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Prof. Marie-Christine Janssens Centre for Intellectual Property Rights Catholic University Leuven - Belgium WIPO-UNIDO National Seminar on Managing Intellectual.

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Presentation on theme: "Prof. Marie-Christine Janssens Centre for Intellectual Property Rights Catholic University Leuven - Belgium WIPO-UNIDO National Seminar on Managing Intellectual."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prof. Marie-Christine Janssens Centre for Intellectual Property Rights Catholic University Leuven - Belgium WIPO-UNIDO National Seminar on Managing Intellectual Property of SMEs Minsk, January 2007 Prof. Marie-Christine Janssens Centre for Intellectual Property Rights Catholic University Leuven - Belgium WIPO-UNIDO National Seminar on Managing Intellectual Property of SMEs Minsk, January 2007 Fair Use & Software Reverse Engineering

2 Copying Software 1950s1980s > Difficult Easy

3 Overview regulatory framework 1980s Us adopts copyright protection 1991 EU software directive + Implementation by Member States International norms 1994 TRIPS (art. 10.1) 1996 WCT (art. 4) 1980s Us adopts copyright protection 1991 EU software directive + Implementation by Member States International norms 1994 TRIPS (art. 10.1) 1996 WCT (art. 4)

4 W H A T ? Fair use Copyrighted subject matter

5 External boundaries of system FREE USE Expiration of term of protection Expiration of term of protection Belarus Copyright Act art years Belarus Copyright Act art years practical significance ???? practical significance ???? Ideas and concepts may be freely copied Ideas and concepts may be freely copied

6 Art. 8.2 Belarus Copyrigh Act Статья 8. Произведения, не являющиеся объектами авторского права (1. …) 2. Авторское право не распространяется на идеи, процессы, системы, методы функционирования, концепции, принципы, открытия или просто информацию как таковые, даже если они выражены, отображены, объяснены или воплощены в произведении Статья 8. Произведения, не являющиеся объектами авторского права (1. …) 2. Авторское право не распространяется на идеи, процессы, системы, методы функционирования, концепции, принципы, открытия или просто информацию как таковые, даже если они выражены, отображены, объяснены или воплощены в произведении

7 Computer program as expressed Computer- languages (codes) copyright

8 Underlying solution for problem Computer- language (source code) copyright technical technical technical patent law patent law Computer program as such

9 External boundaries of system FREE USE Expiration of term of protection Expiration of term of protection Ideas and concepts may be copied Ideas and concepts may be copied two programs may have similar features, comparable functions, be based on the same concept two programs may have similar features, comparable functions, be based on the same concept their implementation may not be copied their implementation may not be copied e.g. copying (even a few) lines of the code e.g. copying (even a few) lines of the code Non-original features may be copied Non-original features may be copied features dictated by technical needs & efficiency norms features dictated by technical needs & efficiency norms features taken from public domain (basic techniques, trivial combinations) features taken from public domain (basic techniques, trivial combinations)

10 Internal boundaries of system PERMITTED USE By contract (license) By contract (license) written agreement ? Shrink Wrap ? Clickwrap written agreement ? Shrink Wrap ? Clickwrap cf. article 27 Belarus Copyright Act cf. article 27 Belarus Copyright Act If conditions of using the program are set out in a suitable manner on the copy of the program If conditions of using the program are set out in a suitable manner on the copy of the program Статья 27. Форма авторского договора Статья 27. Форма авторского договора 1. Авторский договор должен быть заключен в письменной форме (…) 2. При продаже экземпляров компьютерных программ и баз данных договор считается заключенным в письменной форме, если его условия (условия использования программы и базы данных) изложены соответствующим образом на экземплярах программы или базы данных

11 Internal boundaries of system PERMITTED USE By contract (license) By contract (license) Software code is released as open source Software code is released as open source license conditions license conditions Free to use in organization Free to use in organization Free to use in products Free to use in products Free to distribute and sell Free to distribute and sell Free to modify and extend Free to modify and extend Software is released under a Creative Commons license Software is released under a Creative Commons license

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13 Internal boundaries exception to exclusive right Fair use

14 Public interest Rightowners ExceptionsExclusive rights Balance © ©

15 Exclusive R.Exceptions © use of program in any way & in any form Literal copying Non-literal copying translation, adaptation Whole or part of program use of program in any way & in any form Literal copying Non-literal copying translation, adaptation Whole or part of program No permission is needed national legislation (subject to 9.2 Berne) Lawful user No permission is needed national legislation (subject to 9.2 Berne) Lawful user

16 Exceptions to economic rights Acts necessary for the use Acts necessary for the use e.g. reproduction while loading the program e.g. reproduction while loading the program includes error correction includes error correction The making of a back-up copy The making of a back-up copy a single copy (if no back-up is provided) a single copy (if no back-up is provided) Belarus article 21 intended solely for archiving or for the replacement in the event the copy was lost or destroyed Лицо, правомерно владеющее экземпляром компьютерной программы, вправе изготовить копию компьютерной программы при условии, что эта копия предназначена только для архивных целей или для замены правомерно приобретенного экземпляра в случаях, когда оригинал компьютерной программы утерян, уничтожен или стал непригодным для использования Belarus article 21 intended solely for archiving or for the replacement in the event the copy was lost or destroyed Лицо, правомерно владеющее экземпляром компьютерной программы, вправе изготовить копию компьютерной программы при условии, что эта копия предназначена только для архивных целей или для замены правомерно приобретенного экземпляра в случаях, когда оригинал компьютерной программы утерян, уничтожен или стал непригодным для использования

17 Exceptions to economic rights Acts necessary for the use Acts necessary for the use The making of a back-up copy The making of a back-up copy Observation, study, testing to determine underlying ideas and principles if … Observation, study, testing to determine underlying ideas and principles if … The so-called decompilation right The so-called decompilation right right to reverse engineer to convert object code into source code (= copying) right to reverse engineer to convert object code into source code (= copying)

18 Uses of decompilation To develop a competitive product To develop a competitive product To develop a complementary or attaching program or device (e.g. printer) To develop a complementary or attaching program or device (e.g. printer) Other uses than developing a product Other uses than developing a product to maintain a program to maintain a program to recover lost code to recover lost code to fix bugs to fix bugs to find viruses to find viruses to examine a competitors program (infringement?) to examine a competitors program (infringement?)

19 Maintaining balance in IP law Public Interest Exclusive rights

20 Decompilation right (EU) It is lawful to decompile a program It is lawful to decompile a program to create a new independent program to create a new independent program that is interoperable with it that is interoperable with it e.g. to run a program on an operating system the source code of which is kept secret e.g. to run a program on an operating system the source code of which is kept secret Under stringent conditions Under stringent conditions information is not readily available information is not readily available information obtained may information obtained may only be used for ensuring interoperability only be used for ensuring interoperability Not be given to third parties (unless necessary for this purpose) Not be given to third parties (unless necessary for this purpose) Not be used for development of substantially similar CP or any other act which infringes copyright Not be used for development of substantially similar CP or any other act which infringes copyright use exception with extreme caution ! use exception with extreme caution !

21 Decompilation right (Belarus) Article 21 (2) Лицо, правомерно владеющее экземпляром компьютерной программы, вправе адаптировать компьютерную программу для обеспечения совместной работы с другими программами при условии, что полученная при адаптации информация не будет использоваться для создания других компьютерных программ, аналогичных адаптируемой, или для осуществления любого действия, нарушающего авторское право Article 21 (2) Лицо, правомерно владеющее экземпляром компьютерной программы, вправе адаптировать компьютерную программу для обеспечения совместной работы с другими программами при условии, что полученная при адаптации информация не будет использоваться для создания других компьютерных программ, аналогичных адаптируемой, или для осуществления любого действия, нарушающего авторское право

22 Apply clean room restrictions Room where computers are not connected to internet/intranet Room where computers are not connected to internet/intranet Only specially assigned personnel is allowed to room Only specially assigned personnel is allowed to room No data (in electronic form or on paper) is allowed to leave room No data (in electronic form or on paper) is allowed to leave room End report will only detail information necessary for interoperability End report will only detail information necessary for interoperability Shred all paper documents related to the decompilation / wipe disks and computer memories Shred all paper documents related to the decompilation / wipe disks and computer memories

23 Famous cases Sega Enterprises v. Accolade (9th Cir 1993) Sega Enterprises v. Accolade (9th Cir 1993) Atari v. Nintendo (Fed Cir 1992) Atari v. Nintendo (Fed Cir 1992) Sony v. Connectix (9th Cir 2000) Sony v. Connectix (9th Cir 2000) The intermediate copies made and used by Connectix during the course of its reverse engineering of the Sony BIOS were protected fair use, necessary to permit Connectix to make its non-infringing Virtual Game Station function with PlayStation games. The intermediate copies made and used by Connectix during the course of its reverse engineering of the Sony BIOS were protected fair use, necessary to permit Connectix to make its non-infringing Virtual Game Station function with PlayStation games.

24 The decompilation exception in practice Difficult … but not impossible + take legal advice in advance


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