Presentation on theme: "Global Climate Observing System (GCOS)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Ensuring the Availability of Global Observations for Climate
2 Goal and Structure of GCOS The Goal of GCOS is to provide continuous, reliable, comprehensive data and information on the state of the global climate systemGCOS consists of the climate-relevant components of existing atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial observing systems and their enhancement to meet the totality of national and international user needs for climate observationsGCOS is sponsored by WMO, UNEP, IOC and ICSUNational support is provided by GCOS National Coordinators and Focal Points
3 GCOS as a System of Climate Observing Systems ICSUIOCWMOUNEPGEOGCOSOceanObservingSystemsTerrestrialObservingSystemsAtmosphericObservingSystemsGEOSS
4 GCOS VisionAn integrated global system of ground-based, airborne and space-based systems providing comprehensive information about the global climate system.
5 Examples of GCOS Observing Networks AtmosphereGCOS Upper Air Network (GUAN) (~ 160 stations)GCOS Surface Network (GSN) (~ 1000 stations)Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) (22 global and 300 regional stations)OceanVoluntary Observing Ships (~ 7000 ships, 52 countries)Global Sea-Level Observing System (~300 global sea-level stations)Argo ( ~ 3000 profiling floats, 14 countries)TerrestrialGlobal Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G) (~750 glaciers monitored)Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) (300 boreholes, 15 states)Global Terrestrial Network for Hydrology (GTN-H) ( GTN-R, GTN-L)Space-based ObservationsCrucial for observation of 26 essential climate variables such as atmospheric temperature, precipitation, sea level, sea ice, etc.
9 GCOS Atmosphere Networks GCOS Reference Upper Air Network (GRUAN) GCOS Implementation Plan (Action Item A16) “Parties need to […] establish a high-quality reference network of about 30 precision radiosonde stations and other collocated observations”MotivationProblems for climate in accuracy, long-term stability and heightInevitable changes in measurement systemsLack of quality observations at high altitudeObjectivesProvide long-term, high-quality climate recordsConstrain and calibrate data from more spatially-comprehensive global observing systems (including satellites and current radiosonde networks)Fully characterize the properties of the atmospheric columnInitiation Meeting of GRUAN in Lindenberg, February 2008
11 GCOS Ocean Networks Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) 290 sea-level monitoring stations worldwide (July 2007)
12 GCOS Terrestrial Networks Global Terrestrial Network for River (GTN-R) 380 river discharge reference stations on the river outlet (July 2006)
13 GCOS Terrestrial Networks Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G) Vernagtferner glacier (Eastern European Alps) is one of the glaciers monitored in the GTN-G (Weber, 2006)
14 Space-based Observing Systems in Support of GCOS Observation of Terrestrial Variables from Space Land Cover Properties from Satellites(European Commission Joint Research Centre, Ispra)
15 GCOS Serving Users’ Needs Climate system monitoringApplications and services for sustainable developmentOperational climate prediction, especially on seasonal to inter-annual time scalesResearch to improve understanding, modelling and prediction of the climate systemClimate change detection and attributionAssessing impacts of, vulnerability and adaptation to, climate variability and changeMeeting the requirements of the UNFCCC and other international conventions and agreements
16 Major Achievements of GCOS Implementation Plan in Support of the UNFCCC (2004) and Satellite Supplement (2006): the roadmap for the global climate observing system in the next 5-10 yearsDesignation of Essential Climate Variables (ECVs): 44 key geophysical variablesRegional Workshop Programme and 10 Regional Action Plans (RAPs)Promotion of “Climate for Development in Africa” Programme (ClimDev Africa)
17 Major Achievements of GCOS Implementation of GCOS Surface (GSN) and Upper Air (GUAN) baseline networksGCOS as the climate observation component of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)GCOS contributes to the work of UNFCCC and provides an essential input to the UNFCCC Nairobi Work Programme on Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change
18 GCOS Implementation Plan (October 2004) Builds on requirements in the ‘Second Adequacy Report’ (2003)Essential Climate Variables (ECVs)Integrated global analysis productsUses existing global, regional and national plansDefines indicators for measuring its implementationSets implementation priorities, agents and resource requirements131 ActionsEstimated USD 631M additional annually recurring costMajor satellite component
19 Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) DomainEssential Climate VariablesAtmo-spheric(over land,sea andice)Surface:Air temperature, Precipitation, Air pressure, Surface radiation budget, Wind speed and direction, Water vapour.Upper-air:Earth radiation budget (including solar irradiance), Upper-air temperature, Wind speed and direction, Water vapour, Cloud properties.Composition:Carbon dioxide, Methane, Ozone, Other long-lived greenhouse gases, Aerosol properties.OceanicSea-surface temperature, Sea-surface salinity, Sea level, Sea state, Sea Ice, Current, Ocean colour (for biological activity), Carbon dioxide partial pressure.Sub-surface:Temperature, Salinity, Current, Nutrients, Carbon, Ocean tracers, Phytoplankton.TerrestrialRiver discharge, Water use, Ground water, Lake levels, Snow cover, Glaciers and ice caps, Permafrost and seasonally-frozen ground, Albedo, Land cover (including vegetation type), Fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR), Leaf area index (LAI), Biomass, Fire disturbance, Soil moisture.
20 Global Climate Monitoring Principles and Data Exchange GCOS Climate Monitoring Principles (GCMPs)Endorsed in their basic form by the UNFCCC in 1999Completed by satellite specific monitoring principles in 2003Provide overall guidance for the design and implementation of GCOS observing systemsData ExchangeAim to ensure the free and unrestricted availability of data from all observing networks (WMO Resolutions 25 and 40)Unrestricted exchange of all GCOS data as a global public good
21 Regional Workshop Programme Requested by UNFCCC COP-5 (1999)“… to identify the priority capacity building needs related to participation in systematic observation….”The objectives for each workshop were to:Assess contribution of the region to the GCOS Baseline NetworksIdentify national/regional needs and deficiencies in climate dataInitiate development of Regional Action Plans for improving observing systemsUnderstand guidelines for reporting to the UNFCCCHighlight GCOS objectives and needs in the regions
22 Regional Workshop Programme GCOS has led the completion of all ten regional workshops in the Programme (10 Workshops from 2000 to 2005)…and of all ten Regional Action PlansPromotion of follow-up implementation activities including the evolving “Climate for Development in Africa” Programme (ClimDev Africa)Additional implementation activites planned in other regions, e.g. Central America
23 Climate for Development in Africa (ClimDev Africa) An integrated, multipartner programme addressingclimate observations,climate services,climate risk management, andclimate policy needs in AfricaProgramme will support efforts to achieve the Millennium Development GoalsOpportunity for substantial funding support for observations and climate service provision programmes of African NMHSsPrincipal partners are: African Union, African Development Bank, UN Economic Commission for Africa, WMO and GCOSPotential donors include UK Department for International Development, European Commission, African Development Bank
24 GCOS at the National Level Climate observing networks are mainly funded, managed and operated by national entitiesNational GCOS Coordinators and National GCOS Committees provide effective coordination of national and local institutionsNational Focal Points in more than 130 countriesReport of the national climateobserving system in Switzerland,including a complete inventory ofSwiss climate measurement seriesGCOS Switzerland, December 2007
25 System Improvement Programme GCOS provides support needed from the scientific, donor and host communities to implement selected improvements, especially for GUAN and GSN stations.First launch of a ballon at Gan, Maldives (Photo: UK MetOffice)
26 Thank you www.wmo.int/pages/prog/gcos/index.php For more information about the GCOS programmeplease visit our websiteContact InformationGCOS Secretariatc/o World Meteorological Organisation (WMO)7 bis, Avenue de la PaixP.O. Box 23001211 Geneva 2, SwitzerlandTel:Fax:Reporting RelationsImpact of WG recommendations (e.g. for UNFCCC)