal vesicles which begin to secrete fructose. Enlargement of prostate and bulbourethral glands. Voice – larynx enlarges, vocal cords increase in length and thickness and voice becomes deeper Mental – more aggressive, active attitude, interest in opposite sex develops.
Hair growth – beard appears, hairline on scalp recedes anterolaterally, pubic hair grows with male pattern (triangle with apex up towards the umbilicus), also hair appears in axillas, chest and around the anus and there increase in general body hair. Body conformation – shoulders broaden and muscles enlarge. Skin – sebaceous gland secretion thickens and increases (predisposing to acne). Sweat glands become more active.
Composition of human semen 60% of the seminal fluid comes from the seminal vesicles, the rest comes from prostate, vas deferens and mucous glands of the urethra. Volume – 3.5 mL and pH = 7.5 (alkaline) coagulates dues to fibrinogen secreted from vas deferens. Prostate secrete profibrinolysin which causes the clot to dissolve. Sperm count = 35-200 million/mL (male fertility), sperm count = <20 million/mL (infertility). range(120 million)