Presentation on theme: "The Right to Vote Suffrage & Franchise- The right to vote"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Right to Vote Suffrage & Franchise- The right to vote What portion of the population originally had the right to vote in our country?Since that time, the electorate, has continually grown to over 220 million people.The history of American suffrage has been defined by two trends: 1)the gradual elimination of restrictions on the right to vote, and 2)the gradual change in hands of the determining who has suffrage from the States to the Federal govt.
2 Extending SuffrageThe elimination of restrictions on the right to vote has come in 5 distinct stages:The elimination of religious and property restrictionsThe elimination of race restrictions (15th Amendment). 1870The elimination of gender restrictions (19th Amendment). 1920The elimination of systematic denial of suffrage based of race (Voting Rights Act 1965 and 24th Amendment). 1960’sThe admission of those who are 18 or older as voting citizens (26th Amendment). 1971
3 Power to Set Suffrage Qualifications The right to set suffrage qualifications is reserved to the states, however, the Constitution sets 5 restrictions on that reserved power.States must allow all voters to vote in all elections2. 15th Amendment- “No state can deprive a person the right to vote based on race, color, or previous servitude.3. 19th Amendment- “No state can deprive a person the right to vote based on the account of sex.”4. 24th Amendment- No state may institute a tax in connection with the election of the Pres, Vp, or Congress.5. 26th Amendment- “No state can deprive any person who is at least 18 the right to vote based on age.”
5 Suffrage & Civil Rights Which Amendment extended suffrage to African Americans?-15th Amendment (1870)Was this Amendment effective?-For about 90 years, the Federal Government did little to ensure the constitutionally granted African American right to vote.African Americans were generally and systematically denied suffrage through many mediums.
6 Suffrage & Civil Rights The most common medium used to prevent African American voting was violence.Tactics such as threats and social pressures also helped limit African Americans from casting their vote.Other “legal” devices were used such as literacy tests and Gerrymandering.-The practice of drawing electoral district lines in order to limit the voting strength of a particular group or party.
8 Suffrage & Civil Rights Civil Rights Activists, such as Martin Luther King Jr. began to draw attention to the civil rights movement and African American suffrage.Civil Rights Act of 1964-Outlawed any discriminatory measure in voter registrations or literacy tests.-Relied on an injunction- the violation of an injunction is punishable by fine and imprisonment. (not effective).-i.e. Selma, Alabama voter registration march.Civil Rights Act of 1965-Most effective civil rights legislation to date.Suspended Literacy Tests and similar devicesAppointed Federal voting examiners.Gave Federal voting examiners the power to register voters in their appointed district.
9 Voters and Voting Behavior Most of what we know about voting behavior comes from ___3___main sources:The _Results of particular elections- By studying the election returns of particular _election populated by different groups, we can find out how each group voted in a given election.The field of Survey Research- scientifically polling cross sections of the public to find out certain public opinion on candidates and issues.3. _Studies of Political Socialization- Studying the experiences and relationships that determine how/why people participate in politics the way that they do.
10 Quick ReviewWhat is the electorate? Compare and Contrast the electorate at our country’s beginning and our country’s present.What are the 5 stages of expanding suffrage.What is gerrymandering? List the two different types.What is the most important civil rights voting legislation to date?List some reasons that explain why Americans do not vote.List the three sources of Voting Behavior information.
11 Factors that Influence Voters The ___two____ main factors that __influence the way that people vote are 1)_Sociological and 2)__Psychological factors.The __Sociological factors that influence voters are their _personal characteristics and group _affiliations_.The __Psychological factors that influence voters are personal _perceptions of politics (in general), parties, _candidates, and issues.These two __influence factors are closely related and constantly interact with one another.
12 Sociological Factors___Income_/__Occupation - Traditionally we can draw these assumptions: _high_ __income_= Republican, Low Income=_Democrat. White collar= _Republican. _Blue_Collar= Democrat.__Education - Trends show that with the more education you receive, you are more likely to be Republican.Gender/_Age - Traditionally, women are more likely to be democrats, males are more likely to be republicans (this is known as the _gender-gap). Young voters are more likely to be democrats, while older voters are more likely to be republicans._Religion/Ethnicity- Protestants= Republican, Jews & Catholics= democrats. African Americans and Latinos favor _Democratic Party_candidates.
13 Sociological Factors (cont) _Geography________________:__Family___ and Other __Groups___: 9/10 married _couples__ vote in the similar ways. __Children__________ follow the political attachments of their _Parents.
14 _Psychological_ factors _Party Identification: the loyalty of people to a particular party, is the single most significant and lasting _predictor of how a person will vote.Straight-ticket voting, split-ticket voting, independents.A _trend away from party __identificaiton ____ in recent years has grown to create more _split-ticket voting_.Overall, Independents are generally much less _concerned with politics.However, recently a new _breed_of independents have been formed- Young, _highly educated_____, and employed voters.