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IPR and Public-Private Technology Transfer Professor Prabuddha Ganguli [PhD] CEO VISION-IPR 103 B SENATE, Lokhandwala Township, Akurli Road, Kandivli East,

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Presentation on theme: "IPR and Public-Private Technology Transfer Professor Prabuddha Ganguli [PhD] CEO VISION-IPR 103 B SENATE, Lokhandwala Township, Akurli Road, Kandivli East,"— Presentation transcript:

1 IPR and Public-Private Technology Transfer Professor Prabuddha Ganguli [PhD] CEO VISION-IPR 103 B SENATE, Lokhandwala Township, Akurli Road, Kandivli East, Mumbai 400101, India Tel: 91-22-8873766 e-mail: ramugang@vsnl.com Presentation made at the WIPO-CSIR Workshop on Licensing and Technology Transfer; New Delhi; India, July 4-8, 2005

2 Technological Innovation ….Societal Progress Creative exploitation of knowledge in Selection of seeds leading to the Green Revolution and enhancing agricultural productivity Development of nutritive food supplements, vaccines, medicines, methods of treatment to improving community health Inventing novel devices for diverse applications, including, facilitating learning processes and providing systems for communication Deciphering secrets of life creating processes, integrating with communication technologies to give biotechnology pganguli©2005

3 pganguli©2002

4 Knowlitics …... ….. A new international phenomena Emerging Socio-Political Dimensions of the Knowledge Trade IPR plays a decisive role Transacting Owned Knowledge Knowletics TM applied for in India by P. Ganguli pganguli©2003

5 Strategic Linking of Knowledge Incubators with Business Enterprises Integrate IPR in the knowledge generation and transfer process Where does one start???? pganguli©2004

6 TODAY YESTERYEARS RESEARCH MODELS TOMORROW……. ISSUES RESEARCH PROCESSAPPROACHES SOCIETAL IMPACT KNOWLEDGE OWNERSHIP BENEFITS SHARING p.ganguli©2001

7 YESTERYEARS RESEARCH MODELS Typically Conceptual State Funded Institutions Open-Ended Knowledge Generation Enrichment of Public Domain knowledge Credits: Enhanced Peer Recognition Typically Applications Private Funded Institutions Targeted End Points Optimized use of Public Domain Knowledge Value Addition as measure of competitive edge Profits,Market dominance Proprietary Issues UPSTREAM RESEARCH DOWNSTREAM RESEARCH TODAY TOMORROW. p.ganguli©2001

8 TOMORROW YESTERYEARS RESEARCH MODELS TODAY Partial Funding By Private Enterprises in Upstream Research Issues on knowledge Flow Benefits Sharing Publications Research Schemes, Peer Group Recognition etc. Free use by Funding Agency?? Diffused Ownership!! MIDSTREAM p.ganguli©2001

9 TODAY YESTERYEARS RESEARCH MODELS TOMORROW……. Blurring of boundaries between Upstream & Downstream Research Overlap between disciplines Quantification of Ownership Formalized benefit Sharing by Partners Overlapping Claims by different owners Challenges to Ownership Criteria Anti competition or Monopolistic Issues IRP Multi-tier innovation process Optimized use of global knowledge base Intra-Enterprise resources Extra-Enterprise inputs Global/National licensing issues Intricate exclusive/non-exclusive benefits Sharing Organizational frameworks for rapid diffusion of innovation to business TURBULENCE RAPIDS p.ganguli©2001

10 Sociology of Technology Organization of technology Best Practices and Value Chain of the Business is difficult to transfer Cooperative governance in the innovation process Small Suppliers to Big Companies … very effective systems. National Technology Mission pganguli©2005

11 Expertise Centres SME Large Enterprises Enterprise Networking p.ganguli©2005

12 Demand for Patents World wide First Filings Total Filings Ref: Intellectual Property Rights.. Unleashing the Knowledge Economy P. Ganguli ( Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi 2001)

13 Ref: Intellectual Property Rights.. Unleashing the Knowledge Economy P. Ganguli ( Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi 2001)

14 A decade of changes Enabling national policies and incentive schemes to encourage R&D, technology development and transfer Growth of financial institutions Moving into the new IPR Paradigm Maturing of the IPR infrastructure Several national agencies including industry associations providing IPR awareness and facilitation programmes International agencies getting involved in developmental activities at grass roots….. e,.g. UNIDO Projects, NGOs, WIPO and others. pganguli©2005

15 Developments in India Moving into strong IPR Regime in a phased manner during the last 35 years while growing its infrastructure and economy. IPR is now a necessity to give its economy the required competitive edge p.ganguli©2005

16 Indian National S&T Policy 2003 … salient features Vigorously foster scientific research in universities and other academic, scientific and engineering institutions; and attract the brightest young persons to careers in science and technology, by conveying a sense of excitement concerning the advancing frontiers, and by creating suitable employment opportunities for them. Also to build and maintain centres of excellence, which will raise the level of work in selected areas to the highest international standards pganguli©2005

17 Indian National S&T Policy 2003 … salient features Provide necessary autonomy and freedom of functioning for all academic and R&D institutions so that an ambience for truly creative work is encouraged, while ensuring at the same time that the science and technology enterprise in the country is fully committed to its social responsibilities and commitments pganguli©2005

18 Indian National S&T Policy 2003.. Salient features To substantially strengthen enabling mechanisms that relate to technology development, evaluation, absorption and upgradation from concept to utilization. To establish an Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) regime which maximises the incentives for the generation and protection of intellectual property by all types of inventors. Provide a strong, supportive and comprehensive policy environment for speedy and effective domestic commercialisation of such inventions All efforts are made to have high-speed access to information, both in quality and quantity, at affordable costs; and also create digitized, valid and usable content of Indian origin. pganguli©2005

19 Indian National S&T Policy 2003 … Salient Features Support innovation in all its aspects through a comprehensive national system of innovation covering science and technology as also legal, financial and other related aspects Set in mechanisms to achieve synergy between industry and scientific research by creation of Autonomous Technology Transfer Organizations as associate organizations of universities and national laboratories to facilitate transfer of the know-how generated to industry Encourage scientists and technologists to transfer the know-how generated by them to the industry and be a partner in receiving the financial returns Encourage Industry to financially adopt or support educational and research institutions, fund courses of interest to them, create professional chairs etc. to help direct S&T endeavours towards tangible industrial goals pganguli©2005

20 India Post TRIPS…. An Audit 1st (1999) and 2nd Patents Amendment Act (2002) with Patent Rules 2003; 3 rd amendment bill introduced in December 2003 has lapsed; Patent Ordinance 2004 on December 26 th 2004. The Bill for the 3 rd Amendment was passed in Lok Sabha on 22/3/05 and in Rajya Sabha on 23/3/05 The Trademarks Act 1999 and TM Rules 2002 (rules notified on September 15, 2003) Copyright Act 1957 with Copyright rules 1958 followed by International Copyright Order 1999. Designs Registration Act 2000 with Design rules 2001 Geographical Indications Act 1999 with GI rules 2002 Protection of Layouts for Integrated Circuits Act 2000 The Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers Rights Act 2001 Bio-diversity Act 2002 pganguli©2005

21 India Post TRIPS…. An Audit Designs Registration Act 2000 with Design rules 2001 Geographical Indications Act 1999 with GI rules 2002 Protection of Layouts for Integrated Circuits Act 2000 The Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers Rights Act 2001 Bio-diversity Act 2002 pganguli©2005

22 Approaches to Industry – Academic Technology Collaboration Only Memorandum of Understanding Singed (MOU) with no formal IP Clauses / Policies Essentially no awareness of the issues.

23 Instructions for Technology Transfer and IPR Ministry of Science and Technology has issued the guidelines "Instructions for Technology Transfer and Intellectual Property Rights", which would help in enhancing the motivation of scientists, research institutions and universities in projects funded by the Department of Science and Technology, Department of Biotechnology, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research and Department of Ocean Development. pganguli©2005

24 Guidelines for Technology Transfer and IPR Ownership of Intellectual Property: Institutions shall be encouraged to seek protection of intellectual property rights in respect of the results of R&D. They may retain the ownership of such IPR. Institutions would mean any technical, scientific or academic establishment where research is carried out through funding by the central/state government. pganguli©2005

25 Guidelines for Technology Transfer and IPR Transfer of Technology: The institutions shall take the necessary steps to commercially exploit patents on exclusive or non-exclusive basis. Royalty to Inventors: The owner institution is permitted to retain the benefits and earnings generated out of the IPR. The institution may determine the share of inventor(s) and other persons from such actual earnings. However, such share(s) shall be limited to one third of the actual earnings. pganguli©2005

26 Guidelines for Technology Transfer and IPR Norms for Private Industry: IPR generated through joint research by institution(s) and industrial concern(s) through joint efforts can be owned jointly by them as may be mutually agreed to by them through a written agreement. The institution and industrial concern may transfer the technology to a third party for commercialisation on exclusive/non-exclusive basis. The third party, exclusively licensed to market the innovation in India, must manufacture the product in India. The joint owners may share the benefits and earnings arising out of commercial exploitation of the IPR. The institution may determine the share of the inventor(s) and other persons from such actual earnings. Such share(s) shall not exceed 1/3rd of the actual earnings. pganguli©2005

27 Guidelines for Technology Transfer and IPR Patent Facilitating Fund: The owner institution(s) shall set apart no less than 25% of the revenue generated from IPR, to create a Patent Facilitating Fund. The Fund shall be utilized by the owner for updating inventions, filing new patent applications and protecting the IP rights against infringement and for building competency in the area of IPR and related issues. pganguli©2005

28 Guidelines for Technology Transfer and IPR Information : The institutions shall submit information relating to the details of the patent obtained, the benefits and earnings arising out of IPR and the turnover of the products periodically to the department/Ministry which had provided funds. March In Rights: The Government shall have a royalty-free license for the use of intellectual property for the purposes of the Government of India. pganguli©2005

29 Several Government Sponsored Schemes A few Examples pganguli©2004

30 Promotion of technology transfer ……national schemes Stress on academic-industry-government teamwork for targeted deliver of business oriented results through innovative funding schemes such as New Millennium Indian Technology Leadership Initiative (NMITLI) http://www.csir.res.in/nmitli/nmitli.html; Drugs & Pharmaceutical Research http://dst.gov.in/scprog/tecdev/drugspharmares.htm; Instrumentation Development Programme http://dst.gov.in/scprog/tecdev/instrdevprog.htm; Grants to Industry- PATSER Programme Aimed at Technological Self Reliance (PATSER) http://dsir.nic.in; Home- Grown Technology Programme (HGT) http://www.tifac.org.in/; Department of Information Technology http://www.mit.gov.in/R&D/projects/index.htm#about http://www.csir.res.in/nmitli/nmitli.html http://dst.gov.in/scprog/tecdev/drugspharmares.htm http://dst.gov.in/scprog/tecdev/instrdevprog.htmhttp://dsir.nic.in http://www.tifac.org.in/ http://www.mit.gov.in/R&D/projects/index.htm#about pganguli©2004

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32 Promotion of technology transfer ……national schemes National IPR Facilitating Centers National Research Development Council (NRDC) Partnering innovators, entrepreneurs, institutions to protect their innovations in India and abroad and also help to commercialise their IPR Technology Information and Forecasting Cell (TIFAC) Facilitating patent searches, funding and facilitating filing of patents, partnering in commercialisation of IPR National Innovation Fund Working with grass-root innovators to protect their innovations and also to facilitate technology transfer/ IPR commercialisation Technology Incubation Programme DST Funded incubation centers set up to facilitate entrepreneurship development and IPR development and transfer pganguli©2004

33 Mission Led Projects Strategic Technologies to build competitive capabilities…… 4 National Level Projects led by the Principal Scientific Advisor to GOI TIFAC : Universities, Indian Institute of Technology ( set of them) and industries. IPR will belong to Universities and IITs. First rights to refusal to industry. Govt. will have march-in rights. Just initiated. Liberal licensing and benefit sharing will be developed.

34 LESSONS Identification of relevant problem Investments by private industry in their R&D labs Active link and utilising facilities and expertise in Publicly Funded Institutions and Government Authorities Speedy science to development process/product technology for commercial venture. Exploring global partners for the steps…… role of international organisations?, governments?, transnational companies? pganguli©2003

35 The Present Trend Creation of Institutional IPR Policies Active Involvement of Industry Associations Introduction of courses on IPR in various institutions IPR Awareness Workshops in Institutions, Judiciary, Enforcement Agencies, Courses on Licensing Strategies, Development of IPR Manuals for the SME Sector, etc WIPO Partnering in this process. pganguli©2005

36 …... Several Science and Technologies getting orphaned due to non availability of funds to progress IPRs on global scale …….inadequate infrastructure, management skills, negotiation acumen, inadequate venture capital culture ………... No clout to negotiate due to fragmented technologies ……..lack of patent information base search skills, avoiding of reinventing the wheel pganguli©2003

37 ……Social cost of granting wrong patents …….high cost of litigation …………when is traditional knowledge legitimate prior art and under what circumstances should it be considered as socio-piracy pganguli©2003

38 Government Constitute integrated single window National IPR Commission National IPR literacy Mission … Thrust Development of competition law as balancing positive measures to control overuse of misuse of IPR. Exploit geographical indicators to national advantage. pganguli©2005

39 Re-structure the judiciary & enforcement machinery for professional and speedy response to IPR issues Introduce enabling National Taxation Policy to encourage IPR trade. Networks for protection of grass root innovation and innovators Government pganguli©2005

40 Easy and cost effective access to IPR information. Set-up IPR training institutes to prepare technically qualified attorneys Urgently modernize the IPR Administrative Set-ups in the country Establishment of IPR facilitating centres in the country. Government pganguli©2005

41 n Institutional IPR Policy n Integrating IPR into institutional mission, strategy & project management n Effective Use of IPR information and international alliances n Identifying areas of possible infringements n Licensing strategy n Policing of institutional IP assets n Litigation strategy n IPR audit Effective utilisation of International Conventions. pganguli©2001


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