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Belgrade Association of Inventors

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1 Belgrade Association of Inventors
Women Inventors IN SERBIA Efficiency of its Intellectual Property Right Protection and Commercialization Prof. Ivana Djujic, Ph. D. Belgrade Association of Inventors

2 Women Inventors Awarded a Nobel Prize http://www. nobel
From a total of 500 scientists 11 women have been awarded a Nobel Prize in the sciences (chemistry, physics and physiology or medicine), from 1901 to July Marie Curie is the only person ever to have twice received a Nobel Prize Curie, Marie (née Sklodowska) ( ) (French) Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903, jointly with Curie, Pierre, "in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel." Curie, Marie (née Sklodowska) ( ) (French) Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1911, "in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements, radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element." Joliot-Curie, Irène ( ) (French) Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1935, jointly with Joliot, Frédéric, "in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements." Cori, Gerty T. (née Radnitz) ( ) (American) Nobel Price in Physiology or Medicine in 1947, jointly with Cori, C.F., "for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen." Goeppert-Mayer, Maria ( ) (American) Nobel Prize in Physics in 1963, jointly with Jensen, J. Hans D., "for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure." Hodgkin, Dorothy Crowfoot ( ) (British) Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1964, "for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances." Yalow, Rosalyn S. (1921-) (American) Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1977, "for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones." McClintock, Barbara ( ) (American) Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1983, "for her discovery of mobile genetic elements." Levi-Montalcini, Rita (1909-) (Italian and American) Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1986, jointly with Cohen, Stanley, "for their discoveries of growth factors." Elion, Gertrude B. ( ) (American) Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1988, jointly with Black, James and Hitchings, George "for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment." Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane (1942-) (German) Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1995, jointly with Lewis, Edward B., and Wieschaus, Eric F., "for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development." Buck Linda B. (1947-) (American) Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2004, jointly with Richard Axel, "for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system".

3 1/ Rresearch institutes in Serbia
Position of women in 1/ Rresearch institutes in Serbia Women in research institutes 49% Women with PhD 49% Women without PhD 48% Women researchers with PhD 38% Women researcher without PhD 62% Women directors of research institutes 0.69% 2/ At the University of Belgrade Women with master diploma 34% Women with PhD diploma 27,7% Women students 58% Women that get diploma 60,2% Women professors 37,4% Women Rector *From ) 1 Women Deans (31 Faculties) 3 Women academics 5% Unemployment 22,4% to successful development as economics. politics is as important (data for 2006 year)

4 STRUCTURE OF Patent applications
in Serbia ( ) Number of females patent applicants 11% Participation of females as authors in domestic patents 31,2% Source: Jelena Popovic, Intelectual Property Office, Belgrade

5 STRUCTURE OF Registered Patents
in Serbia ( )

6 NUmber of International Patent Applications in Serbia (1997-2006)
Participation of females in international patent applications 29% Source: Jelena Popovic, Intelectual Property Office, Belgrade

7 participants FROM SERBIA on INTERNATIONAL PATENT Exibitions (1997-2006)
Total number of participants 55 Female participants 11% Male participants 89%

8 Limiting factor for inventors from Serbia
High level of patent protection cost - Serious obstacle to inventors from Serbia asking protection of patent rights is the level of costs one inventor must pay for the protection of one invention. There is range of costs one inventor is faced with: • Fees for the patenting procedure (filing, examination, and search fees); • Fees for a patent agent of attorney; • Renewal fees; • If protection is sought abroad, inventor must pay translation charges; • If protection is sought abroad, inventor must pay foreign patent agent of attorney. Although it is difficult to calculate precise figures, estimates start from 2,000 EUR and could reach 14,000-20,000 EUR for more complicated patent applications (EPO, 2004). Economical situation in a Serbia is too difficult, and costs for the protection of patent rights in US PTO, EPO and JPO are still too high for most of inventors, residents of Serbia.

9 Best Woman Inventors in Serbia
- WIPO Gold Medal Danica Gajic, Ph.D., 1987 Geneva, Switzerland Invention: “Agrostemin, ” extracted from Agrostemma Githago, is a 100% natural bioregulator that respects the microflora of the soil Vida Popovic, 1987 Geneva, Switzerland Invention: “Vidasil, ” process for the production of a nonflammable heat insulation material capable of resisting temperatures up to 1,500 degrees. N. Zubova, 1992 Brussels,Belgium Invention: Medicine by biodata: method and technology Dusanka Mandic, 1996 Brussels, Belgium Invention: Magnetic traps for the removal of ferrous metal particles Gordana Pantelic, 1999 Sofia, Bulgaria Invention: Cosmetics based on phyto-therapeutic and bee products

10 Dr. Danica Gajic (1918-2005) Invention: “AGROSTEMIN”
Natural bioregulator of vegetal origin, extracted from the Agrostemma Githago and other plants (patent № ). From the chemical point of view, AGROSTEMIN is a blend of aminoacids of natural origin and other organic components like tryptophan, adenine, folic acid, allantoin etc. Patent value contested over 10 years, early retired. First recognations for patent obtained from WIPO 1987 (17 years after application) than from domestic institutions. Over 15 years passed from innovation to commercialization. Branka Gajic CEO AGROSTEMIN d.o.o. Belgrade Headquarters Kralja Milutina 26, Belgrade, Serbia business tel:              +381 (11) 26 82 664        business fax: +381 (11) mobile:                        +381 (64) 14 78 008        This invention is from the domain of universal biology. In fact, that is the new way of science thinking and deserves our highest attention"... (1992)

11 Vida Popovic, 1987 Geneva, Switzerland
Invention: “Vidasil, ” process for the production of a nonflammable heat insulation material capable of resisting temperatures up to 1,500 degrees. Vidasil is produced from lime, quartz, chrysotile, asbestos, flax or cellulose and water, It has a composition suggestive of a stone. Its applications are many: building, heat insulation, ovens, moldings, molds, furnace linings, packaging material, refrigeration systems, space technology (US Patent ). Application – 1986, Publication -1989 Available informations on Vida Popovic and her invention destiny: Factory for Vidasil production build in Leusic. (between Cacak and G.Milanovac). Due to political blindness, nearsaiting and personal vinity of the actual desizion makers production did not be successful. After 8 years of useless fight for her invention she leaved Serbia. Last information that I have is that she build in New Meksiko factory for Vidasil. Part of knowledge known to her director was sold as new patent in South Africa. Source: Interview of Milos Katic, director of factory that today don't work (Glas Javnosti) and available internet data on Vidasil.

12 Dr. Dusanka Mandic Ph.D. 1944 - Invention: Magnetic traps for the removal of ferrous metal particles. Ferrous method is non-invasive inexpensive, applicable both on inpatients and outpatients and in the field service therapy. Non-invasive method of - mild stimulation of acupunctural points using permanent ceramic magnet proved as the method of choice in treatment of injured with single and multiple ferrous bodies. (PCT/YU 98/00018, WO 99/60581) For this and other inventions she obtained large number of recognations Ministry of Health accepted 2007 her patent as means for healing. From Invention to application passed 8 years. From 1988 she work in Federal Institute of Public Health. Dr Dusanka Mandić spec. medicine rada - akupunkturolog Ordinacija "MADU" Beograd 011/ ,

13 Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Worldwide
Represent over 50 % of enterprises in most countries. SMEs are the driving force behind a large number of innovations and contribute to the growth of the national economy through employment, creation, investments and exports. Despite the importance of SMEs for the vitality of the economy and the potential offered by the IP system for enhancing SMEs competitiveness, SMEs often underutilize the IP system.

14 WIPO and the SMEs Division
In 2000, WIPO Member States endorsed a proposal to establish a substantial new program of activities, focusing on the intellectual property-related needs of SMEs worldwide. WIPOs program of activities for SMEs aims to encourage a more effective use of the intellectual property system by SMEs worldwide. The program seeks to raise awareness of the relevance of intellectual property for small and medium-sized business and promotes initiatives to make the IP system more accessible, less cumbersome and more affordable for SMEs.

15 Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) IN SERBIA
Disintegration of Yugoslavia, sanctions and NATO operation "MERCIFUL ANGEL" against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from (March 24- June ) caused that large state owned companies lose consumer markets, unemployment, economic, humanitarian, health and environmental catastrophe in Serbia. The collapse of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) enabled SMEs and NGO sector to assume a more prominent role in Serbian society. The current SME sector in Serbia includes both enterprises that are politically supported and connected as well as those that have managed to survive without any political backing or largess. Serbia has no significant experience with a marketbased economy and the values needed to support it. Serbian intellectuals and academics were not prepared for the challenges posed by the transition and have been unable to embrace the necessary skills. Although the current government is undergoing significant legislative changes, laws affecting the NGO and SME sectors remain the same. Conclusion.: The SME and NGO are in developing phase.




Regional Agencies for the Development of SMEs and Entrepreneurship were established throughout Serbia. A coalition of regional stake holders led by NGOs received funding from the European Agency for Reconstruction for a project called “Non-financial support for SMEs in Serbia.” By 2002, seven regional agencies or centers had been founded. The establishment of each agency was a real victory, but at the same time, each posed distinct problems and had a different set of stake holders. In every case, local municipalities, NGOs, regional Chambers of Commerce, banks and SME associations all contributed to the early development of the institutions. The buy-in by these diverse stakeholders was evident from the fact that although the agencies were set up as limited-liability companies and required start-up capital, the investing agencies and entities signed legal documents declining to collect on potential profits.

20 2. The State and Exports Serbia needs more exports
Serbia needs a strong export sector to: reduce a large foreign trade deficit absorb existing unused production capacity in a small domestic market add to national wealth and employment improve competitiveness and quality of enterprises and products Source: Project “Non Financial Assistance to SMEs in Serbia”

21 2. The State and Exports Barriers to SME exports in Serbia
Lack of finance and insurance facilities Inadequate information and research on potential export markets No technical assistance for quality, standards and design Trade barriers Inadequate institutional support for SME export development and promotion Source: Project “Non Financial Assistance to SMEs in Serbia”

22 Why export? Objectives in exporting:
to increase sales and profitability to utilise production capacity to the full to achieve greater business security by spreading risks over a number of markets Reasons for exporting: lack of growth opportunities in the Serbian market not enough customers in Serbia for existing products The major steps Identifying opportunities Selecting the market Entering the market Desk/field research in a manageable number of markets: e.g Balkans Information needed: size of market, import statistics, local economic data, regulations and approvals e.g. health, import licenses and tariffs, list of agents and importers Information sources: SIEPA, SME Regional Agencies, Chambers, EICC Who will sell the product in the new market and how will it be sold or distributed? Agents/distributors Direct selling Concentrate on a few markets Choose a market where there is enough potential to justify the effort Choose a market where product may have some competitive advantage – price, performance, quality Make sure the business can be handled Source: Project “Non Financial Assistance to SMEs in Serbia”

23 2. The State and Exports Policy priorities
Promotional support for main markets Information and advisory services Developing export capabilities of competitive SMEs Export finance and insurance Quality assurance scheme Donor assistance for trade promotion Source: Project “Non Financial Assistance to SMEs in Serbia”

24 2. The State and Exports New services for exporters
SIEPA’s Export Department is being strengthened and a EU funded technical assistance programme has commenced Main role of SIEPA Export Department “Promotion of Serbian goods and services in foreign markets” Source: Project “Non Financial Assistance to SMEs in Serbia”

25 Intellectual Property Right Protection and
Own experience with Intellectual Property Right Protection and Commercialization

26 e-mail:ankivana@eunet.yu,

27 Date Agriculture and Food Production Sector Production of the alimentary products on the basis of wheat and soy enriched with Selenium    Company: Milovanovic Marko & Others Ltd. Co. “Priroda”  Project Description: One of the main projects of »Priroda« (Nature), whose realization is already in course, is: production of 100 t of wheat and 15 t of soy, both enriched with Selenium using natural methods and their further processing, after which they can be added to the vast diapason of high-nutrition-value products. The point is that those are the first high-nutrition-value primary products, obtained from implementing the original combination and treatment for foliar feeding (supplementation) – the technology protected with the patent. Result obtained with this method is wheat with the amount of Selenium 6-7 times bigger in comparison to the ordinary wheat. The enrichment capacity with soy is even bigger, and that goes for manufactured products as well. The soil in Balkans and huge part of Europe is extremely deficient in Selenium, and consequently nutrition also lacks sufficient quantities of Selenium. In the same time, the reports of International Health Organization point out the remarkable role of Selenium in prevention of decease and keeping the human organism in optimal condition. »Nature« has concluded agreements with the relevant scientific institutes for using the patented technology, with farmers for producing and delivering 100 t of wheat and 15 t of soya using the mentioned technologies, as well as with manufacturers for production of flour-milling, baker and flake products.  Project Name “Production of the alimentary products on the basis of wheat and soy enriched with Selenium ”   Estimated Investment Cost   EUR Estimated duration of the Project  5 years + Investment expected from foreign partner   EUR  Available documents of the completed work to date  Feasibility Study  Expected effects  Download PDF More about the project (download PDF) Company Profile   Name:  Milovanovic Marko & Others Ltd. Co. “Priroda”   Address:  Brace Krsmanovic 23, Belgrade, Yugoslavia   Contact Person:  Slobodan Milovanovic, Development Project Manager Marko Milovanovic, General Manager Language Spoken  English   Telephone:     Fax:     Activity:  Production and market positioning of the »healthy food«.  Size of the Company:  The company permanently employs 10 employees with three occasional collaborators Key Figures »Nature«, O.D. is registered in the Court of Commerce in Belgrade on March 31st (file number: I-Fi-2164/98), with enclosed documents about new occupational activities and the change of companies' seat from March 23rd 2001, as a company dedicated to production, traffic and services. »Nature«, Limited Partnership Company is, in the same time, business adherent of the General Business Co-operative »Nature«, founded on February 21st The inevitable consequence of the difficulties brought by new law regarding Co-operativess and proprietary transformation lies in the change of organizational manners. The basic professional choice of both ex Co-operative and present Limited Partnership Company is improvement in production and market positioning of the »healthy food«. Our Company is the real pioneer in that department, since it had done a great work in founding the autonomous and autochtonous market of the nutritively healthier products. This market consists of recognizable production companies and products, wholetrade in that sector is becoming well known and growing and specialized stores are more and more numerous . The first wholesale warehouse of the healthy food on Yu market was established by »Nature« in 1994, together with the first marketing improvements and product promotions, »Nature« encouraged the newly formed trade stores, known under the name of »biopantries« in their will to expand the idea of healthier nutrition. More about the Company (PDF)

28 Invention Date Selen Enriched Edible Plants Production Project done by a group of scientists  Project Name  Selen Enriched Edible Plants Production   Estimated Investment Cost  Negligible compared with the effects  Estimated duration of the Project  Indefinite, with yearly cycles; could begin any time  Investment expected from foreign partner  Depends on agreed size of production;  Mainly: Marketing and exports  Available documents of the completed work to date  Scientific and technological explanations and descriptions available   Excpected effects  Large production and considerable sales on the world market where such products are in great demand Project Description: Selen is a chemical element of great importance for human body functioning, as well as for animals and some microorganisms. It prevents and cures all stress-caused illnesses, and is efficient with radiation stress. Selen is a component of more than 30 presently known enzymes and seleno-proteins. Since Selen is not useful in every shape it appears in nature, (for that matter: it can  sometimes be toxic), it was necessary to establish its most efficient compound to enrich human food with. That is L-(+)-Selenmetionine, existing in cereals. Application method is foliar feeding of the plants, rendering growth of Selen content in grains. The method is an innovation and is the property of the authors of this project. It is not being applied anywhere in the world in such a way, and is protected by a patent. Another innovation is foliar feeding with Selen salts in combination with Urea.    Achievements of the method: Minimal Selen salts consumption, better and faster plant adoption of Selen, practically no possibility of upsetting the existing balance of contents in the soil.Application is possible with wheat, Soya, oats, barley and other edible plants.   The authors have all the details on this original method, as well as the necessary raw materials. Production trials have been completed and test results are very promising. First commercial quantities are available for checking and practical use. Company Profile   Name:  A Group of Scientists from Belgrade   Contact Person:  Brane Popović   Language spoken:  English   Telephone:  +381 11    Fax:    

29 06.03.2003 Meeting in Chamber for Commerce
Present: Ines Novosel, Markrting & Research Republic of Serbia Investment and Export Promotion Agency Elias Antonakakis UNIDO -Investment & Technology Promotion Office DEPUTY HEAD INVESTMENT PROMOTION EXPERT 7, Stadiou Str.(7th floor) Athens GREECE Tel: (+301) / 319 / 367 Fax: (+301) Vassilios P. Gialamas President EMKAT S.A. CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY 322, Kifissia Ave, (72 Olympionikon str.) N. Psychico GR Athens Tel: Center: (+301) Fax: (+301) Brane Popovic Ivana Djujic Meeting results Products with declaration that they are made from Selenium enriched wheat and soybean, my name and patent number on wrapping material Company “Priroda” produce and sale in Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, Italia. Chemical analysis of selenium in mentioned products showed that they are not made of selenium enriched wheat and/or soybean and have not declared selenium quantity. Mr Elias Antonakakis recommended my invention to his coleague in Japan. Last information - In 2006 Priroda still distributed mentioned products with my name and patent number on wrapping material in Serbia and Montenegro.

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