3Cetaceans: Classification WhalesDolphinsPorpoisesCetaceansBaleen WhalesToothed WhalesThe baleen whales are characterized by baleen, a sieve-like structure in the upper jaw made of keratin, which they use to filter plankton from the water. They are the largest species of whale.The toothed whales have teeth and prey on fish, squid, or both. An outstanding ability of this group is to sense their surrounding environment through echolocation.Number of Cetacea in taxa: ca. 85
4Cetaceans and CMS Cetaceans are one of the most important taxonomic groups for CMSResearch initiatives:Assessment of populations & impact of by-catchTraining of local scientistsConducting field surveysCMS lists 12 species on APP I and 39 species on APP II2 „binding“ Agreements dealing exclusive-ly with cetaceansASCOBANSACCOBAMS1 Agreement for the conservation of cetaceans in the Pacific Islands Region1 Agreement is being developed for cetaceans/ manatees of the Atlantic Coast of Africa
5Dolphins 34 sea dolphins 5 river dolphins Flagship endangered species engage public interest in swimway (ecosystem) conservationHundreds of thousands of dolphins die every year as a result of human induced threats.
6WhalesWhales are those cetaceans which are neither dolphins nor porpoisesThis often leads to confusion because Orcas (“Killer Whales”) and Pilot whales have “whale” in their name, but are dolphins for the purpose of classificationAmbergis: a perfume ingredient from the intestine of sperm whalesSome species of large whales are endangered as a result of large-scale whaling during the 19th and 20th centuries: they have been hunted for oil, meat, baleen and ambergris.
7Porpoises Porpoises are small cetaceans of the family Phocoenidae Most obvious visible difference from dolphins: flattened, spade-shaped teeth distinct from the conical teeth of dolphinsPorpoises, divided into six species, live in all oceans, mostly near the shoreBest known is the Harbour Porpoise, which can be found across the Northern HemisphereAccidental entanglement (by-catch) in fishing nets is the main threat to porpoises today. One of the most endangered cetacean species is the Vaquita, having a limited distribution in the Gulf of California.
8Threats Fisheries & by-catch Deliberate hunting Chemical pollution Use of destructive fishingmethodsGrowth of moderncommercial fisheriesDirectly (by-catch)Indirectly (prey depletion)Deliberate huntingDeliberate setting of netsHarpoon huntsDrive huntsLive taking fordisplayChemical pollutionDomestic sewageIndustrial dischargesSeepage from waste sitesAtmospheric falloutDomestic & agricultural run-offOperational discharges from mines & oil rigsAccidents & spills at seaBio accumulation of toxins reduced fitness & reproductive successThe chemicals that are probably of most concern for dolphins are the persistent organic pollutants including pesticides, such as DDT, and industrial chemicals. These substances enter the marine food chain and accumulate along the chain to the top marine predators. Damage to the reproductive and immune systems of marine mammals is the likely effect of this pollution.
9Threats Noise pollution and harassment Climate change ShippingMilitary activitiesFisheries anti-predation devicesAir-guns used in seismic testing tofind oil & gas depositsWind farms & tidal turbinesClimate changeSea ice changesHigher water temperaturesDisruption of marine food chainsHabitat loss & degradationDamsFishing structuresAbstraction of water for human use
10Adverse Human Induced Impacts on Cetaceans CMS Resolution 8.22 CoP of CMSidentified ship strikes, marine noise, entanglement & by-catch, pollution, habitat & feeding ground degradation, which pose direct & indirect threats to the conservation of cetacean populationurges Parties to integrate cetacean conservation into other policy sectorsrequests the Secretariat to cooperate with other organisations (IWC, Regional Seas Programmes, Regional Fisheries Management Organisations) to promote the Convention’s aiminstructs CMS bodies to draw this resolution to the attention of other relevant intergovernmental organizations (e.g. UNEP)invites Parties to strive to ensure wherever possible that their activities within the scope of this resolution avoid harm to cetaceans
11ASCOBANS Agreement on the Conservation of Small Cetaceans of the Baltic and North Seas Concluded in 1991 under the auspices of UNEP/CMSEntry into force: 29 March 1994Agreement Bodies:Meeting of the Parties (triennial meetings)Advisory Committee (annual meetings)Secretariat (merged with CMS Secretariat on 1 January 2007)Aim of the Agreement:To achieve and maintain a favourable conservation status for small cetaceans in the Agreement Area
12ASCOBANS Agreement Area Marine environment of the Baltic and North SeasRange StatesEstoniaIrelandLatviaNorwayPortugalRussian FederationSpainPartiesBelgiumDenmarkFinlandFranceGermanyLithuaniaNetherlandsPolandSwedenUnited KingdomExtension of Agreement area likely to enter into force during 2007
13ASCOBANS Species Covered Any species, subspecies or population of toothed whales (Odontoceti) occurring in the Agreement area, with the exception of the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus)Examples:Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis)Killer Whale (Orcinus orca)Harbour Porpoise: the most common species of small cetaceans in the North Sea and the only native cetacean species in the Baltic
14ASCOBANS What ASCOBANS Does to Help ASCOBANS aims to promote close cooperation among Parties with a view to achieving or maintaining a favourable conservation status for small cetaceansA Conservation and Management Plan obliges Parties to engage inHabitat conservation and managementSurveys and researchPollution mitigationPublic informationASCOBANS also cooperates with:Range States that have not (yet) acceded to the AgreementRelevant IGOsRelevant NGOs
15ASCOBANS The Baltic Dimension Only native cetacean species in the Baltic: Harbour PorpoiseOnly some 600 of these animals remainUrgent action is needed!ASCOBANS has elaborated a Recovery Plan for Baltic Harbour Porpoises (Jastarnia Plan)An Action Plan is also being developed for Harbour Porpoises in the North Sea
16ACCOBAMS Agreement on the Conservation of Cetaceans of the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Contiguous Atlantic AreaConcluded in 1996 under the auspices of UNEP/CMSEntry into force: 1 June 2001Agreement Bodies:Meeting of the Parties (triennial meetings)Bureau (annual meetings)Secretariat2 Sub-regional Co-ordination UnitsScientific CommitteeAim of the Agreement:To reduce threats to cetaceans in Mediterranean and Black Sea waters and improve knowledge of these animals
17ACCOBAMS Agreement Area All the maritime waters of the Mediterranean & Black Sea & the Atlantic Area contiguous to the Mediterranean Sea west of the Straits of GibraltarRiparian StatesRange StatesAlgeriaBosnia & Her.EgyptIsraelMonacoRussian Fed.TurkeyUnited KingdomAlbaniaBulgariaCroatiaCyprusFranceGeorgiaGreeceItalyLebanonLibyaMaltaMontenegroMoroccoPortugalRomaniaSloveniaSpainSyriaTunisiaUkraine
18ACCOBAMS Species Covered All regular, vagrant & visiting cetacean species occurring in the Agreement area:In the Mediterranean and Black Seas: 21 species (10 are resident)In the Black Sea: 3 species (regularly occurring populations)Examples:Short-beaked Common DolphinSperm WhaleRisso’s DolphinLong-finned Pilot WhaleHarbour Porpoise: the most common species of small cetaceans in the North Sea and the only native cetacean species in the Baltic
19ACCOBAMS Conservation Plan Adoption and Enforcement of national legislationAssessment and management of human-cetacean interactionsHabitat protectionResearch and monitoringCapacity building, collection and dissemination of information, training and educationDeveloping responses to emergency situations
20ACCOBAMS Guidelines for Commercial Cetacean-watching ACCOBAMS encourages whale-watching practices that benefitwhales and help to sustain a flourishing tourism industry:2 complete booklets, onguidelines on whale-watching andthe development of national stranding networkswere published
21ACCOBAMS WW Activities & Scientific Work Monitoring of whale-watching in French Mediteranean SeaDiagnosis of whale-watching activitiesDatabase (socio-economical and ecological aspects) was createdMonitoring & manage the activityWhale-watching in the Mediterranean Sea and oil dependanceLiterature review on alternative energiesAmount of CO2 presently emitted within the Pelagos area by whale-watching vessels will be calculatedWorking group will consider measures to be tested within Pelagos
22Pacific Islands Cetaceans MoU Agreement Area SignatoriesCovers all populations of cetaceans in the Pacific Islands Region and has 22 Range States and territories, many of which are Small Island Developing StatesAustraliaCook IslandsFed. States of MicronesiaFijiFranceNew ZealandNiuePapua New GuineaSamoaSolomon IslandsVanuatu
23Pacific Islands Cetaceans MoU Final version of the MoU was opened for signature at the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) Ministerial Meeting in September 20069 countries signed the MoU bringing it into immediate effect2 countries followed & more will sign in the near futureMoU has also been signed by CMS, SPREP, IFAW, WDCS and WWF InternationalFirst meeting of the signatories: Apia, 6 March 2007
24Pacific Islands Cetaceans MoU MoU provides a framework for governments, scientists and others to monitor and coordinate conservation effortsMany programmes are already underway and support the MoU’s implementationCountries are standardising the way they report and collect data from stranded cetaceansStudies have been undertaken to look at the interactions between cetaceans and commercial fishingEducational programmes help connect local communities to conservation efforts (inter alia raising awareness)Through the MoU, the Pacific Islands Region seeks to foster cooperation, build capacity & ensure coordinated region-wide conservation for cetaceans & their habitats.
25West & Central African (East Atlantic) Small Cetaceans and Sirenians Agreement Area Range StatesLiberiaMauritaniaMoroccoNigeriaPortugalSao Tome & PrincipeSenegalSierra LeoneSpainTogoShall cover all popula-tions of small cetaceans & sirenians in West African WatersExact geographical scope has to be determined during W.A.T.C.H. meetingAngolaBeninCameroonCape VerdeCongoCôte d’IvoireDR CongoEquatorial GuineaGambiaGabonGhanaGuineaGuinea Bissau
26West & Central African (East Atlantic) Small Cetaceans and Sirenians CMS Activities Several projects aimed atimproving the knowledge on cetacean populations,developing capacities for the study of cetaceans andraising awareness of threats on themhave been supported by CMS in recent years in Senegal, the Gambia, Ghana and Togo.CMS-sponsored workshop “Conservation and Management of Small Cetaceans of the African Coast” held in Guinea in 2000Two major objectives:A briefing on the biology and conservation aspects of small cetaceans and other aquatic mammals of West AfricaGenerate recommendations which could lead to the development of a Regional Action Plan for the conservation of small cetaceans of West Africa
27West & Central African (East Atlantic) Small Cetaceans and Sirenians Agreement Development (I) Res. 7.7 supports the development of an appropriate CMS instrument on small cetaceans and sirenians in West & central Africa pursuant to Rec. 7.3First W.A.T.C.H. meeting scheduled for October 2007 (hosted by Canary Islands)Scientific Symposium (1 day)Training Workshop on Whale-watching (1 day)Negotiation of Action Plan and Agreement (3 days)West African Talks on Cetaceans and their Habitat
28West & Central African (East Atlantic) Small Cetaceans and Sirenians Agreement Development (II) Scientific Symposium: open to governments, institutions, NGOs and private sector to discuss threats and challenges for the conservation of small cetaceans & sirenians in the regionTraining Workshop on Whale-watching: whale-watching capacity building workshop to present and discuss best practices in the region and worldwide (include whale-watching tour for participants)Negotiation session: of the draft Agreement & action plans: session will include Range States and observers
29The “Year of the Dolphin” 2007 CMS, together with ACCOBAMS, ASCOBANS and WDCS have declared 2007 the “Year of the Dolphin”UN, Governments, NGOs and the private sector (TUI) are building a strong alliance to achieve a common objective: to protect wild dolphins & create an ocean home safe from harmActivities:Outreach and CommunicationPromotionEducationAgreement DevelopmentScience
30The “Year of the Dolphin” 2007 Launch of YoD: 17 September in Monaco during celebration of 10th birthday of ACCOBAMSNew partners and supporters can join the initiative throughCMS is contacting all Governments to stimulate actionGovernment supporters: Australia, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Kenya, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain and ?
32Sirenians and CMS CMS lists the Dugong,West Indian Manatee,African Manatee and theAmazonian Manatee in its Appendix IIThe West Indian Manatee is also listed on Appendix I (populations between Honduras & Panama)A CMS Agreement is being developed for small cetaceans and sirenians of the Atlantic Coast of Africa (s.a.)A Dugong MoU/Agreement is being developed (ranges from the coast of East Africa to the Western Pacific Ocean)
33Dugong MoU/AgreementThe three manatee species and the Dugong are endangered species. All of them are vulnerable to extinction from habitat loss and other negative impacts related to human population growth and coastal development.First and Second Dugong Range State Meetings have endorsed a final MoU proposal including a conservation and management plan (CMP) to conserve the DugongText of the MoU/Agreement and CMP are now open for final considerationCMS will coordinate with Range States to make arrangements for signing the MoU and to hold the first meeting of Signatories (tentative September 2007)
34Dugong MoU/AgreementMoU is designed to facilitate national level and transboundary actions that will lead to the conservation of Dugong populations and their habitatsAssociated CMP provides basis for focused species and habitat-specific activities, coordinated across the Dugong’s migratory rangeMoU and CMP primary platform for conservation actions in all of the waters of coastal & archipelagic States of the Indian Ocean, East Asia, and western Pacific Ocean, as well as their adjacent seas
36Carnivora and CMSCMS lists in its Appendix I:Marine Otter,Southern River OtterMediterranean Monk SealCMS lists on Appendix II:South American Fur SealSouth American Sea LionCommon Seal (only Baltic and Wadden Sea populations)Grey Seal (only Baltic Sea populations)1 Agreement dealing exclusively with Wadden Sea SealsThe Seal Management Plan also includes the Grey SealAn Action Plan elaborated for the Conservation of the Eastern Atlantic Monk Seal
38Wadden Sea Seals Agreement on the Conservation of Seals in the Wadden Sea Signed in 1990 under the auspices of UNEP/CMSEntry into force: 1 October 1991Aim of the Agreement:Agreement Structure:To cooperate closely in achieving and maintaining a favorable conservation status for the common seal populationIt is an irreplaceable component of the Wadden Sea and an important indicator of its environmental health
39Wadden Sea Seals Agreement Area Parties:DenmarkGermanyNetherlandsTrilateral conservation area is situated within the Wadden Sea AreaConsists ofThe areas under Key Planning Decision Wadden Sea (Netherlands)The Wadden Sea national parks andThe protected areas under the Nature Conservation Act seaward of the main dikeThe brackish water limit including the Dollard (Germany)The Wildlife and Nature Reserve Wadden Sea (Denmark)
40Wadden Sea Seals Species & Threats Common seal: most numerous native marine mammal species in the Wadden Sea: ca. 10,000 individualsDiseases: severe outbreaks in 1988 and 2002 of phocine distemper claimed the lives ofseals in Northern Europe20,000 seals in the North Sea (51% of the estimated population)Disturbance through human activities (types of recreation, hunting and commercial fisheries)Marine pollutionHabitat destruction (through dredging, the construction of dikes and dams)
41Wadden Sea Seals Seal Management Plan Plan covers the Wadden Sea stock of the Common seal and is extended to cover the 2 breeding stocks of the Grey sealPlan specifies the actions in the following areasConservation and management measures regarding habitatsPollution and wardeningResearch and monitoringTaking and exemptions of takingPublic informationOverall aim of the Work PlanTo restore and maintain viable stocks and a natural reproduction capacity, including improved survival rates among juvenile Common and Grey seals
42Mediterranean Monk Seals Distribution Area Range StatesAlgeriaCyprus(France)GreeceMauritaniaMoroccoPortugal(Senegal)SpainTurkeyWestern SaharaFormer range: Mediterranean and Black Seas, the Atlantic coast of North West Africa, Cape Verde, the Canaries, Madeira and the AzoresOnly fragmented pockets around the coast of Greece & Turkey, and isolated sites in North Africa, Mauritania and the Madeira archipelagoOccasionally individuals are reported as far away as the French Atlantic coast and Senegal
43Mediterranean Monk Seals Species & Threats Mediterranean Monk Seal is believed to be the world's rarest pinniped and one of the most endangered mammals of the worldEntire population estimated: less than 600 individuals (Critically Endangered)Threats:Direct exploitation in the pastDeliberate killingIncidental entanglement in fishing gearsDestruction or alteration of costal habitatOverexploitation of fisheriesPollution
44Mediterranean Monk Seals Action Plan for the Conservation of the Eastern Atlantic Monk Seal Action Plan elaborated & approved at the 8th Meeting of the CoPPlan provides a new focus for monk seal conservationPlan is a guideline that lays down the procedures to implement coordinated actions:It provides a means to combine programs from different states, local and private organizations into effective, efficient, concentrated efforts, which should lead to the recovery of the depleted population of the speciesLatest Conference on monk seal conservation (2006 in Turkey) aimed at coordinating actions by strengthening common approaches and programmes between the Mediterranean and Atlantic Range StatesThe immediate goal is to stop the decline and, in medium term, to promote recovery
45South Pacific Cetaceans CMS Marine Mammal Activities Around the World Agreements – Projects – Year of the DolphinASCOBANSWadden Sea SealsACCOBAMSMonk SealMarine Mammal SurveyHumpback Dolphin SurveyConference on Marine MammalsTraining Course CetaceansWAFCETCetaceansSurveyMarine Otter SurveyDolphin SurveyWorkshop on Cetacean SurveyCetaceans & ManateesWorkshop on Aquatic MammalsDugongFranciscana Dolphin SurveySouth Pacific Cetaceans
46Marine Mammals CMS Vision for 2020 (I) Global network of regional agreementsMain focus on cetaceans, but can also includeSirenians andSeals (depending on species/region)Flexible instruments:e.g. binding or non binding UN or independent (but with CMS link) delivery through intergovernmental partners e.g. Regional SeasAction oriented: rolling conservation plans, on-line reporting, activities through governments, NGOs & private sector
47Marine Mammals CMS Vision for 2020 (II) CMS as global “guardian” or “promoter” of regional network world-widePromotional and normative activities by CMS e.g.“Year of the Dolphin”Whale-watching guidelinesTechnical and educational publicationsQuadrennial “World Whales Conference” linking Conventions, regional network, Governments, scientists, NGOs and wider publicPermanent financing mechanisms for whale conservation via (voluntary) tax on whale tourism
48Marine Mammals – CMS & IWC (Personal View) Great whales & whaling agreement should be settled by IWC, but not at expense of wider cetacean conservationCMS de jure & de facto, is main global convention for conservation and non-lethal use of small cetaceans (SC)SC are migrating; CMS is a UN body; has already established 3 regional CMS agreements concerning SC; published encyclopaedias on SC; currently running global “Year of the Dolphin” 2007 with strong NGO, UNESCO & commercial support