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Draft CAR/SAM Regional Guidance Material on Air Traffic Services Quality Assurance Programmes Quality for Tomorrow Begins Today NAM/CAR/SAM Air Traffic.

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Presentation on theme: "Draft CAR/SAM Regional Guidance Material on Air Traffic Services Quality Assurance Programmes Quality for Tomorrow Begins Today NAM/CAR/SAM Air Traffic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Draft CAR/SAM Regional Guidance Material on Air Traffic Services Quality Assurance Programmes Quality for Tomorrow Begins Today NAM/CAR/SAM Air Traffic Services Quality Assurance Programme Seminar Mr. Mark Rios Regional Officer, Air Traffic Management ICAO NACC Regional Office (16 to 20 October 2000, Mexico City, Mexico)

2 INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION NORTH AMERICAN, CENTRAL AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN OFFICE CAR/SAM REGIONAL GUIDANCE MATERIAL ON AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAMMES DRAFT Version 0.1 October 2000

3 THIS MATERIAL IS UNDER DEVELOPMENT AND IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE BEFORE ADOPTION BY GREPECAS AS REGIONAL GUIDANCE MATERIAL

4 Forward CAR/SAM/3 RAN (October 1999) ATS Quality Assurance Programme Purpose ATS Incidents Quality of Services CAR/SAM/3 Recommendation 5/36 ICAO develop guidance material on ATS quality assurance programmes for worldwide use CAR/SAM Regional Guidance Material on ATS QA Programmes first phase

5 Contents Chapter 1.Definitions Chapter 2.Background Chapter 3.ATS Quality Assurance Programmes Chapter 4.Controller Proficiency Checks Chapter 5.Air Traffic Incident Reporting, Investigations, and Investigation Teams Chapter 6.Air Traffic Incident Prevention Programmes Chapter 7.Air Traffic Services Evaluation Programme Chapter 8.Quality of Services Improvement Programmes Chapter 9.Proficiency Training Programmes Chapter 10.ATS Safety Management Chapter 11.Human Factors

6 Chapter 1. Definitions ATC proficiency training ATS operational duties Desk audit Follow-up ATS evaluation Full-unit ATS evaluation In-flight/preflight evaluations Operational deviation Operational error Pilot deviation Refresher training Runway incursion Simulation training Skill enhancement training Special evaluations Supplemental training Three-step closure process New Definitions

7 Chapter 2. Background Important to prepare ATS QA programme guidelines for States Heightened awareness of ATS incidents and recommendations made by: CAR/SAM/2 RAN (Santiago, 1989) Recommendation 6/11 – Investigation of ATS Incidents Recommendation 6/12 – Reporting of ATS Incidents GREPECAS 8 (Dominican Republic, 1998) Conclusion 8/7 – Actions to be taken by States to reduce ATS incidents in the CAR/SAM Regions Conclusion 8/8 – Actions to be taken by the users to reduce ATS incidents in the CAR/SAM Regions Conclusion 8/9 – Actions to be taken by the ICAO Regional Offices to reduce ATS incidents in the CAR/SAM Regions

8 Chapter 2. Background Informal working groups International organizations Airlines Reports received by ICAO Regional Offices Increase of ATS incidents by 43 per cent between 1996 and 1998 Justified the need for introduction of ATS QA programme for the CAR/SAM Regions ICAO NACC/SAM Regional Offices began work programme

9 Chapter 3. ATS Quality Assurance Programmes Introduction ATS QA programmes should focus on Identifying and correcting deficiencies before they result in an ATS incident or accident; and Should continually work towards improving the overall quality of air traffic services Chapter contains proactive quality assurance strategies

10 Chapter 3. ATS Quality Assurance Programmes Scope and purpose Specific guidance on reporting, investigating and resolving various types of ATS incidents that impact the quality of ATS Designed to work in conjunction with ICAO SARPs States regulations Objectives Prevent ATS incidents Continually improve overall quality of air traffic services

11 Chapter 3. ATS Quality Assurance Programmes Structure Depends on size and composition of ATS provider Acceptable and productive programme structure may involve ATS chief designating/selecting experienced ATC expert to be ATS unit quality assurance officer/specialist ATS unit QA specialist assumes duties and responsibilities of QA for ATS unit Larger ATS units could develop ATS QA unit/department –Several ATS QA specialists –Assistant chief with extensive ATC experience

12 Chapter 3. ATS Quality Assurance Programmes Implementation CAR/SAM/3 Recommendation 5/38 – Implementation of an ATS quality assurance programme That, a) States/ATS service providers within the CAR/SAM Regions implement an ATS quality Assurance programme with associated supporting documents. The programme should outline the purpose, goals, objectives and responsibilities of the programme within the State/ATS service provider; and b) Each ATS unit should establish such a programme

13 Chapter 3. ATS Quality Assurance Programmes Responsibilities ICAO NACC and SAM Regional Offices provide guidance and assistance to States/ATS service providers in the development of ATS quality assurance programmes States/ATS service providers Should implement an ATS quality assurance programme with associated supporting documents Programme should outline the purpose, goals, objectives and responsibilities within the State/ATS service provider and each ATS unit should establish a programme National ATS QA programmes are maintained and evaluated for effectiveness

14 Chapter 3. ATS Quality Assurance Programmes ATS unit chiefs Maintain a level of awareness and involvement in their ATS units operations/programmes so as to ensure maximum quality and efficiency All ATS personnel Responsible for maintaining the highest level of quality performance

15 Chapter 3. ATS Quality Assurance Programmes Programme content ATS QA programmes should establish methods to identify and correct shortcomings and recognize successes in the following areas: ATS incident prevention Teamwork Communications Customer service/feedback

16 Chapter 3. ATS Quality Assurance Programmes ATS incident prevention ATS refresher training Aeronautical phraseology improvement English language proficiency Hearback/readback ATS surface incident Incentive/recognition List of good operating practices Recordings monitor evaluation Simulation training Personal accounts of lessons learned Periodic quality assurance briefings in ATS units covering trends, customers input, evaluations, etc. Aggressive resolution of problems identified Incorporation of past ATS incidents scenarios into training Internal, national, and regional ATS evaluation ATS incident prevention

17 Chapter 3. ATS Quality Assurance Programmes Air traffic service teamwork training Teamwork incentive/recognition programmes Roles of different positions/jobs ATS Operational Supervisor training course Team meetings/briefings Expectations of all employees clearly communicated Teamwork

18 Chapter 3. ATS Quality Assurance Programmes Electronic bulletin board system Internet/intranet access to data National database containing national and local ATS QA data Newsletters ATS QA seminars, conferences and workshops All staff meetings Reports from International organizations, i.e. IFATCA, IATA, IFALPA, PAAST, etc., and other industry safety reports Communications

19 Chapter 3. ATS Quality Assurance Programmes Pilot education programmes Surveys of internal and external customers Interaction with other aviation organizations Air traffic controller/Operational Supervisor evaluation of shift performance All staff meetings Familiarization flights Contacts with customer organizations (i.e. local flight schools, airlines, aviation organizations, etc.) Pilot safety seminars and airport management workgroups Customer service/feedback

20 Chapter 4. Controller Proficiency Checks Introduction To provide continuous enhancement of technical proficiency in the ATS environment, individualized training requirements for technical performance should be identified and accomplished Controller proficiency checks are intended to provide feedback by ATS supervisors/ATS QA officers/specialists to controllers and supervisors regarding their proficiency, and to develop plans to enhance their proficiency

21 Chapter 4. Controller Proficiency Checks Responsibilities ATS unit chiefs to establish and maintain ATS unit proficiency standards ATS authority should develop guidelines specifying required level of knowledge (theoretical and practical) ATS operational personnel should be required to periodically demonstrate that their performance meets proficiency standards Controller proficiency checks should be accomplished on each controller and supervisor

22 Chapter 4. Controller Proficiency Checks ATS unit chief, supervisor or quality assurance specialist should conduct task of controller proficiency checks Develop proficiency check rosters to ensure all ATS operational personnel are checked biannually ATS operational supervisors and QA specialist should continuously assess controllers performance through direct or indirect methods Indirect – remote monitoring, voice recordings, observations by other supervisors or ATS unit QA specialists

23 Chapter 4. Controller Proficiency Checks What if results of controller proficiency check indicates controller would benefit from proficiency training? Use references to determine type of training needed: –ICAO Doc 9426, Air Traffic Services Planning Manual, Chapter 3 – Training and Proficiency Requirements –Draft CAR/SAM Regional Guidance Material for ATS QA Programmes, Chapter 9. Proficiency Training Assignment of proficiency training may not necessarily mean a deficiency was noted A controller may demonstrate an acceptable level of technical performance, but might still benefit from proficiency training in a particular skill or task

24 Chapter 4. Controller Proficiency Checks ATS supervisor or QA specialist should discuss the completed controller proficiency check with the controller Proficiency checks are not intended to be pass/fail or satisfactory/unsatisfactory What if a controllers performance is found to be unsatisfactory? Rating should be suspended and appropriate proficiency training, followed by a re-certification process should be completed

25 Chapter 4. Controller Proficiency Checks ATS units should conduct an annual review of all controller proficiency checks with a view to identify recurring and significant proficiency needs Documentation Discuss proficiency check results with the controller and document in the controllers training record

26 Chapter 5. Air Traffic Incident Reporting, Investigations, and Investigation Teams Introduction Air traffic incidents AIRPROX Operational error Operational deviation Runway incursion Pilot deviation Casual factor Procedural Ground facilities (equipment) Human

27 Chapter 5. Air Traffic Incident Reporting, Investigations, and Investigation Teams General reporting procedures Reporting by pilots Reporting by ATS ATS incident report form for use by pilots and controllers Investigation and documentation Analysis of ATS incident Release of information In the interest of accident/incident prevention Publish report as soon as possible

28 Chapter 5. Air Traffic Incident Reporting, Investigations, and Investigation Teams Air traffic incident investigation process Step-by-step process Suspected ATS incident event Identify and report ATS deficiencies That problems could be corrected Reporting of ATS incidents Requirement within States Responsibility of all ATS personnel Immediately report suspected ATS incidents to ATS supervisor or appropriate ATS administration official Without fear of reprisal

29 Chapter 5. Air Traffic Incident Reporting, Investigations, and Investigation Teams Preliminary ATS incident investigation Fact finding Determine what occurred in the ATS system Determine validity of the suspected ATS incident Confirmation of ATS incident Take appropriate action Advise other ATS unit if involved Relieve controller(s) may be involved Gather pertinent information (e.g. flight progress strips, etc.) Review voice recordings and prepare working copy

30 Chapter 5. Air Traffic Incident Reporting, Investigations, and Investigation Teams Review computer and radar data Conduct preliminary interviews Notify ATS management Complete preliminary ATS Incident Investigation Worksheet Follow-up investigation ATS unit chief should Ensure ATS incident investigations are conducted Coordinate with other ATS unit chief if involved Designate ATS incident Investigator-In-Charge (ATS-IIIC) Assemble ATS incident investigation team Ensure complete, thorough, objective and timely investigation

31 Chapter 5. Air Traffic Incident Reporting, Investigations, and Investigation Teams ATS-IIIC Conduct complete investigation Forward findings and recommendations to ATS unit chief Determine scope of other ATS unit investigation if involved and exchange information Assign duties to team members Conduct interviews in accordance with national and local requirements ATS incident investigation team Assist ATS-IIIC Remain under guidance of ATS-IIIC during investigation process

32 Chapter 5. Air Traffic Incident Reporting, Investigations, and Investigation Teams Procedures Training Supervision Equipment Control room environment External factors Controller actions Airspace configuration Traffic flows Pilot actions Consequence of ACAS/TCAS event Meteorological conditions Control position configuration Coordination procedures Aerodrome environment Human factors Accuracy of automated radar systems Radar data Investigation process Fact finding In-depth inquiry into all causal factors

33 Chapter 5. Air Traffic Incident Reporting, Investigations, and Investigation Teams Investigation process (cont..) Interviews Conduct interviews with all possible personnel involved or who may have knowledgeable of the incident Conduct interview in atmosphere of shared concern Consider national and/or local interview procedures Allow written comments and recommendations from interviewee ATS-IIIC or investigation team should conduct interviews

34 Chapter 5. Air Traffic Incident Reporting, Investigations, and Investigation Teams Investigation process (cont.) Voice recordings Review voice recording Make certified copy of original recording 5 minutes before to 5 minutes after last contact Include track time if available Written transcript of communications only when needed Radar data Radar data may be used to validate occurrence of ATS incident Written procedures should be developed explaining process Consider automation capabilities and accuracy of data

35 Chapter 5. Air Traffic Incident Reporting, Investigations, and Investigation Teams Reclassification of ATS incident What if during the investigation data indicates a reclassification is warranted? The incident may be reclassified as: Pilot deviation Other ATS unit deviation From operational error to operational deviation From operational deviation to operational error No occurrence

36 Chapter 5. Air Traffic Incident Reporting, Investigations, and Investigation Teams Return to operational duties ATS chiefs should remain involved in the post ATS incident process to ensure complete and consistent handling Reasons for suspension of controllers rating and assignment of proficiency training –Assist and enhance controllers performance –Best of his/her abilities –Meet minimum quality standards –Improve overall performance and quality of ATS

37 Chapter 5. Air Traffic Incident Reporting, Investigations, and Investigation Teams Return to operational duties (cont.) Consider the following when returning a controller to operational duties Events leading up to and surrounding ATS incident Controllers statement Procedure or separation minimum involved Voice recordings Controllers training record Controller proficiency checks Proficiency training Controller currency on the control position Computer data Involvement in previous ATS incidents Results of interviews and recommendations made by ATS-IIIC and investigation team

38 Chapter 5. Air Traffic Incident Reporting, Investigations, and Investigation Teams Return to operational duties (cont.) Deficiencies in controllers performance Determine whether to suspend controllers rating Suspension of rating not based solely on involvement in ATS incident but based on performance Determine appropriate actions and refresher training Complete refresher training Re-certify controller through controller proficiency check

39 Chapter 5. Air Traffic Incident Reporting, Investigations, and Investigation Teams Final ATS incident reports ATS unit chief Analyze data submitted by ATS-IIIC and investigation team in Final ATS Incident Investigation Report to determine and/or endorse classification of incident and –Categorization of ATS incident (i.e, procedural, facility, human factor, etc.) –Causal factors –Recommendation and corrective actions Complete Final ATS Incident Report within 30 days

40 Chapter 5. Air Traffic Incident Reporting, Investigations, and Investigation Teams ATS incident tracking process Annual ATS incidents tracking process Will assist CAAs with follow-up investigations and trend analysis Sample ATS Incident Report # XXXX-E-00-001 ATS Incident Report # XXXX-T-00-002 ATS Incident Report # XXXX-F-00-003 Legend: XXXX = ATS unit identification E, T, or F = Type of ATS unit (E = Enroute (ACC); T = Approach (APP) and Aerodrome Control Tower; F = FIC, AFIS, etc.) 00 = Last two digits of the year 001 = ATS incident number in sequence by year for the unit

41 Chapter 5. Air Traffic Incident Reporting, Investigations, and Investigation Teams Training and proficiency records Document in training and proficiency records ATS incident records retention Determine retention period 2 ½ years is recommended National ATS authority responsibilities Maintain central source of ATS incident data Review final ATS incident investigation reports Develop and distribute annual ATS incident analysis report Determine effectiveness and efficiency of programme Maintain liaison with ATS unit chiefs Maintain oversight of ATS incident reports

42 Chapter 6. Air Traffic Incident Prevention Programmes Introduction Establish policies and programmes that result in quality incident free ATS Requires commitment of all ATS personnel Consistently perform duties and responsibilities in accordance with ICAO SARPs, CAA and ATS unit directives and procedures Accept responsibility for maintaining the safest and highest levels of operational performance Goals/objectives ATS incident free environment Safe, orderly, and expeditious ATS to users Everyone is responsible for ATS incident prevention Know, apply, and adhere to requirements in performance of operational duties and responsibilities

43 Chapter 6. Air Traffic Incident Prevention Programmes ATS incident prevention Many initiatives can be pursued Five primary areas Communications Phraseology Supervision Teamwork ATC proficiency

44 Chapter 6. Air Traffic Incident Prevention Programmes Identify activities/efforts which enhance individual, ATS unit, and system performance Recognize commendable activities/efforts Identify deficiencies (individual, equipment, procedural) Promptly correct deficiencies Ensure actions taken corrected the deficiencies or problems Initiatives to ensure effective controller performance, teamwork, communications Communicate performance expectations Maintain summary of ATS incidents and incorporate into training Brief ATS personnel on ATS incidents Monitor/evaluate voice recordings Review local/national/regional ATS incidents Annual QA review ATS unit staff meetings Improve communications among all ATS personnel to create atmosphere conducive to sharing information Attendance to local, national, regional QA seminars, conferences, etc. Prevention objectives

45 Chapter 6. Air Traffic Incident Prevention Programmes Communicate performance expectations with controllers Take prompt action when performance does not meet expectations (on-the-spot corrections, etc.) Address individual/team accountability Efficient/consistent oversight of ATS unit operation Ensure distractions and noise levels in ATS unit are kept at a minimum Require personnel to maintain high degree of professionalism, teamwork, control position discipline, awareness Promote open flow of communications Conduct ATS unit team meetings Place emphasis on hearback/readback Keep ATS unit chief/support staff informed (operations concerns, etc.) ATS supervisors

46 Chapter 6. Air Traffic Incident Prevention Programmes Random voice recording reviews Brief ATS unit on trends and causal factors related to ATS incidents, random recording reviews, evaluations, etc. Maintain awareness of ATS operational environment Provide staff expertise and support Assist in ensuring QA goals and objectives are being met Ensure scenarios involving hearback/readback errors are included in training Prepare/distribute ATS incident summaries to all ATS personnel Ensure ATS unit maintains summary of ATS units, causal factors, trends, etc. Incorporate into classroom and annual proficiency training ATS quality assurance officers/specialist

47 Chapter 6. Air Traffic Incident Prevention Programmes Keep ATS supervisors advised of traffic problems and equipment limitations Suggest improvements to ATS unit and/or incident prevention Maintain situational awareness Assist busier control positions Review own operating techniques and ATS unit procedures to effect highest quality of performance Promptly report ATS incidents Utilize memory aids ATC personnel

48 Chapter 6. Air Traffic Incident Prevention Programmes Voice recording monitor evaluations To ensure proper phraseology, good operating practices, adherence to ICAO standards, national/local directives and practices Guidelines Conduct semi-annually on all ATS operational personnel Review of voice recording by ATS supervisor/ATS QA specialist Document comments Develop action plan to address performance deficiencies ATS supervisor/QA specialist review and discuss voice recording with controller

49 Chapter 6. Air Traffic Incident Prevention Programmes Review of ATC procedures and practices that may contribute to ATS incidents Constant review of ATC procedures and practices Identify, report, recommend, and implement amendments Ensure safety of aviation and prevention of ATS incidents

50 Chapter 6. Air Traffic Incident Prevention Programmes ATS incident review groups Implement ATS incident review groups National/local levels Purpose Periodic reviews of prior ATS incidents Identify other potential problem areas requiring attention Effort to prevent ATS incidents Composition ATS unit chief Controllers Other ATS staff ATS unit QA specialist Pilots/airlines when appropriate

51 Chapter 6. Air Traffic Incident Prevention Programmes Safety information sharing networks and international organizations Several safety information networks available Facilitate free exchange of information of actual and potential safety deficiencies Expanding focus to include air traffic control services Goals Collect data Share information Assist with identification and prevention of incidents and accidents

52 Chapter 6. Air Traffic Incident Prevention Programmes Safety information sharing networks and international organizations (cont.) ADREP ICAO Accident/Incident Reporting Manual, Doc 9156 Global Aviation Safety Plan (GASP) Endorsed by 32 nd Session of the ICAO Assembly Objectives –Safety initiatives that offer best safety dividend –Annual reviews of accident statistics –Decrease in worldwide accident rate –Enhance identification of short comings and deficiencies –Increase and improve ICAOs own capability to compile, assess and disseminate safety-related information ICAO Website: www.icao.intwww.icao.int

53 Chapter 6. Air Traffic Incident Prevention Programmes Global Aviation Information Network To encourage the sharing of aviation safety data worldwide in an effort to further reduce accidents Plans to expand programme to include air traffic control Website: www.gainweb.orgwww.gainweb.org Aviation Safety Reporting Programme (ASRP) Reporting programme designed to identify unsafe operating conditions Deficiencies and discrepancies Limited immunity Voluntary and confidential

54 Chapter 6. Air Traffic Incident Prevention Programmes PAN American Aviation Safety Team (PAAST) Multi-organizational team Pool essential resources Addresses priority safety areas Deliver practical products to aviation community in Latin American and Caribbean Regions Participation in international organization study groups to analyze and recommend solutions to ATS incidents is encouraged

55 Chapter 6. Air Traffic Incident Prevention Programmes Runway incursion prevention plan Increase in runway incursions Aerodrome operations increasing throughout the world Potential for runway incursions increase Need for prevention plan which specifically addresses runway incursions Strategies Position relief briefings Position relief checklist Proficiency training – Prevention of runway incursions Feedback

56 Chapter 6. Air Traffic Incident Prevention Programmes Runway incursion prevention plan (cont.) Memory aids Use of flight progress strips/boards Runway in use sign Review usage of memory aids on semi-annual basis Procedures Review aerodrome movement operating practices Designate runway crossing point(s) Place special emphasis on safe runway crossings Use of proper procedures in runway crossings including interphone procedures, runway in use sign by ATS supervisors and controllers

57 Chapter 6. Air Traffic Incident Prevention Programmes Procedures (cont.) Avoid use of conditional clearances except as authorized by ICAO SARPs Certain conditional clearances are permitted; however, they should be kept to a minimum, the exception rather than the norm should be practiced, and under extreme caution Include runway check procedures in letter of agreement Define vehicular movement procedures/areas in letter of agreement Vehicular movements should be restricted to perimeter roads, vehicle access roads and other non-movement areas Describe closed runway procedures

58 END OF PART ONE

59 Chapter 7. ATS Evaluation Introduction Chapter deals with need for constant and continuous evaluation of individual ATS units and of the overall ATS system Purpose and scope Ensure that provision of service is maintained at the highest standard Units/personnel apply polices, standards, rules, procedures and separation minimum in approved manner

60 Chapter 7. ATS Evaluation ATS evaluation activities include Assessing service provided to users Ensuring operating procedures conform with standards Assessing operational requirements Identifying potential unsafe procedures or operating practices Detecting problem areas or deficiencies Examining effectiveness of intra/inter-unit communications and coordination Examining personnel utilization, position workload and establishments to ensure compatibility Recommending corrective actions

61 Chapter 7. ATS Evaluation Conduct of evaluation Designate team of experienced personnel to conduct ATS evaluations At least once every two years Notify ATS unit chief prior to conducting evaluation Meeting at completion of evaluation with ATS unit chief to discuss significant findings and recommendations Prepare written report – ATS evaluation team Prepare action plan – ATS unit

62 Chapter 7. ATS Evaluation ATS evaluation procedures This section provides standardized procedures for evaluating compliance with ICAO SARPs and specified directives and procedures at the national and local ATS unit level within a State Evaluation process Full unit ATS evaluation Preparation and notification –Use national checklist (to be added to material at later date) –Notify ATS unit chief 30 days prior to evaluation –Request data from ATS unit for pre-evaluation review –Solicit special interest items that ATS unit would like assessed

63 Chapter 7. ATS Evaluation Evaluation process (cont.) In-briefing –Introduce team members –Evaluation schedule and activities –ATS unit chief staff Conducting the evaluation –Direct observation –Control position and/or voice recording or data monitor –Attendance at staff meetings –Observation of training –Review of administrative records –Interviews/discussions –Review of in-flight/preflight evaluation reports

64 Chapter 7. ATS Evaluation Evaluation process (cont.) Daily briefings –Progress of evaluation –Provided by lead ATS unit evaluator to ATS unit chief Out-briefing –Briefing of ATS evaluator/teams findings –Attendance ATS unit chief ATS unit personnel encouraged –Present draft copy of ATS evaluation report Evaluation critique –Critique form to be completed by ATS unit chief

65 Chapter 7. ATS Evaluation Follow-up evaluations Preparation and notification Unannounced or minimum notification On-site evaluation Desk audit Combination of both Conduct no earlier than 6 months after full unit ATS evaluation May request data for pre-evaluation review Basically follow same process as full unit ATS evaluation

66 Chapter 7. ATS Evaluation In-flight/preflight evaluations Conduct at least 2 per year on each ATS unit Conducted by ATS evaluators and other authorized ATS personnel Use airlines or other operators in which an agreement to conduct such observations is in place The following air traffic services may be assessed: Air traffic services reporting office Automatic terminal information service Aerodrome control service Approach control service Air traffic advisory service Other services deemed appropriate

67 Chapter 7. ATS Evaluation Special evaluations May be conducted when deemed necessary by the ATS authority or if requested by the ATS unit Evaluation reports Document results of all ATS evaluations Complete and distribute final ATS evaluation reports within 30 days of the out-briefing Contents of final ATS evaluation reports Results of evaluation pertaining to areas assessed Describe reportable items Assign tracking control numbers to all items identified

68 Chapter 7. ATS Evaluation Responses to ATS unit evaluations Required on all items rated less than satisfactory Three-step closure process Action plan –Develop and forward action plans to appropriate ATS authority within 30 days of receiving final ATS unit evaluation report First response –Completed and distributed to ATS authority with 60 days of ATS unit out-briefing Second response –Completed and distributed with 180 days after date of the ATS unit evaluation out-briefing and every 180 days thereafter until all items are closed

69 Chapter 8. Quality of Services Improvement Programmes Introduction Initiatives that can improve the overall quality of air traffic services being provided Random voice recording reviews ATS unit quality assurance officers/specialists should complete several random voice recording reviews on a monthly basis Ensure overall quality of ATS is maintained

70 Chapter 8. Quality of Services Improvement Programmes ICAO phraseology improvement programme Implement ATS unit phraseology improvement programme Benefit to pilots and controllers Results can improve quality of service and prevention of ATS incidents Method Random voice recording reviews Voice recording monitor evaluations Direct observations Recognition of ATS personnel who demonstrate outstanding phraseology or significant improvement

71 Chapter 8. Quality of Services Improvement Programmes ATS customer service/feedback Important to establish good communications between ATS authorities/units and users Users can offer valuable feedback Feedback from others organizations/departments/internally Obtain feedback through surveys ATS quality assurance survey Conduct annually External Internal Analyzed and validate data collected Share results with ATS personnel Issues affecting quality of service should be addressed

72 Chapter 8. Quality of Services Improvement Programmes Pilot/controller user forums Conduct annually Can produce good relations and enhance communications between ATS authorities, pilots and controllers Main objective Bring together people in the ATS system that work together on a daily basis –Pilot on the flight deck –Controller in the control room/tower –Better understanding of each others responsibilities and duties Avoid conducting in a meeting type format Can also be used to present and explain information on the local or national ATS system and procedures

73 Chapter 8. Quality of Services Improvement Programmes Participation in pilot safety seminars Participation of ATS authorities in pilot safety seminars Present information regarding the ATS system, safety and quality assurance Pilot visits to ATS units Encourage pilot visits to ATS units ATS system familiarization ATS system familiarization/education for pilots Consider developing an ATS system education programme for pilots Education pilots in how to best utilize the ATS system Functions Responsibilities Benefits Services

74 Chapter 8. Quality of Services Improvement Programmes Familiarization training flights for ATS personnel Establish programmes with airlines ATS supervisors and controllers should be encourage to participate Allows ATS unit personnel to experience first hand the activities on the flight deck View programme as proficiency training

75 Chapter 8. Quality of Services Improvement Programmes Recognition of quality performance Recognition of positive quality performance is as important as identifying deficiencies Recognition as individuals or as a team Providing a high standard of performance and quality of service ATS performance measurements [TO BE DEVELOPED AT A LATER DATE]

76 Chapter 9. Proficiency Training Programmes Introduction Proficiency training is necessary to maintain and update the knowledge and skills necessary to apply air traffic control procedures in a safe an efficient manner Proficiency training includes: Refresher training Supplemental training Skill enhancement Remedial training

77 Chapter 9. Proficiency Training Programmes May be accomplished in many different ways External Internal (local/in-house-in proficiency training) –Most practical and efficient –Train staff as instructors (may involve external training) –After returning from training they would train others to become instructors (train-the-trainer) Proficiency training may include: –Training videos- Separation minima –Discussions/briefings- ATS incidents –Operational procedures- Contingency procedures –Emergency procedures- Effects of volcanic ash to aviation –Coordination procedures

78 Chapter 9. Proficiency Training Programmes Proficiency training Is required for: All ATS operational personnel (supervisors and controllers) Support personnel who maintain operational currency Purpose Maintain and upgrade knowledge and skills necessary to apply air traffic control procedures in safe and efficient manner Training needs will vary between different ATS units Describe proficiency training programme in ATS unit directive Annual schedule of proficiency training requirements Document training provided in controllers training record

79 Chapter 9. Proficiency Training Programmes Types of proficiency training Refresher training Recurring training conducted to maintain and update previously learned knowledge and skills Supplemental training Training administered to ATS operational personnel prior to implementation of new/revised procedures, regulations, equipment

80 Chapter 9. Proficiency Training Programmes Types of proficiency training (cont.) Skill enhancement training Training assigned, normally by the supervisor, when it is determined that a need exists to increase the skill(s) of a controller in a position on which he/she is certified Remedial training Training assigned to correct specific performance deficiencies

81 Chapter 9. Proficiency Training Programmes Unusual situations Infrequently used procedures Safety alerts/traffic advisories Wake turbulence Line up and wait procedures Deicing procedures Bird activity information Strayed or unidentified aircraft orientation Interception of civil aircraft Meteorology procedures for ATC Radar backup systems ATS contingency plan procedures Effects of volcanic ash to aviation Coordination procedures Civil/military coordination/joint use airspace Separation minima Radar vectoring techniques Speed control techniques Situational awareness ATS incident reduction Aircraft performance and characteristics ATC communications Prevention of runway incursions Special VFR operations Level assignment Local manual of operations Letters of agreement Arrival/departure procedures Weather Noise abatement ATS unit file/life safety procedures Refresher training topics

82 Chapter 10. ATS Safety Management This material is extracted from an amendment proposal to Annex 11 and is subject to change before adoption by the ICAO Council

83 Chapter 10. ATS Safety Management Introduction States implement systematic and appropriate ATS safety management programmes to ensure that safety is maintained in the provision of ATS within airspaces and at aerodromes ATS safety management programmes Provide for regular monitoring and assessment of safety level achieved Identify potential hazards and determine the need for remedial action Ensure that remedial action necessary to maintain an acceptable level of safety is implemented

84 Chapter 10. ATS Safety Management Objectives of ATS safety and capacity management Ensure established ATS level of safety is met within an airspace or aerodrome Safety-related enhancements are implemented ATS capacities conforming to actual needs – as far as practicable and subject to safety considerations Facilitate efficiency and economy in aircraft operations through use of flexible airspace

85 Chapter 10. ATS Safety Management ATS safety management activites Monitoring overall safety levels and detection of any adverse trend Safety reviews of ATS units Safety assessments Airspace re-organizations New or changed ATS procedures Establish need for safety enhancing measures Review ATS capacities Traffic demands, balancing capacity and traffic demands Flexible use of airspace Gain capacity and efficiency

86 Chapter 10. ATS Safety Management Monitoring of safety levels Periodically collect and review safety related data to evaluate level of safety achieved in ATS and to detect any adverse trends Safety reviews Conduct safety reviews of ATS units on a regular basis Safety review topics include: Regulatory issues Operational and technical issues Licensing and training issues

87 Chapter 10. ATS Safety Management Airspace re-organization and new or changed ATS procedures Need for safety assessments Acceptable level of safety Safety-significant factors Need for safety-enhancing measures Reviews of airspace and ATC capacity Capacity assessments Regulation of ATC capacity and traffic volumes Enhancements to ATC capacity Flexible use of airspace

88 Chapter 11. Human Factors Chapter designed in progress To be completed at a later date Proposed contents of chapter Information useful to air traffic control personnel Controller/pilot voice communications Memory Fatigue Effects of stress on information processing Techniques –Help reduce probability of voice communications errors –Remembering specific information –Identifying stress that could affect performance –Reduce fatigue

89 Next steps Draft regional guidance material to be presented to: GREPECAS ATM/CNS Subgroup and then to GREPRECAS ICAO Headquarters for consideration as worldwide guidance material - 2002 NAM/CAR/SAM ATS QA Programme Workshops 2001 (English) 2002 (Spanish) ATS QA Programme Training Course Should be developed under TRAINAIR programme 2002/2003

90 Conclusions ATS quality assurance programmes would place safety at the forefront while expediting and maintaining an orderly flow of air traffic Quality assurance is a dynamic process used to continually improve an ATS system

91 Conclusions Quality will continue to be measured against historical data Number of ATS incidents Delays Employee and customer feedback Factors that cannot be measured readily must also be recognized Willingness to function Team Training Actions taken to support zero ATS incidents all factor into quality assurance

92 Conclusions The success of the quality assurance effort is dependent on the recognition that all ATS providers, independently and collectively, must strive to provide the best service possible

93 Conclusions Write what you do Do what you write Check what you do Escriba lo que hace Haga lo que escribe Verifique lo que hace International Standardization Organization/Organizacion Internacional de Normalizacion Technical Committee 176 - ISO 9000 Basic Requirements/ Comite Tecnico 176 - Requisitos Basicos ISO 9000

94 The End Fin Thank you Gracias


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