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International Telecommunication Union ITU-EC HIPSSA Project Support for Harmonization of the ICT Policies in Sub-Sahara Africa Workshop on Namibia National.

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Presentation on theme: "International Telecommunication Union ITU-EC HIPSSA Project Support for Harmonization of the ICT Policies in Sub-Sahara Africa Workshop on Namibia National."— Presentation transcript:

1 International Telecommunication Union ITU-EC HIPSSA Project Support for Harmonization of the ICT Policies in Sub-Sahara Africa Workshop on Namibia National Transposition of SADC Model Laws on Cybersecurity, Lusaka, 20 August 2013 Cybercrime Training (Needs and Topics) Presenter: Prof Dr Marco Gercke

2 Cybercrime TRAINING IN THE CONTEXT OF A COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH TO FIGHT CYBERCRIME Page: 2

3 Cybercrime page: 3 INTERDEPENDENCE Assessment Nat. ICT Strategy Assessment of Cybercrime Assessment Cybercrime Policy Assessment of Legislation Asm. Cybersecurity Strategy Asm. Institutional Capacities Stakeholder Consultations Anti-Cybercrime Policy Building Institutional Capacities Ministries / Government Inst. General Public Media / Education Civil Liberty Groups Drafing Legislation Drafting Crime Prevention S. Drafting Int. Coop. Strategy Developing Monitoring S. Drafting Policy Drafting PPP Strategy Explanatory Notes Training for Jud./Pros./Law. Material for Press Curriculum for Schools Supplying Free Tools Media Campaigns Equipment Police/Customs Complain Center Coordinator with authority Somebody doing the work Somebody doing the work Champion Assessment Consultation Drafting Implement.

4 Cybercrime page: 4 COMPONENT 1: TECHNOLOGY

5 Cybercrime Page: 5 TECHNOLOGY Training should include training on technology Level of detail of the training on technology is depending on the target audience. While judges and prosecutors might only need an overview Cybercrime investigators will need in depth training

6 Cybercrime NETWORK CONCEPT Access Provider Page: 6 Provides an IP Address that is required to communicate. Allows upload and download of data User Wants to download From www.xxx.com 124.222.121.1 Domain Name Server Translates domain names (like www.xxx.com into an IP Address xxx.com = 85.1.3.44 Routers Forward the request to the right server Hosting Provider Stores data for a content provider Content Provider Anybody who produces data 85.1.3.44 211.1.3.88

7 Cybercrime page: 7 PHENOMENA

8 Cybercrime Page: 8 PHENOMENA Training should include training on phenomena of Cybercrime Area with great dynamics Such training could also be interesting for the press and the general public in order for them to understand how such crime is committed The following slides contain some examples (excerpts)

9 Cybercrime Page: 9 DATA ESPIONAGE Valuable and secret information are often stored without adequate protection Lack of self-protection especially with regard to small businesses and private computer users Development of protection-plans are often inadequate (eg. change of hard- drive without deleting sensible information in advance) Picture removed in print version Bild zur Druckoptimierung entfernt KEYLOGGER

10 Cyberwarfare page: 10 INTRODUCTION 09 101112 Stuxnet Flame Iran Oil Terminal Duqu

11 Picture removed in print version Bild zur Druckoptimierung entfernt GROOMING CHAT Cybercrime page: 11 GROOMING The ultimate aim of the offender is often to meet and sexually abuse the child – which requires the presence of the offender at the location of the child ADULT: CHILD: ADULT: CHILD: ADULT: CHILD: Shortly described you have THREE options to earn money through us: 1-Images (you can earn between 50-200 for each series, i.e. 16 images) 2-Web shows [...] it sounds ok, but I think I start with the images... send a couple of images of yourself so I can get a better understanding of how you look...because then we can start with the fun: namely to discuss prices ;) [Child sending over images] more.. any in full figure? more? [Child sending over images]

12 Cybercrime page: 12 DEVELOPMENT

13 Cybercrime Page: 13 PHENOMENA Training should include training the development of Cybercrime Computer crime and Cybercrime is known for more than 50 years A lot of important things can be learned by studying the past developments

14 Cybercrime page: 14 196o th Introduction of transistor based computer systems lead to an increasing use of computers Offences at this time were focusing on the physical damage of computer systems and data Example: Student riot cause a fire that destroyed computer systems at a university in Canada Picture removed in print version Bild zur Druckoptimierung entfernt Source: Wikipedia with ref. to US Gov.

15 COMPUTER ATTACK / BOTNET Page: 15 Cybercrime 98 97 99 00 0102 04 03 05 06 070809 10 Attacks against computer systems in Estonia during political conflicts Growing number of users of the Internet goes along with a growing number of hacking attacks Hacking attack against airport control system 11 Attacks against computer systems in Georgia during armed conflict Largest botnets: 100.000 bots Largest botnets: 12.000.000 bots Legal Response Phenomena

16 Cybercrime page: 16 EXTENT OF CRIME

17 Cybercrime UNCERTAINTY REGARDING EXTENT Lack of reporting leads to uncertainty with regard to the extent of crime This is especially relevant with regard to the involvement of organized crime Available information from the crime statistics therefore not necessary reflect the real extent of crime Page: 17 Picture removed in print version Bild zur Druckoptimierung entfernt HEIISE NEWS 27.10.2007 The United States Federal Bureau of Investigation has requested companies not to keep quiet about phishing attacks and attacks on company IT systems, but to inform authorities, so that they can be better informed about criminal activities on the Internet. "It is a problem for us that some companies are clearly more worried about bad publicity than they are about the consequences of a successful hacker attack," explained Mark Mershon, acting head of the FBI's New York office.

18 Cybercrime page: 18 LATEST TRENDS

19 Cybercrime Page: 19 LATEST TRENDS The training should include training in relation to latest trends A regular update on the latest developments will not only be important for investigators but also the general public Example: Liberty Reserve (Money Laundering), AP Twitter Account Hack and stock market manipulation

20 Cybercrime page: 20 TRAINING FOR JUDGES

21 Cybercrime Page: 21 TRAINING FOR JUDGES Training for judges may include an overview about technology and investigation techniques The focus will most likely be on substantive criminal law Training may also include components on electronic evidence

22 CYBERCRIME page: 22 DEFAMATION AND LIBEL Internet enables possibilities to anonymously post information on websites This enables the offender to publish defamatory content and make it much more difficult for investigators to identify the offender Picture removed in print version Bild zur Druckoptimierung entfernt SEC 265 CC OF QUEENSLAND 365 Criminal defamation (1) Any person who, without lawful excuse, publishes matter defamatory of another living person (the relevant person) (a) knowing the matter to be false or without having regard to whether the matter is true or false; and (b) intending to cause serious harm to the relevant person or any other person or without having regard to whether serious harm to the relevant person or any other person is caused; commits a misdemeanour. Maximum penalty3 years imprisonment.

23 Cybercrime Emerging relevance of digital evidence influences the procedures in court Influence is not limited to the fact that courts need to deal with digital evidence Even the design of courtrooms is influenced Page: 23 ELECTRONIC EVIDENCE

24 Cybercrime page: 24 TRAINING FOR CYBERCRIME INVESTIGATORS

25 Cybercrime Page: 25 TRAINING FOR INVESTIGATORS Cybercrime investigators may require a very intensive training due to the complexity of the subject matter This especially includes technology and investigation techniques Training should include practical elements and simulations

26 Picture removed in print version Bild zur Druckoptimierung entfernt US FIRST RESPONDER GUIDE 3RD ED. Cybercrime Seite: 26 IMPORTANCE OF UPDATES Constant training is necessary as technology is changing Experts working in this field need to be aware about the consequences of the latest technical trends for investigations Example: Advice to unplug cord from computer can lead to an encryption of the hard drive if the suspect activated whole disc encryption

27 Picture removed in print version Bild zur Druckoptimierung entfernt US FIRST RESPONDER GUIDE 3RD ED. Cybercrime IMPORTANCE OF UPDATES If the suspect is using encryption technology disconnecting the computer system from electricity could hinder access to evidence Live forensics may be required In addition to technical capacities to undertake live forensics (e.g. software, hardware) there might be a need for a solid legal foundation as live forensics might interfere with the integrity of evidence Page: 27

28 Cybercrime page: 28 TRAINING FOR POLICE

29 Cybercrime Page: 29 GENERNAL TRAINING FOR POLICE In addition to the special training for Cybercrime investigators a general training for the police should be organized Background: Electronic evidence is becoming more and more relevant not only in Cybercrime cases but also when it comes to traditional crimes (such as murder cases)

30 Cybercrime page: 30 TRAINING FOR LEGAL DRAFTERS

31 Cybercrime Page: 31 LEGAL DRAFTERS In order to finalize the draft Bills and implement them into the national legislation legal drafters might require additional training This will especially help them to understand differences between the SADC model law and some international standards Some differences are a result of correcting mistakes in older international standards (see next slide)

32 EXAMPLE: CHILD PORNOGRAPHY As cooperation requires legislation gaps can have significant impact In the early discussion about legal response to an online distribution of child pornography the drafter of regulations focused on digital images Today not only images and videos but also audio recordings of the sexual abuse of children are distributed online Older approaches often use language (such as visually or image) that excludes such material Page: 32 Cybercrime Picture removed in print version Bild zur Druckoptimierung entfernt Convention on Cybercrime 2. For the purpose of paragraph 1 above, the term child pornography shall include pornographic material that visually depicts: a. a minor engaged in sexually explicit conduct; b. a person appearing to be a minor engaged in sexually explicit conduct; c. realistic images representing a minor engaged in sexually explicit conduct. Picture removed in print version Bild zur Druckoptimierung entfernt EU Directive Child Pornography 2011 (c) child pornography means: (i) any material that visually depicts a child engaged in real or simulated sexually explicit conduct;

33 EXAMPLE: CHILD PORNOGRAPHY As cooperation requires legislation gaps can have significant impact In the early discussion about legal response to an online distribution of child pornography the drafter of regulations focused on digital images Today not only images and videos but also audio recordings of the sexual abuse of children are distributed online Older approaches often use language (such as visually or image) that excludes such material Page: 33 Cybercrime Picture removed in print version Bild zur Druckoptimierung entfernt IOL News 2011 Picture removed in print version Bild zur Druckoptimierung entfernt US Training Manual

34 EXAMPLE: CHILD PORNOGRAPHY SADC Model Law consequently avoids the term visually In addition the definition of the model legislative text contains a clarification that audio material is included Page: 34 Cybercrime Picture removed in print version Bild zur Druckoptimierung entfernt SADC MODEL LAW (8) Child pornography means pornographic material that depicts presents or represents: (a) a child engaged in sexually explicit conduct; (b) a person appearing to be a child engaged in sexually explicit conduct; or (c) images representing a child engaged in sexually explicit conduct; this includes, but is not limited to, any audio, visual or text pornographic material.

35 Cybercrime page: 35 GENERAL PUBLIC

36 Cybercrime Page: 36 GENERAL PUBLIC As part of a crime prevention strategy general training could be organized for the general public Such training could include an overview about how crimes are committed and how to prevent becoming victim of such crime This may include a special training for schools and universities

37 Cybercrime Seite: 37 Understanding Cybercrime ITU

38 Thank you for your attention! INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION Thank you for your attention! INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION 38


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