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Early Warning Systems: Climate Change and Earthquakes Mohamed El Raey University of Alexandria AndCEDARE.

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Presentation on theme: "Early Warning Systems: Climate Change and Earthquakes Mohamed El Raey University of Alexandria AndCEDARE."— Presentation transcript:

1 Early Warning Systems: Climate Change and Earthquakes Mohamed El Raey University of Alexandria AndCEDARE

2 Objectives of Early Warning To be better prepared to face challenges of the risk of long term or sudden disasters by: To be better prepared to face challenges of the risk of long term or sudden disasters by: 1.Avoiding and reducing damages and loss 2.Saving human lives, health, economic development and cultural heritage 3.Upgrading quality of life, public and international image

3 Intervention Phases 1. Prevention 2. Preparedness 3. Mitigation 4. Response 5. Recovery Disasters Disaster Cycle Underdevelopment

4 Climate Change 1. Increasing rates of emission of Greenhouse gases have led to a measurable global average temperature increase ( a global phenomena with local impacts) 2. This is expected to lead to sea level rise, impact on water resources, impact on food productivity, and increased rates of dust and sea storms (all sectors of development for all countries will be affected at varying magnitudes) 3. Uncertainties of the phenomena have been removed. The only uncertainties that may exist is of magnitudes and time frames. 4. Action (governments, communities and individuals) is needed as early as possible so as to minimize future impacts. Any delays means extra losses

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7 Investigate Environment: A coastal area in Egypt

8 Satellite classification of Land use of Alexandria

9 Digital Elevation Model of Alexandria

10 Land use losses in Alexandria City By the year 2100

11 Dust storms in the Red Sea Dust storms in the Red Sea

12 Heavy investment on low areas in Bahrain Heavy investment on low areas in Bahrain

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14 Stern Report The scientific evidence is now overwhelming: climate change presents very serious global risks, and it demands an urgent global response. Climate change presents a unique challenge for economics: it is the greatest and widest-ranging market failure ever seen. From all of these perspectives, the evidence gathered by the Review leads to a simple conclusion: the benefits of strong, early action considerably outweigh the costs. The impacts of climate change are not evenly distributed - the poorest countries and people will suffer earliest and most. And if and when the damages appear it will be too late to reverse the process. Thus we are forced to look a long way ahead.

15 Needs for a National Strategy Build up an inventory and identify indicators of changes Build up a geo-data base and vulnerability assessments (locations, sectors, severity, life, health and economic losses) Set criteria for Indicators of performance and efficiency of Early Warning Systems Identify and assess options for proactive adaptation Disseminate Information and upgrade awareness and enforce policy

16 Earthquakes

17 Satellite Detection of Heat Stresses (days before earthquakes)

18 Topside sounders Seismo-ionospheric coupling Compas-Vulcan program

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20 Early Warning Systems for Earthquakes

21 Examples of comparison of daily variations of foF2 (points) with their monthly median values (stroke), three days before and one day after the earthquake. By the data of ground-based stations of vertical sounding for various earthquakes: 1-Milkovo ( , UT, M=7.2,); 2-Rome ( , UT, M=6.7); 3-Norfolk ( , UT, M=6.4); 4-Vanimo ( , UT, M=7.3); 5-Norfolk ( , UT, M=6.6). Arrows specify the moments of earthquakes

22 SPACE & GROUND SEGMENT CONCEPT DATA PROCESSING CENTER & COORDINATING AND ANALITICAL CENTER ALTITUDE 500 km, i=79 ALTITUDE 1000 km ALTITUDE 500 km, SSO STATE CENTER FOR EARTHQUAKE PREDICTIONS

23 Conclusions Early Warning Systems (EWS) are necessary for minimizing risks of global and local hazards by taking decisions in the proper time Early Warning Systems (EWS) are necessary for minimizing risks of global and local hazards by taking decisions in the proper time Building inventories, identifying and monitoring indicators and assessing environmental conditions are prerequisites for vulnerability assessments Building inventories, identifying and monitoring indicators and assessing environmental conditions are prerequisites for vulnerability assessments Satellite systems provide important information source for EWS. The technology is improving on daily basis. However, ground monitoring may prove effective in some cases. Research is required Satellite systems provide important information source for EWS. The technology is improving on daily basis. However, ground monitoring may prove effective in some cases. Research is required Responsibilities of establishing EWS is shared among NGO, governments, communities and individuals Responsibilities of establishing EWS is shared among NGO, governments, communities and individuals


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