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Dana Perkins, PhD 1540 Committee Expert Security Council Resolution 1540 and Personnel Reliability Measures Security Council Resolution 1540 and Personnel.

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Presentation on theme: "Dana Perkins, PhD 1540 Committee Expert Security Council Resolution 1540 and Personnel Reliability Measures Security Council Resolution 1540 and Personnel."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dana Perkins, PhD 1540 Committee Expert Security Council Resolution 1540 and Personnel Reliability Measures Security Council Resolution 1540 and Personnel Reliability Measures Unless otherwise specified, the opinions presented here are those of the presenter and may not necessarily reflect the views of the 1540 Committee, its Group of Experts, or the UN Security Council

2 Biological Threats The dual-use nature of biotechnology impedes situational awareness the possibility of non-state actors acquiring weapons from a state cannot be ruled outTraditionally, there are also connections between state weapons programs and terrorist capabilities, and the possibility of non-state actors acquiring weapons from a state cannot be ruled out…- UNICRI, Security Implications of Synthetic Biology and Nanobiotechnology, 2012 Advances in science and technology may facilitate the development of effective bioweapons and further complicate existing non-proliferation and export control efforts intended to constrain access to, and proliferation of, dangerous pathogens and relevant dual-use technologies International nonproliferation, arms control conventions, and threat reduction initiatives serve as the principal means to prevent illicit trafficking of biological materials and technologies

3 Biological Threats: Where is The Perfect Storm? IntentMotivationCommitment AcquisitionPossession Scientific/TechnicalCapability USE (CDC photo)

4 The human factor is a key element in any effective non-proliferation policy. Scientists…play an important role in this respect, for example in working together on projects that advance international, regional, or bilateral non-proliferation objectives BWC UNSCR 1540 INTERPOL FAO WHO OIE NGOs Scientific Organizations Professional Associations Governments PSI Industry Academia Individuals G8 GP NATO Australia Group OSCE ASEAN … and others

5 Resolution 1540 (2004): Binding Obligations on All States and Synergy with International Regimes Security Council Meets on Non-Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction UN Photo / Eskinder Debebe, 28 April 2004 biological weaponsestablish appropriate domestic controls over related materials Resolution 1540 (2004) imposes binding obligations on all States to adopt legislation to prevent the proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, and their means of delivery, and establish appropriate domestic controls over related materials to prevent their illicit trafficking by non- State actors. calls upon States to renew and fulfill their commitment to multilateral cooperation Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention common objectives in the area of non-proliferation and of promoting international cooperation for peaceful purposes … calls upon States to renew and fulfill their commitment to multilateral cooperation, in particular within the framework of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons and the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, as important means of pursuing and achieving their common objectives in the area of non-proliferation and of promoting international cooperation for peaceful purposes, UN Security Council Resolution 1540 (2004),

6 National legislation on prohibitions (OP.1 & 2) Domestic controls and enforcement (OP. 3a & 3b) o Accounting for, securing, physical protection o Border controls o Export and trans-shipment controls Assistance (OP. 7) Promotion & implementation of multilateral treaties (OP. 8) Promotion of dialogue & cooperation (OP. 9 & 10) Reporting (OP. 4) Resolution 1540 (2004) - Highlights OP = Operative Paragraph of Resolution 1540 (2004)

7 the1540 Committee The Committee established pursuant to OP. 4 of res (2004) is known as the 1540 Committee The 1540 Committee is a subsidiary body of the Security Council Chair:Vice-Chairs:Members: Chair: ROK; Vice-Chairs: Azerbaijan, Luxembourg, & UK; Members: Argentina, Azerbaijan, Australia, China, France, Guatemala, Luxembourg, Morocco, Pakistan, ROK, Russia, Rwanda, Togo, UK, & US Group of Experts to assist the Committee in carrying out its mandate… The current Group of Experts was established per resolutions 1977 (2011) and 2055 (2012) to assist the Committee in carrying out its mandate… The 1540 Committee Ambassador Kim Sook 1540 Committee Chairman The 54th formal meeting of the 1540 Committee, 20 February 2013

8 The1540 Committee and its Experts The 1540 Committee and its Experts Receive and examine reports to monitor implementationReceive and examine reports to monitor implementation Promote greater awareness of resolution 1540, including by outreach and dialogue with Member StatesPromote greater awareness of resolution 1540, including by outreach and dialogue with Member States Facilitate capacity building and assistance by providing a clearing house functionFacilitate capacity building and assistance by providing a clearing house function Tools:Tools: oNational matrices oTemplate for assistance requests o1540 Committee website Ways and Means:Ways and Means: oCooperation with other organizations oOutreach events oVisits to States at their invitation

9 The 1540 Matrix Information is primarily from national reports and complemented by official government information, including that from intergovernmental organizations The matrix template has 382 fields covering national activities related to the 1540 operative paragraphs to identify gaps and areas for improvementThe national matrices are prepared and used by the 1540 Committee but national authorities may also utilize the template to identify gaps and areas for improvement National matrices are used as a reference tool for facilitating technical assistance and the Committees constructive dialogue with States on their implementation of resolution 1540 (2004)

10 Definitions for the purpose of resolution 1540 (2004) Means of delivery:Means of delivery: missiles, rockets and other unmanned systems capable of delivering nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons, that are specially designed for such use Non-State actor:Non-State actor: individual or entity, not acting under the lawful authority of any State in conducting activities which come within the scope of this resolution Related materials: covered by relevant multilateral treaties & arrangements, or included on national control listsRelated materials: materials, equipment and technology covered by relevant multilateral treaties & arrangements, or included on national control lists, which could be used for the design, development, production or use of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons and their means of delivery

11 Resolution 1540 (2004) and national control lists [ The Security Council ] acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations: … 6. Recognizes the utility in implementing this resolution of effective national control lists and calls upon all Member States, when necessary, to pursue at the earliest opportunity the development of such lists… - UN Security Council Resolution 1540 (2004),

12 Biological agents under the BWC and resolution 1540 (2004) Almost any disease-causing organism (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, prions or rickettsiae) or toxin (poisons derived from animals, plants or microorganisms, or similar substances synthetically produced) can be used in biological weapons - Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) –Almost any disease-causing organism (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, prions or rickettsiae) or toxin (poisons derived from animals, plants or microorganisms, or similar substances synthetically produced) can be used in biological weapons - Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) – As implied in Article I of the BWC, which forbids states parties to develop, produce, stockpile, or otherwise acquire or retainmicrobial or other biological agents, or toxins whatever their origin or method of production, of types and in purposes, the treaty applies to biological agents and toxins that are synthetically produced or modifiedAs implied in Article I of the BWC, which forbids states parties to develop, produce, stockpile, or otherwise acquire or retainmicrobial or other biological agents, or toxins whatever their origin or method of production, of types and in purposes, the treaty applies to biological agents and toxins that are synthetically produced or modified Similarly, such biological agents and toxins fall under the definition of related materials for the purpose of resolution 1540Similarly, such biological agents and toxins fall under the definition of related materials for the purpose of resolution 1540

13 Example of personnel reliability qualifying criteria (USA, BPRP) Mentally alert, stable, trustworthy, physically competent, free of unstable medical conditions Dependable, responsible, perform in approved manner Flexibility in adjusting to changes in working environment Good social adjustment Sound judgment in adverse or emergency situations Physical ability to perform required duties Positive attitude towards the reliability program Example of personnel reliability qualifying criteria (USA, BPRP) Mentally alert, stable, trustworthy, physically competent, free of unstable medical conditions Dependable, responsible, perform in approved manner Flexibility in adjusting to changes in working environment Good social adjustment Sound judgment in adverse or emergency situations Physical ability to perform required duties Positive attitude towards the reliability program production, use, storage, & transportMeasures to account for / secure production, use, storage, & transport facilities / materials / transportsRegulations for physical protection of facilities / materials / transports facilities / peopleLicensing/registration of facilities / people handling biological materials Reliability check of personnelReliability check of personnel means of deliveryMeasures to account for / secure / physically protect means of delivery enetic engineering regulationsGenetic engineering regulations safety and security of biological materialsOther legislation / regulations related to safety and security of biological materials Domestic control of BW-related materials & means of delivery (resolution 1540, Operative Paragraphs 3 a & b)* * 1540 matrix fields

14 Example of training requirements for chemical and biological reliability programs https://www.ecbc.army.mil/CBRNE-MSC/prp.html

15 Select Data Analysis of 1540 Committee-approved Matrices * 2010 data

16 Select Entries from the 1540 Committee-approved Matrices Japan Australia Switzerland UK USA

17 Assistance and Capacity-Building The Security Council recognizes that some States may require assistance in implementing resolution 1540, and invites those in a position to do so to offer assistance as appropriate in response to specific requests to the States lacking the legal and regulatory infrastructure, implementation experience and / or resources The Security Council encourages States that have requests for assistance to convey them to the 1540 Committee

18 Requests for Assistance (RFAs) All RFAs correspondence should be sent to: H.E. Ambassador KIM Sook, Chairman of 1540 Committee Secretariat of the 1540 Committee 730 Third Avenue, TB-08040E United Nations, New York, NY Fax: ,

19 Governments alone cannot confront the risks posed by biological weapons... to manage the full spectrum of biological risks, you need a cohesive, coordinated network of activities and resources. Such a network will help to ensure that biological science and technology can be safely and securely developed for the benefit of all. - Ban Ki-moon, UN Secretary-General, 2008

20 Dana Perkins, PhD 1540 Committee Expert United Nations 300 East 42 nd St., Suite IN-03074H New York, NY Tel: +1 (917) (office) Contact information for questions or comments: Collective


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