Presentation on theme: "Environmental Research and Services for Megacities"— Presentation transcript:
1Environmental Research and Services for Megacities World Meteorological Organization Working together in weather, climate and waterWMOEnvironmental Research and Services for MegacitiesLiisa Jalkanen,Atmospheric Environment Research (AER) DivisionWMO Secretariat1
2Megacities at Congress XVI Megacities: face multiple weather hazards and air pollution problems, causing health, environmental and economical impacts.CAS PresidentCg DocumentsGAW and GURME Cg-XVI 3.2PWS Cg-XVI Cg-XVI 4.1Project proposal ( ) in Compendium for voluntary budgetSide meeting
3WMO Congress XVI CAS FUTURE ORIENTATIONS Question CAS President: What are the significant technical, social and environmental stressors which will drive the demand for more accurate and user friendly environmental assessments and predictions?
4Reply: CLIMATE CHANGE POPULATION GROWTH AND URBANIZATION
6WMO increasing focus: Megacities GAW Doc Cg XVI Para Need focus on large urban areas both for meteorological and air qualityresearch → applications → servicesActivities should be aimed at:(i) development of strategies for megacities to deal with weather, climate and environmental problems and improvement of related services;(ii) enhancement of environmental monitoring and modelling capabilities; and(iii) establishment of case studies for understanding air pollution, health and climate connections in different types of megacities.
7PWS Cg-XVI 4.1Many challenges: severe weather, air pollution, water quality; domino effects.Climate info and services for planning and long-term infrastructure buildingWeather info and services to respond to needs in handling severe and high-impact events.Need partnerships; improved communication and client relations.RequiredCoordinated effort across broad spectrum of activities, e.g. PWS, GDPFS, AER, WWR; WHO.CBS and CAS to provide collaborative leadership.
8GURME experienceClimate change air pollution interactionsNeed to consider all scales
10Example of GURME project: Latin American CitiesImprovement of AQ forecasting in Latin American cities through capacity buildingFirst Air Quality Forecasting Workshop for the Latin American Cities October, 2003, Santiago, Chile;Workshop on application of WRF/Chem Model and Use of Remote sensing, 2006, Sao PauloTraining Workshop on AQF for Latin American countries, 2006, LimaAir Quality Modeling for Latin America, August 2009, Mexico CityWorkshop on SLCFs for Latin America, Sept 2011, Mexico CityNMHSs Universities - Environmental AgenciesSantiago, ChileSao Paulo, BrazilMexico City, Mexico
11WEATHER AND AIR QUALITY FORECASTING C W GWEATHER AND AIR QUALITY FORECASTINGBrought to you byMinistry of Earth SciencesGovt. of IndiaIITM, PuneIn Association with OC-CWGGURME Pilot ProjectAir QualityIITM, PuneWeatherIMD, New DelhiPI: Gufran Beig
12SAFAR Components for CWG This SAFAR project involved 4 components to facilitate the current and 24h to 48h advance forecasting, namely,(1) The development of high resolution emission inventory of air pollutants for NCR and defining air quality index for India.(2) Network of eleven Air Quality Monitoring Stations (AQMS) equipped with instruments to provide near real time air quality information. (CO,CO2,O3,NO,Nox,NO2, BTX,O3,PM2.5,PM10,BC)(3) The 3-D atmospheric chemistry transport forecasting modeling coupled with weather forecasting model to provide forecast of air pollutant levels.(4) (a) Display the information on LED and LCD screens located at 20 different locations in Delhi in a public friendly format and(b) displaying the online detailed information through the Web portal developed for CWG as:
14Another example: Shanghai MHEWS Shanghai is a mega-city situated on the shores of the East China Sea and the Yangtze River Mouthdense population: 20 millionrapid economic development: aiming to be the economic, financial, trade, and transportation center of China.Threat of Multi-Hazard to Shanghai:frequently affected by natural hazards such as typhoons and associated marine hazards such as storm surge, heavy storms, heavy fog, heat-waves, and by atmospheric pollution episodes
15Shanghai MHEWS Project components Reported at Cg in WMO President’s documentDemonstration project (WENS) on the application of nowcasting to Public Weather Service deliveryThe Typhoon Landfall Forecast Demonstration Project (TLFDP) supported by WWRP and TCPGURME demonstration project on air pollutionHeat and Health Warning System (HHWS) demonstration project and intercomparisonProject for the development of the MHEWS programme governance, institutional coordination mechanisms and community preparedness.
16GURME Pilot Project part of MHEWS Shanghai (EXPO-2010) Enhanced observing systemEnhanced air quality & weather forecasting (& heat waves)Field experiment (joint with NCAR)Workshop activities
17Meteorological services for public health Meteorological measurements (temperature, wind, humidity, pressure, cloud, etc)Heat wave and cold spell forecastUV forecastOzone forecastUV radiationAtmospheric chemistry observation (O3, NOX, CO, SO2, aerosols)Haze forecastObservationsForecast modelsPollen forecastBacterial Food PoisoningPollen measurements (open plat method,Microscope filter)Based on various measurements (meteorological measurements, environmental observations and diseases diagnostic) We establish forecast models and supply … to the public. Through those services, individuals especially sensitive groups will take effective actions to keep them well.In expo period, we have made some new progress in health forecast, World Expo 2010 is one of the most important activities for Shanghai, to enable tourists to better visit the World Expo, we provide special meteorological health service (heat-index, sunstroke, diarrhea forecast) in expo area.Influenza forecastHeat index, Sunstoke, and Diarrhea forecast for EXPO 2010Bacterial food poisoning, Influenza,Heatstroke, Trauma, Diarrhea diagnosticSporeWatch electronic spore & pollen sampler17
18An Extension of Shanghai GURME project on urban meteorological observations, first meeting of advisory team in December 2011.
20The WMO Sand and Dust Storm Warning, Advisory and Assessment System (SDS-WAS)A Global Consortium Helping Society Reduce Risk Through Research, Assessments and ForecastsIMPACTS: Human Health, Agriculture, Marine productivity, Weather and Climate, AviationSDS-WAS40 WMO Members interested in the initiative~ 15 institutions running research operational dust model forecasts2 SDS-WAS modes (in China and Spain) established to coordinate regional cooperationJoint GAW and WWRP initiativeSDS integrates observations, models and delivers products to users
21Heavy sand storm in Minqin County, northwest of China's Gansu Province. Sand covered about one-eighth of China from April 14 to 18, 2006 and about 330,000 tons of sand fell in Beijing on Sunday night April 10.
22Heat waves cause excess deaths, large portion due to air pollution Heat wave in Europe summer 2003:extra deaths, about 20 – 38 % due to air pollutionMore ozone:High T favors production of O3Low RH reduces destruction of O3Less dry removal through vegetation (T, no precipitation)Biogenic precursor emissions higher (isoprene)Stable meteorological situation with no clouds (containment of pollutants and favorable for photochemistry)AQ forecasts and Heat Health Early Warnings (HHEW)
23EU, COST, IGAC collaboration MEGAPOLI ProjectCOST Actions728 Mesoscale for AP and Dispersion Applications: Several joint publications0602 Chemical weather0603 Allergenic pollenEuropean framework for online integrated air quality and meteorology modelling (EuMetChem)IGAC-WMO Megacity Report
24MeteoWorld Pavilion, World Expo 2010 Shanghai Better City Better LifePavillion Theme: Safety and well-being of the peopleCollaboration critical for success!This one is the back elevation of the pavilion.A Contour- Design Description of the Pavilion “Cloud Droplets”