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PCMU/UNEP Key issues related to proposal development Yunae Yi Secretary of the Project Approval Group UNEP, Nairobi.

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Presentation on theme: "PCMU/UNEP Key issues related to proposal development Yunae Yi Secretary of the Project Approval Group UNEP, Nairobi."— Presentation transcript:

1 PCMU/UNEP Key issues related to proposal development Yunae Yi Secretary of the Project Approval Group UNEP, Nairobi

2 PCMU/UNEP Results-Based Management Why focus on results? Shift of focus from delivery of goods and services to benefits to the target beneficiaries Focus on effectiveness and impact of our work What does it mean? Flexible and optimal approach to achieve results Accountability of the project team Continuous monitoring of the progress Demonstration of measurable changes

3 PCMU/UNEP Project Cycle Identification Phase 1 Review and approval Phase 3 Preparation and formulation Phase 2 Evaluation Phase 5 Implementation Phase 4

4 PCMU/UNEP Phase 1 Project Identification Situation analysis Identification test Identification Phase 1 Preparation and formulation Phase 2 Review and approval Phase 3 Evaluation Phase 5 Implementation Phase 4

5 PCMU/UNEP Situation analysis Assess and analyze an environmental situation needs Include analyses of needs, interests, strengths and weaknesses of key stakeholders and beneficiaries (stakeholder analysis) Explores likely causes and linkages between existing problems and the needed actions (Problem and objective analyses) Generates key actions and strategies to be applied

6 PCMU/UNEP Situation analysis (1): Stakeholder analysis 1.Identify the principal stakeholders at various levels – local, national, regional and international 2.Investigate their roles, interests, and relative powers and capacities to participate 3.Identify the extent of cooperation or conflict in the relationships among stakeholders 4.Interpret the findings of the analysis and define how they should be incorporated into project design

7 PCMU/UNEP Situation analysis (2): Problem analysis 1. Define precisely the situation to be analyzed (sector, sub sector, area, etc.); 2. Define some major problem conditions related to the selected situation; 3. Organize the problem conditions according to their cause–effect relationships; 4.Check the logical order.

8 PCMU/UNEP Situation analysis (3): Objectives analysis Reformulate the problems as objectives; Check the logic and plausibility of the means- to-ends relationship; Select the scope and level of project intervention; Link to Logical Framework development

9 PCMU/UNEP Identification test There is compatibility with COP mandates; Major options and alternatives have been identified and some initial choices made; The principal institutional and policy issues affecting project outcome have been identified and deemed amenable to solution; There is justifiable expectation that the project will have adequate support from the relevant political authorities, other stakeholders and the intended beneficiaries; The project options selected are expected to be justified, given rough estimates of the expected costs and benefits.

10 PCMU/UNEP Phase II Feasibility study Project document formulation Project implementation planning Identification Phase 1 Preparation & formulation Phase 2 Review and approval Phase 3 Evaluation Phase 5 Implementation Phase 4

11 PCMU/UNEP Feasibility study The core of the proposal preparation process To provide the basis for choosing the most desirable options Consideration of the following basic questions: Does it conform to the development and environmental priorities, such as PRSP? Is it technically and scientifically sound, and is the methodology the best among the available alternatives? Is it administratively manageable? Is it financially justifiable and feasible? Is it compatible with the culture of the beneficiaries? Is it likely to be sustained beyond the intervention period?

12 PCMU/UNEP Project document formulation Add logical framework matrix, details on budget, implementation plan and modalities to the existing concept proposal Project and project document formulation are simultaneous and iterative processes The project document come from each step taken through project cycle phases 1 and 2

13 PCMU/UNEP Project document formulation (cont) The full project document is: A legal agreement once signed; A tool for formulating and implementing projects; A tool for communication among key partners; A tool for project monitoring and evaluation; Basis for the terms of agreement for any consultancy/contractual service.

14 PCMU/UNEP Sustainability (1/2) Most project interventions are temporary in nature What happens after the project? Capacity-building measures should be an integral part of project strategies and activities Area of repeated concern by the donors and auditors

15 PCMU/UNEP Sustainability (2/2) Project will be sustainable depending on the following factors: Policy support Institutional and management capacity Economic and financial viability Ownership by beneficiaries Appropriate technology Social and cultural issues Environmentally sustainable

16 PCMU/UNEP Logical framework (1/3) Donors often consider it as a mandatory component of the projects It identifies and states the main factors related to the success of the project It clarifies how project success (qualitative and quantitative) will be judged or measured, thus providing a basis for monitoring and evaluation.

17 PCMU/UNEP Logical framework: flow of logic (2/3) Objectives Results OutputsActivities Project planning flow Implementation flow

18 PCMU/UNEP Intervention logic Objectively verifiable indicators (OVI) Means of verification (MOV) Assumptions Results Outputs Activities Objective: Logical framework: format (3/3)

19 PCMU/UNEP Objectives Overall desired achievements; Long-term benefits to final beneficiaries, the future desired situation or the conditions that must be satisfied; High-level aims which the projects results will contribute substantially towards; Set the right level of articulation so that the objectives are both realistic and attainable; Do not formulate objectives with active verbs, such as: to study, to advise and to cooperate.

20 PCMU/UNEP Results Direct consequences or effects of the generation of outputs Show a clear cause-and-effect relationship with the objective Project managers are accountable for the delivery of them Address the specific needs of the end-users or beneficiaries State a meaningful and detectable change Avoid long-term goals beyond the project period

21 PCMU/UNEP Outputs The lowest level results of the project The optimal combination necessary for achieving the results Its delivery must be within the control of project management team Outputs are the outcomes of activities

22 PCMU/UNEP Activities The specific work or tasks to be performed within the project to transform resources into outputs The links between inputs and outputs Activities must be pertinent not only to the project outputs but also to the wider context of the projects aims Special attention to the interests of under-represented groups, such as women and people living in poverty

23 PCMU/UNEP Indicators What will show us that the objective, results and outputs have indeed occurred? Indicators provide an opportunity to restate intervention logic in specific and directly observable terms Objectively verifiable indicators should be SMART. SMART stands for: Specific Measurable Attainable Realistic Time-based

24 PCMU/UNEP Means of verification Maximize existing data sources With existing data sources, caution regarding validity and reliability of the data Review or content analysis; internal records; audit reports; reports by NGOs and other international agencies; surveys; interviews; and rapid assessments Build the cost for data collection in the project budget

25 PCMU/UNEP Assumptions External factors which could affect the progress and success of the programme or project, or its long-term sustainability Underlying conditions which have to be met for the project to succeed Project managers should assess external factors and risks in project implementation and articulate them in the planning phase Project managers should monitor the influences of key external factors

26 Intervention logicindicatorsMOVAssumptions Results 1. Reduce weight by 5 kgs 2. Reduce the glucose level in the blood to below 6 1 Number of Kgs reduced 2 Level of glucose level reduced 1 Weekly weight records 2 weekly record of glucose level 1. Other health conditions remain unchanged. 2. Scientific findings on diabetic patients hold. Outputs 1.Regular exercise programme maintained 2.Low carb and low calorie diet regime maintained Activities 1.1. Daily exercise for 30 minutes 1.2Join the dance class and practice once a week 2.1.Take 5 small meals a day 2.2. Follow Atkins diet menu at least 2 times a day Objective: Type 2 diabetic condition is improved to healthy level Logical framework Exercise

27 PCMU/UNEP Project checklist 1. Have the priorities and needs of the countries been identified and incorporated in the project? 2. Have all relevant key stakeholders been consulted? 3. Have the duplications or complementarities with the existing or past projects been addressed? 4. Do the implementing partners have capacities to undertake the project? 5. Does the Secretariat (or the applicants) have capacities to undertake the project? 6. Has the linkage to poverty alleviation been incorporated? 7. Does the project actively address the sustainability aspect?

28 PCMU/UNEP UNEP Project Document

29 PCMU/UNEP Project Document format: Key elements of the UNEP project document Project summary Background Contribution to the work programme Project description Logical framework Work plan Institutional framework Monitoring and reporting Evaluation Project budget

30 PCMU/UNEP Key elements of the UNEP project document Background Overall background and situation Identify and elaborate urgency of the problem Previous actions by UNEP and others Lessons learned from similar actions UNEPs specific advantage to run the project

31 PCMU/UNEP Key elements of the UNEP project document Contribution to work programme Clear linkage to COP decisions and programme of work (objectives?) MDG, WSSD and other major Conference outcomes

32 PCMU/UNEP Key elements of the UNEP project document Project description Methodology Implementation modalities Justification of selected project location Links between outputs, activities and the problem Key stakeholders and beneficiaries and impacts on them (consideration of marginalized groups) Project impacts on poverty alleviation and gender-equality Strategies for successful implementation Sustainability and replicability

33 PCMU/UNEP Key elements of the UNEP project document Logical framework

34 PCMU/UNEP Key elements of the UNEP project document Work Plan Timetable for activities Roles and responsibilities among implementation partners identified Tool for monitoring and self-evaluation by project managers and project coordinators Activity flow sequences to be carefully examined Situation analysis and project planning part of work plan?

35 PCMU/UNEP Key elements of the UNEP project document Institutional framework Institutional arrangement of project implementation Project implementation modality

36 PCMU/UNEP Project cycle Phase 3 Project review and funding negotiation Internal and external project approval process Administrative steps Identification Phase 1 Preparation and formulation Phase 2 Review and approval Phase 3 Evaluation Phase 5 Implementation Phase 4 Funding and approval Phase 3

37 PCMU/UNEP Administrative process Review and approval by fund management office, Nairobi Chief of BFMS verifies and sends project document to cooperating or supporting agency for signature Chief of BFMS counter signs Project is allocated a project number and IMIS identification No financial obligations can occur before this!

38 PCMU/UNEP Project cycle Phase 4 Identification Phase 1 Preparation and formulation Phase 2 Review and approval Phase 3 Evaluation Phase 5 Implementation Phase 4

39 PCMU/UNEP Project Implementation Financial Regulations and Rules according to UN Secretariat system Contractual agreements (MoUs) will soon need to follow UNEP standard formats Hiring of staff have to follow UN OHRM Regulations and Rules (e.g. ToR, classification, contractual types) Implementing organizations should comply with the agreed terms--on time, on budget and on-project terms

40 PCMU/UNEP Project monitoring Growing emphasis to demonstrate performance In-built in the activities as routines Agree on performance measurement tool, frequency of analysis and method and data source Assess performance against the results and management risks Assessment of project activities vis-à-vis results Regular documentation and analysis of reports Generation of lessons learned and possible adjustment of activities strategy and methodologies

41 PCMU/UNEP Project reporting Why reporting is needed: To inform management of progress To validate usage of funds Tool for audits and evaluation Reference for future projects (lessons learnt) Reporting towards donors on project progress Projects can only be closed once all reporting requirements have been met

42 PCMU/UNEP Project cycle Phase 5 Identification Phase 1 Preparation and formulation Phase 2 Review and approval Phase 3 Evaluation Phase 5 Implementation Phase 4

43 PCMU/UNEP Evaluation 4 types of evaluations: Desk In-depth Impact Self-evaluations Timing of evaluations: at any point during the life of the project (mostly mid-term an final stages)

44 PCMU/UNEP Evaluation UNEP requires all projects to include evaluation in project budget (e.g. consultants fees, travel and communication and dissemination) Usually a few % of total budget For a project over $500,000, in-depth evaluation is required (suggested $20,000 + )

45 Financial and operational capacity Do the applicant and partners have sufficient experience of project management? Do the applicant and partners have sufficient technical expertise? (notably knowledge of the issues to be addressed.) Do the applicant and partners have sufficient management capacity? (including staff, equipment and ability to handle the budget for the action)? Does the applicant have stable and sufficient sources of finance? Relevance How relevant is the proposal to the objectives and one or more of the priorities of the call for proposals? How relevant to the particular needs and constraints of the target country/countries or region(s) is the proposal? (including avoidance of duplication and synergy with other EC initiatives.) How clearly defined and strategically chosen are those involved (final beneficiries, target groups)? Have their needs been clearly defined and does the proposal address them appropriately Methodology Are the activities proposed appropriate, practical, and consistent with the objectives and expected results? How coherent is the overall design of the action? (in particular, does it reflect the analysis of the problems involved, take into account external factors and anticipate an evaluation? Is the partners' level of involvement and participation in the action satisfactory? Is the action plan clear and feasible Does the proposal contain objectively verifiable indicators for the outcome of the action? Sustainability Is the action likely to have a tangible impact on its target groups? Is the proposal likely to have a multiplier effects? (including scope for replication and extension of the outcome of the action and dissemination of information.) Are the expected results of the proposed action sustainable? Budget and cost-effectiveness Is the ration between estimated costs and the expected results satisfactory? Is the proposed expenditure necessary for the implementation of the action? EC Evaluation Criteria

46 PCMU/UNEP Summary A project concept should start from identification of needs and what has been done; After feasibility test, formulate Logical Framework as the first step in proposal preparation; Think of project sustainability and replicability

47 PCMU/UNEP Website

48 PCMU/UNEP Yunae Yi Secretary of the Project Approval Group (PAG) PCMU/UNEP

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