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1 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years Convention on Migratory Species United Nations Environment Programme Migratory Species: A Vision for.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years Convention on Migratory Species United Nations Environment Programme Migratory Species: A Vision for."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years Convention on Migratory Species United Nations Environment Programme Migratory Species: A Vision for 2020 Marine Mammals in CMS

2 2 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years Marine Mammals Dolphin/Whale/ Porpoise Marine Mammals CetaceaCarnivora Sirenia Ursidae PinnipediaMustelidae Polar BearSeal/Sea Lion/WalrusSea/Marine Otter Manatee/ Dugong

3 3 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years Cetaceans: Classification WhalesDolphinsPorpoises Cetaceans Baleen WhalesToothed Whales Number of Cetacea in taxa: ca. 85

4 4 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years Cetaceans and CMS Cetaceans are one of the most important taxonomic groups for CMS Research initiatives: Assessment of populations & impact of by-catch Training of local scientists Conducting field surveys CMS lists 12 species on APP I and 39 species on APP II 2 binding Agreements dealing exclusive- ly with cetaceans ASCOBANS ACCOBAMS 1 Agreement for the conservation of cetaceans in the Pacific Islands Region 1 Agreement is being developed for cetaceans/ manatees of the Atlantic Coast of Africa

5 5 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years Dolphins 5 river dolphins 34 sea dolphins Flagship endangered species engage public interest in swimway (ecosystem) conservation Hundreds of thousands of dolphins die every year as a result of human induced threats.

6 6 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years Whales Some species of large whales are endangered as a result of large-scale whaling during the 19 th and 20 th centuries: they have been hunted for oil, meat, baleen and ambergris. Whales are those cetaceans which are neither dolphins nor porpoises –This often leads to confusion because Orcas (Killer Whales) and Pilot whales have whale in their name, but are dolphins for the purpose of classification

7 7 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years Porpoises Porpoises are small cetaceans of the family Phocoenidae Most obvious visible difference from dolphins: flattened, spade-shaped teeth distinct from the conical teeth of dolphins Porpoises, divided into six species, live in all oceans, mostly near the shore –Best known is the Harbour Porpoise, which can be found across the Northern Hemisphere Accidental entanglement (by-catch) in fishing nets is the main threat to porpoises today. One of the most endangered cetacean species is the Vaquita, having a limited distribution in the Gulf of California.

8 8 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years Threats Fisheries & by-catch Use of destructive fishing methods Growth of modern commercial fisheries Directly (by-catch) Indirectly (prey depletion) Deliberate hunting Deliberate setting of nets Harpoon hunts Drive hunts Live taking for display Chemical pollution Domestic sewage Industrial discharges Seepage from waste sites Atmospheric fallout Domestic & agricultural run-off Operational discharges from mines & oil rigs Accidents & spills at sea Bio accumulation of toxins reduced fitness & reproductive success

9 9 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years Threats Noise pollution and harassment Shipping Military activities Fisheries anti-predation devices Air-guns used in seismic testing to find oil & gas deposits Wind farms & tidal turbines Climate change Sea ice changes Higher water temperatures Disruption of marine food chains Habitat loss & degradation Dams Fishing structures Abstraction of water for human use

10 10 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years Adverse Human Induced Impacts on Cetaceans CMS Resolution 8.22 CoP of CMS identified ship strikes, marine noise, entanglement & by-catch, pollution, habitat & feeding ground degradation, which pose direct & indirect threats to the conservation of cetacean population urges Parties to integrate cetacean conservation into other policy sectors requests the Secretariat to cooperate with other organisations (IWC, Regional Seas Programmes, Regional Fisheries Management Organisations) to promote the Conventions aim instructs CMS bodies to draw this resolution to the attention of other relevant intergovernmental organizations (e.g. UNEP) invites Parties to strive to ensure wherever possible that their activities within the scope of this resolution avoid harm to cetaceans

11 11 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years ASCOBANS Agreement on the Conservation of Small Cetaceans of the Baltic and North Seas Concluded in 1991 under the auspices of UNEP/CMS Entry into force: 29 March 1994 Aim of the Agreement: Agreement Bodies: Meeting of the Parties (triennial meetings) Advisory Committee (annual meetings) Secretariat (merged with CMS Secretariat on 1 January 2007) To achieve and maintain a favourable conservation status for small cetaceans in the Agreement Area

12 12 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years ASCOBANS Agreement Area Marine environment of the Baltic and North Seas Range States Estonia Ireland Latvia Norway Portugal Russian Federation Spain Parties Belgium Denmark Finland France Germany Lithuania Netherlands Poland Sweden United Kingdom Extension of Agreement area likely to enter into force during 2007

13 13 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years ASCOBANS Species Covered Any species, subspecies or population of toothed whales (Odontoceti) occurring in the Agreement area, with the exception of the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) Examples: Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) Killer Whale (Orcinus orca)

14 14 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years ASCOBANS What ASCOBANS Does to Help ASCOBANS aims to promote close cooperation among Parties with a view to achieving or maintaining a favourable conservation status for small cetaceans A Conservation and Management Plan obliges Parties to engage in Habitat conservation and management Surveys and research Pollution mitigation Public information ASCOBANS also cooperates with: Range States that have not (yet) acceded to the Agreement Relevant IGOs Relevant NGOs

15 15 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years ASCOBANS The Baltic Dimension Only native cetacean species in the Baltic: Harbour Porpoise Only some 600 of these animals remain Urgent action is needed! ASCOBANS has elaborated a Recovery Plan for Baltic Harbour Porpoises (Jastarnia Plan) An Action Plan is also being developed for Harbour Porpoises in the North Sea

16 16 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years ACCOBAMS Agreement on the Conservation of Cetaceans of the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Contiguous Atlantic Area Concluded in 1996 under the auspices of UNEP/CMS Entry into force: 1 June 2001 Aim of the Agreement: Agreement Bodies: Meeting of the Parties (triennial meetings) Bureau (annual meetings) Secretariat 2 Sub-regional Co-ordination Units Scientific Committee To reduce threats to cetaceans in Mediterranean and Black Sea waters and improve knowledge of these animals

17 17 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years ACCOBAMS Agreement Area All the maritime waters of the Mediterranean & Black Sea & the Atlantic Area contiguous to the Mediterranean Sea west of the Straits of Gibraltar Range States Algeria Bosnia & Her. Egypt Israel Monaco Russian Fed. Turkey United Kingdom Albania Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus France Georgia Greece Italy Lebanon Libya Malta Montenegro Morocco Portugal Romania Slovenia Spain Syria Tunisia Ukraine Riparian States

18 18 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years ACCOBAMS Species Covered All regular, vagrant & visiting cetacean species occurring in the Agreement area: In the Mediterranean and Black Seas: 21 species (10 are resident) In the Black Sea: 3 species (regularly occurring populations) Examples: Short-beaked Common Dolphin Sperm Whale Rissos Dolphin Long-finned Pilot Whale

19 19 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years ACCOBAMS Conservation Plan Adoption and Enforcement of national legislation Assessment and management of human-cetacean interactions Habitat protection Research and monitoring Capacity building, collection and dissemination of information, training and education Developing responses to emergency situations

20 20 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years ACCOBAMS Guidelines for Commercial Cetacean-watching ACCOBAMS encourages whale-watching practices that benefit whales and help to sustain a flourishing tourism industry: 2 complete booklets, on guidelines on whale-watching and the development of national stranding networks were published

21 21 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years ACCOBAMS WW Activities & Scientific Work Monitoring of whale-watching in French Mediteranean Sea Diagnosis of whale-watching activities Database (socio-economical and ecological aspects) was created Monitoring & manage the activity Whale-watching in the Mediterranean Sea and oil dependance Literature review on alternative energies Amount of CO2 presently emitted within the Pelagos area by whale-watching vessels will be calculated Working group will consider measures to be tested within Pelagos

22 22 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years Pacific Islands Cetaceans MoU Agreement Area Signatories Australia Cook Islands Fed. States of Micronesia Fiji France New Zealand Niue Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Vanuatu Covers all populations of cetaceans in the Pacific Islands Region and has 22 Range States and territories, many of which are Small Island Developing States

23 23 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years Pacific Islands Cetaceans MoU Final version of the MoU was opened for signature at the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) Ministerial Meeting in September 2006 9 countries signed the MoU bringing it into immediate effect 2 countries followed & more will sign in the near future MoU has also been signed by CMS, SPREP, IFAW, WDCS and WWF International First meeting of the signatories: Apia, 6 March 2007

24 24 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years Pacific Islands Cetaceans MoU MoU provides a framework for governments, scientists and others to monitor and coordinate conservation efforts Many programmes are already underway and support the MoUs implementation Countries are standardising the way they report and collect data from stranded cetaceans Studies have been undertaken to look at the interactions between cetaceans and commercial fishing Educational programmes help connect local communities to conservation efforts (inter alia raising awareness) Through the MoU, the Pacific Islands Region seeks to foster cooperation, build capacity & ensure coordinated region-wide conservation for cetaceans & their habitats.

25 25 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years West & Central African (East Atlantic) Small Cetaceans and Sirenians Agreement Area Range States Shall cover all popula- tions of small cetaceans & sirenians in West African Waters Exact geographical scope has to be determined during W.A.T.C.H. meeting Angola Benin Cameroon Cape Verde Congo Côte dIvoire DR Congo Equatorial Guinea Gambia Gabon Ghana Guinea Guinea Bissau Liberia Mauritania Morocco Nigeria Portugal Sao Tome & Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Spain Togo

26 26 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years West & Central African (East Atlantic) Small Cetaceans and Sirenians CMS Activities Several projects aimed at improving the knowledge on cetacean populations, developing capacities for the study of cetaceans and raising awareness of threats on them have been supported by CMS in recent years in Senegal, the Gambia, Ghana and Togo. CMS-sponsored workshop Conservation and Management of Small Cetaceans of the African Coast held in Guinea in 2000 Two major objectives: A briefing on the biology and conservation aspects of small cetaceans and other aquatic mammals of West Africa Generate recommendations which could lead to the development of a Regional Action Plan for the conservation of small cetaceans of West Africa

27 27 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years West & Central African (East Atlantic) Small Cetaceans and Sirenians Agreement Development (I) Res. 7.7 supports the development of an appropriate CMS instrument on small cetaceans and sirenians in West & central Africa pursuant to Rec. 7.3 First W.A.T.C.H. meeting scheduled for October 2007 (hosted by Canary Islands) Scientific Symposium (1 day) Training Workshop on Whale-watching (1 day) Negotiation of Action Plan and Agreement (3 days)

28 28 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years West & Central African (East Atlantic) Small Cetaceans and Sirenians Agreement Development (II) Scientific Symposium: open to governments, institutions, NGOs and private sector to discuss threats and challenges for the conservation of small cetaceans & sirenians in the region Training Workshop on Whale-watching: whale-watching capacity building workshop to present and discuss best practices in the region and worldwide (include whale-watching tour for participants) Negotiation session: of the draft Agreement & action plans: session will include Range States and observers

29 29 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years The Year of the Dolphin 2007 Activities: 1. Outreach and Communication 2. Promotion 3. Education 4. Agreement Development 5. Science CMS, together with ACCOBAMS, ASCOBANS and WDCS have declared 2007 the Year of the Dolphin UN, Governments, NGOs and the private sector (TUI) are building a strong alliance to achieve a common objective: to protect wild dolphins & create an ocean home safe from harm

30 30 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years The Year of the Dolphin 2007 Launch of YoD: 17 September in Monaco during celebration of 10 th birthday of ACCOBAMS New partners and supporters can join the initiative through www.yod2007.org CMS is contacting all Governments to stimulate action Government supporters: Australia, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Kenya, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain and ?

31 31 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years Sirenians: Classification Dugong Sirenian DugongidaeTrichechidae West Indian Manatee African Manatee Amazonian Manatee

32 32 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years Sirenians and CMS CMS lists the Dugong, West Indian Manatee, African Manatee and the Amazonian Manatee in its Appendix II The West Indian Manatee is also listed on Appendix I (populations between Honduras & Panama) A CMS Agreement is being developed for small cetaceans and sirenians of the Atlantic Coast of Africa (s.a.) A Dugong MoU/Agreement is being developed (ranges from the coast of East Africa to the Western Pacific Ocean)

33 33 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years Dugong MoU/Agreement First and Second Dugong Range State Meetings have endorsed a final MoU proposal including a conservation and management plan (CMP) to conserve the Dugong Text of the MoU/Agreement and CMP are now open for final consideration CMS will coordinate with Range States to make arrangements for signing the MoU and to hold the first meeting of Signatories (tentative September 2007) The three manatee species and the Dugong are endangered species. All of them are vulnerable to extinction from habitat loss and other negative impacts related to human population growth and coastal development.

34 34 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years Dugong MoU/Agreement MoU is designed to facilitate national level and transboundary actions that will lead to the conservation of Dugong populations and their habitats Associated CMP provides basis for focused species and habitat-specific activities, coordinated across the Dugongs migratory range MoU and CMP primary platform for conservation actions in all of the waters of coastal & archipelagic States of the Indian Ocean, East Asia, and western Pacific Ocean, as well as their adjacent seas

35 35 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years Carnivora: Classification Polar Bear Carnivora Ursidae Pinnipedia Seal Sea OtterMarine Otter Mustelidae Sea LionWalrus

36 36 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years Carnivora and CMS CMS lists in its Appendix I: Marine Otter, Southern River Otter Mediterranean Monk Seal CMS lists on Appendix II: South American Fur Seal South American Sea Lion Common Seal (only Baltic and Wadden Sea populations) Grey Seal (only Baltic Sea populations) Mediterranean Monk Seal 1 Agreement dealing exclusively with Wadden Sea Seals The Seal Management Plan also includes the Grey Seal An Action Plan elaborated for the Conservation of the Eastern Atlantic Monk Seal

37 37 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years

38 38 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years Wadden Sea Seals Agreement on the Conservation of Seals in the Wadden Sea Signed in 1990 under the auspices of UNEP/CMS Entry into force: 1 October 1991 Aim of the Agreement:Agreement Structure: To cooperate closely in achieving and maintaining a favorable conservation status for the common seal population It is an irreplaceable component of the Wadden Sea and an important indicator of its environmental health

39 39 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years Wadden Sea Seals Agreement Area Trilateral conservation area is situated within the Wadden Sea Area Consists of –The areas under Key Planning Decision Wadden Sea (Netherlands) –The Wadden Sea national parks and –The protected areas under the Nature Conservation Act seaward of the main dike –The brackish water limit including the Dollard (Germany) –The Wildlife and Nature Reserve Wadden Sea (Denmark) Parties: Denmark Germany Netherlands

40 40 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years Wadden Sea Seals Species & Threats Common seal: most numerous native marine mammal species in the Wadden Sea: ca. 10,000 individuals Diseases: severe outbreaks in 1988 and 2002 of phocine distemper claimed the lives of –18.000 seals in Northern Europe –20,000 seals in the North Sea (51% of the estimated population) Disturbance through human activities (types of recreation, hunting and commercial fisheries) Marine pollution Habitat destruction (through dredging, the construction of dikes and dams)

41 41 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years Wadden Sea Seals Seal Management Plan Plan covers the Wadden Sea stock of the Common seal and is extended to cover the 2 breeding stocks of the Grey seal Plan specifies the actions in the following areas Conservation and management measures regarding habitats Pollution and wardening Research and monitoring Taking and exemptions of taking Public information To restore and maintain viable stocks and a natural reproduction capacity, including improved survival rates among juvenile Common and Grey seals Overall aim of the Work Plan

42 42 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years Mediterranean Monk Seals Distribution Area Algeria Cyprus (France) Greece Mauritania Morocco Portugal (Senegal) Spain Turkey Western Sahara Range States Only fragmented pockets around the coast of Greece & Turkey, and isolated sites in North Africa, Mauritania and the Madeira archipelago Occasionally individuals are reported as far away as the French Atlantic coast and Senegal

43 43 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years Mediterranean Monk Seals Species & Threats Mediterranean Monk Seal is believed to be the world's rarest pinniped and one of the most endangered mammals of the world Entire population estimated: less than 600 individuals (Critically Endangered) Threats: –Direct exploitation in the past –Deliberate killing –Incidental entanglement in fishing gears –Destruction or alteration of costal habitat –Overexploitation of fisheries –Pollution

44 44 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years Mediterranean Monk Seals Action Plan for the Conservation of the Eastern Atlantic Monk Seal Action Plan elaborated & approved at the 8 th Meeting of the CoP Plan provides a new focus for monk seal conservation Plan is a guideline that lays down the procedures to implement coordinated actions: It provides a means to combine programs from different states, local and private organizations into effective, efficient, concentrated efforts, which should lead to the recovery of the depleted population of the species Latest Conference on monk seal conservation (2006 in Turkey) aimed at coordinating actions by strengthening common approaches and programmes between the Mediterranean and Atlantic Range States The immediate goal is to stop the decline and, in medium term, to promote recovery

45 45 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years ASCOBANS ACCOBAM S South Pacific Cetaceans Monk Seal Dugong Cetaceans & Manatees Wadden Sea Seals CMS Marine Mammal Activities Around the World Agreements – Projects – Year of the Dolphin Marine Mammal Survey Humpback Dolphin Survey Dolphin Survey Cetaceans Survey Conference on Marine Mammals Workshop on Aquatic Mammals Franciscana Dolphin Survey Marine Otter Survey Training Course Cetaceans WAFCET Workshop on Cetacean Survey

46 46 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years Marine Mammals CMS Vision for 2020 (I) Global network of regional agreements Main focus on cetaceans, but can also include –Sirenians and –Seals (depending on species/region) Flexible instruments: e.g. binding or non binding UN or independent (but with CMS link) delivery through intergovernmental partners e.g. Regional Seas Action oriented: rolling conservation plans, on-line reporting, activities through governments, NGOs & private sector

47 47 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years Marine Mammals CMS Vision for 2020 (II) CMS as global guardian or promoter of regional network world-wide Promotional and normative activities by CMS e.g. –Year of the Dolphin –Whale-watching guidelines –Technical and educational publications Quadrennial World Whales Conference linking Conventions, regional network, Governments, scientists, NGOs and wider public Permanent financing mechanisms for whale conservation via (voluntary) tax on whale tourism

48 48 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years Marine Mammals – CMS & IWC (Personal View) Great whales & whaling agreement should be settled by IWC, but not at expense of wider cetacean conservation CMS de jure & de facto, is main global convention for conservation and non-lethal use of small cetaceans (SC) SC are migrating; CMS is a UN body; has already established 3 regional CMS agreements concerning SC; published encyclopaedias on SC; currently running global Year of the Dolphin 2007 with strong NGO, UNESCO & commercial support

49 49 Conserving animals on the move for over 25 years Thank you!


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