5Merits of intellectual property activities in business Preventing infringement by other companies and protecting proprietary technologyIncreasing profits through licensingIncreasing customer confidence in proprietary technology and establishing a brandBoosting employee motivation
6Advantages of IP in SMEs and Venture Companies Top management making speedy decisions and directly linking intellectual property strategy with management strategySecuring a share in niche markets by using intellectual property
7Risks of disregarding intellectual property A company’s technology that had been considered not special technology and therefore left unpatented became patented by a competitor!Ideas and know-how can be leaked through marketing and transactions!A company suddenly received from a competitor a warning or a claim for damages regarding intellectual property infringement!
8-Truth and Falsehood Concerning Intellectual Property - Section 2 Common Misunderstandings and Preconceptions among SMEs and Venture Companies-Truth and Falsehood Concerning Intellectual Property -
9It would be a waste to junk a razor blade. Misunderstanding 1 Only high-level technology such as “revolutionary inventions” can be patented .It would be a waste to junk a razor blade.Hint
10File applications for all inventions . Misunderstanding 2File applications for all inventions .Unnecessary annual fees would be a severe strain on business operations.Careful selectionFile applications.Keep as know-how.
11License (income from IP) Misunderstanding 3 Acquisition of intellectual property rights and dealing with infringement involves a vast amount of money, time, and labor.Sales of a productLicense (income from IP)Cost of IP
12Section 3 Concept and Patterns of Intellectual Property Strategy -Business Strategy for Increasing Added Value -
13Definition of a Company’s Intellectual Property Strategy A company’s intellectual property strategy is a strategy for increasing a company’s added value and for securing profits by creating, protecting, and using intellectual property while considering the company’s management resources and external business environment.It is a strategy that regards intellectual property as a means for building business and not one that regards the mere acquisition of intellectual property rights for research results as the final goal.
14Models of the Intellectual Property Strategies of SMEs and Venture Companies
15An Overview of Intellectual Property Strategies of SMEs and Venture Companies CreationProtectionUtilizationConducting R&Din collaboration with another company or university or independentlyAcquiring intellectual property or concealing technology asknow-howLicense IPR to other companies or using another company’s IPRJoint development strategyMonopolization strategyLicense/transfer strategyIndependent development strategyKnow-how strategyLicense acquisition strategy
16Strategy 1: Joint Development Strategy Conducting R&D in collaboration with another company or universityWhere a company cannot conduct commercialization independently due to a lack of management resources such as technological capabilitiesWhere a company can provide an attractive and unique core competence (unique technology or skills for providing customers with products or services that cannot be imitated by other companies) to the partner company
17Strategy 2: Independent Development Strategy Conducting independent R&D so as to protect proprietary technology and know-howWhere a company wants to keep their proprietary technology and know-how secret from other companies or universities
18Strategy 3: Monopolization Strategy Gaining a large market share by acquiring intellectual property rightsWhere the company’s technology is difficult to conceal and there is a risk of it being easily found out and imitated by other companiesWhere the technical level of the company is the same as that of its competitors in the relevant fieldWhere it is difficult to claim the prior user’s right
19Strategy 4: Know-how Strategy Concealing the proprietary technology Where the technique is not easily discoverable by other companies, such as technology related to a manufacturing processWhere a strict confidentiality system within the company is in place
20Strategy 5: License/transfer Strategy Gaining profits by licensing or transferring the company’s intellectual property rights to other companiesWhere the company lacks production and sales abilities and finds it difficult to conduct commercialization independentlyWhere the company intends to expand the market for its proprietary technology by having other companies use it as well
21Strategy 6: License Acquisition Strategy Using another company’s intellectual property right and conducting commercialization independentlyWhere the company finds it easier to conduct commercialization by obtaining a license from another companyWhere a problem cannot be solved by the IP right (i.e., technology) held by the company
22Intellectual property strategy is not necessarily a choice between two alternatives but can involve multiple decisions.It is necessary to effectively combine strategies across the intellectual creation cycle.A company is required to formulate multiple intellectual property strategies and to carefully determine whether to take a monopolization strategy or a know-how strategy depending on the technical field or business area.
24Possibility of commercialization Period of use of the design Design Strategy: Protection of Design Rights Developing and protecting original designsPossibility of commercializationPeriod of use of the designPredicted sales of the productFuture trends and the influence on future product line-up
25Brand Strategy: Protection of Trademark Rights Supplementing name recognition through branding Does the name precisely express the functions and characteristics of the product?Does the name indicate superiority over other companies’ competitive products?Is the name pleasant sounding, easy to pronounce, and appealing?Is the name easy to understand and easy for consumers to remember?Can the name stand long years of use?Is the name free of any bad meanings or impressions?Can a trademark right be acquired for the name (i.e., Does the name have a distinctive feature)?Does the name violate the Unfair Competition Prevention Act?
26Intellectual Property Strategy Coordination between Intellectual Property Strategy and Management StrategyBusiness StrategyR&D StrategyIntellectual Property StrategyMarketing StrategyPersonnel Strategy
28-Clarifying and Using Core Technology - Section 1 Promoting R&D together with the Awareness of Creating Intellectual Property-Clarifying and Using Core Technology -
29Challenge: Human resources and budgets for R&D are lacking. Possible Solution:Educating engineers as well as collaborating with or acquiring former staff of business acquaintances who have good knowledge of technology and intellectual property
30Challenge: R&D is not conducted with an awareness of the company’s intellectual property. Possible Solution:Identifying the company’s core technology and selecting and concentrating the areas of R&DDiscovering inventions through meetings of engineers and intellectual property staff and through daily information gathering
31Section 2 Development of Internal System - Developing System within SMEs and Venture Companies for Supporting their Intellectual Property Activities -
32Challenge: The company cannot create a corporate structure conducive to managing intellectual property affairs.Possible Solution:Placing staff and organizations in charge of intellectual property affairs, even if the staff hold additional posts
33Challenge: Staff lack intellectual property-related knowledge and know-how. Possible Solution:In addition to intellectual property education through on-the-job training, also conducting off-site training, including dispatching staff to various seminars attended by experts and so on
34Challenge: There are no incentives for R&D staff to create inventions. Possible Solutions:Improving the rules regarding employees’ inventions and increasing the motivation of R&D staff to inventMotivating inventors by commending notable inventions
36Section 1 Formulation of Licensing Strategy Techniques for Generating Revenue from Intellectual Property
37What strategy should be taken when a company wants other companies to use its patents or when a company wants to use other companies’ patents?Knowing types of licensing strategies(i) Exclusive license(ii) Non-exclusive license(iii) Cross-license(iv) Partial license(v) Licensing-in(vi) Know-how license
38What are the merits and risks of a licensing strategy? When granting or transferring (sub-licensing) a license, there is the risk of increasing competition in the market, and there is the benefit of being able to generate stable profits.When receiving a license from another company, there are risks including the payment of royalties and the restrictions on the use of the IP right in business operations.
39Where can a company find technology seeds that it lacks? Searching for technology seeds through a university’s consultation serviceUsing various databases and patent licensing-related events
40How should licensing negotiation be conducted? Conducting preliminary investigations of a prospective licensing partnerConsidering the licensing fee before engaging in negotiationConducting a licensing agreement that meets the needs of both partiesCarefully concluding a licensing agreementConsulting a licensing expert
41Ten Intellectual Property Rules for SMEs and Venture Companies
421. The company manager should have be intellectual property minded and lead the creation and implementation of intellectual property strategy.2. All staff should be intellectual property minded.3. Reasonable investment in intellectual property activities should be a part of management strategy.
434. Measures should be taken to reduce IP-related costs to the greatest extent possible. 5. SMEs and venture companies should optimize their flexibility and speed in their intellectual property strategies.6. A company should find a competent IP consultant.
447. If a company cannot work on intellectual property independently, it should collaborate with other institutions and individuals.8. Agreements should be concluded carefully.9. A company should use the Regional Intellectual Property Strategic Program Promotion Network.10. A company should make autonomous efforts to gather IP-related information.