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Humanitarian Health Challenges in Somalia: Saving lives and reducing vulnerabilities 1 |1 | Humanitarian Health Challenges in Somalia: Saving lives and.

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Presentation on theme: "Humanitarian Health Challenges in Somalia: Saving lives and reducing vulnerabilities 1 |1 | Humanitarian Health Challenges in Somalia: Saving lives and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Humanitarian Health Challenges in Somalia: Saving lives and reducing vulnerabilities 1 |1 | Humanitarian Health Challenges in Somalia: Saving lives and reducing vulnerabilities Emergency Preparedness and Humanitarian Action WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean

2 Humanitarian Health Challenges in Somalia: Saving lives and reducing vulnerabilities 2 |2 | Context More than 15 years of conflict and insecurity South Central Zone worst off over 2 million people (> 450,000 IDPs) in chronic need of relief and assistance Dilapidated health systems –Unskilled work force –Old or destroyed infrastructure –Nonexistent governing structures and regulatory capacities –Limited access –Unchecked private sector

3 Humanitarian Health Challenges in Somalia: Saving lives and reducing vulnerabilities 3 |3 | Chronic food insecurity - malnutrition rates over 25% in some areas Prevalent infectious and communicable diseases - diarrhea, malaria, measles, ARI, Meningitis Non-existent or very weak surveillance system Low immunization coverage - re-surgence of polio cases Difficult access to primary health care - nomadic population Limited access and availability of safe water and sanitation services Health Issues

4 Humanitarian Health Challenges in Somalia: Saving lives and reducing vulnerabilities 4 |4 | Acute episodes: Drought Nov 05 – April 06 Worst drought in the Horn of Africa in a decade – more than 11 million people affected Drought affected pastoral and agricultural communities, an estimated 1 million people in South Central Somalia A regional problem: a cross-border issue (population and live stock movement) Inequity of response on different sides of the border (pull-factors) Increased competition for resources between crises in the region but also internationally.

5 Humanitarian Health Challenges in Somalia: Saving lives and reducing vulnerabilities 5 |5 | Somalia cross border food security situation analysis Jan-Jun 2006

6 Humanitarian Health Challenges in Somalia: Saving lives and reducing vulnerabilities 6 |6 | Floods in South Central Somalia July 06 – Jan 07 Over 500,000 people affected Contamination of water sources Acute Watery Diarrhea, Malaria, Acute Respiratory Infections Vector-borne: Malaria and Rift Valley Fever

7 Humanitarian Health Challenges in Somalia: Saving lives and reducing vulnerabilities 7 |7 | Map Somalia: Flood Hazard Distribution Map

8 Humanitarian Health Challenges in Somalia: Saving lives and reducing vulnerabilities 8 |8 | Rift Valley Fever – Dec 06 – Jan 07 Hundreds of deaths in livestock 103 suspected human cases; over 50 reported deaths On-going conflict between TFG and UIC complicating surveillance and outbreak response

9 Humanitarian Health Challenges in Somalia: Saving lives and reducing vulnerabilities 9 |9 | Somalia: Human RVF cases in Lower Juba Suspected cases reported from Afmadow & Kismayo Districts (close to Kenyan border)

10 Humanitarian Health Challenges in Somalia: Saving lives and reducing vulnerabilities 10 | Acute Watery Diarrhea Feb 07 – to date Mainly South Central affected Over 12,000 cases with over 400 deaths Outbreak ongoing Affected population moving out of Mogadishu to the periphery to evade conflict Health care and monitoring capacities already very limited and overstretched Picture: Cholera Treatment Centre in Safarloyle, Somalia

11 Humanitarian Health Challenges in Somalia: Saving lives and reducing vulnerabilities 11 | WHO Response Emergency supplies Strengthening and facilitation of coordination Disease surveillance and outbreak response Provision of outreach essential health services Immunization coverage Water and Sanitation Technical support to zonal/district authorities Health education Training of health staff

12 Humanitarian Health Challenges in Somalia: Saving lives and reducing vulnerabilities 12 | Challenges Cross-border issues Non-existent and/or changing counterparts Pastoralism misunderstood Inadequate local leadership Limited preparedness plans and capacities Extremely limited human resources Insecurity and access Funding constraints Donor fatigue

13 Humanitarian Health Challenges in Somalia: Saving lives and reducing vulnerabilities 13 | ICT Challenges Non-existent regulatory structures Unreliable national/zonal networks High logistical and operational costs Virtual trouble shooting Looting/confiscating of equipment and vehicles by factions (Polio equipment in January07)

14 Humanitarian Health Challenges in Somalia: Saving lives and reducing vulnerabilities 14 | Lessons Learned Effective early warning does not always translate into timely or adequate response in slow-onset (drought) disaster/s Investment in national capacity As emergency continues, enhance understanding of, invest and strengthen pastoralist livelihood systems


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