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"Broadband over Powerline and the Smart Grid in Rural Telecommunications"  Frank Domoney

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1 "Broadband over Powerline and the Smart Grid in Rural Telecommunications" 
Frank Domoney

2 The Vision To develop and market an advanced, scalable telecommunication platform ….enabling operators in emerging economies to deliver a comprehensive package of IP services …..with minimal infrastructure investment ….by utilising the existing electricity power network

3 Emerging Economies Telecom Issues
Conventional telephony provision requires big investment in new lines DSL is also based around the telephony infrastructure Starting from a position of low Teledensity both telephony and Internet penetration are expensive to achieve Difficult to justify backbone development without adequate subscriber base

4 The Roeller Waverman Equations
The Output equation models the level of output (GDP) as a function of the total physical capital stock net of telecoms capital, the total labour force, a variable that captures the extent of the “rule of law”, and the mobile telecoms penetration rate. The Demand equation models the level of mobile telecoms penetration as a function of income (the level of GDP per capita), mobile price (revenue per mobile subscriber), and the fixed-line price (which is revenue per fixed line subscriber). The Investment equation simplifies the Roeller-Waverman “supply” and “investment” equations. It assumes that the growth rate of mobile penetration depends on the price of telecoms, the geographic area, and a time trend term.

5 Convergence Data and Voice Fixed and Mobile
Telco and Electricity Company Energis Veba Telco and Railway Company Telco and Entertainment Company Telco and Municipal Authority Paris Vienna Quito Buenos Aires

6 Powerline Environment

7 Powerline History (courtesy Wikipedia)
Broadband over power lines has developed faster in Europe than in the United States due to a historical difference in power system design philosophies. Power distribution uses step-down transformers to reduce the voltage for use by customers. But BPL signals cannot readily pass through transformers, as their high inductance makes them act as low-pass filters, blocking high-frequency signals. So, repeaters must be attached to the transformers. In the U.S., it is common for a small transformer hung from a utility pole to service a single house or a small number of houses. In Europe, it is more common for a somewhat larger transformer to service 10 or 100 houses.

8 Powerline History (2) For delivering power to customers, this difference in design makes little difference for power distribution. But for delivering BPL over the power grid in a typical U.S. city requires an order of magnitude more repeaters than in a comparable European city. On the other hand, since bandwidth to the transformer is limited, this can increase the speed at which each household can connect, due to fewer people sharing the same line. One possible solution is to use BPL as the backhaul for wireless communications, for instance by hanging Wi-Fi access points or cellphone base stations on utility poles, thus allowing end-users within a certain range to connect with equipment they already have.

9 Powerline History (3) The second major issue is signal strength and operating frequency. The system is expected to use frequencies of 10 to 30 MHz, which has been used for many decades by amateur radio operators, as well as international shortwave broadcasters and a variety of communications systems (military, aeronautical, etc.). Power lines are unshielded and will act as antennas for the signals they carry, and have the potential to interfere with shortwave radio communications. Modern BPL systems use OFDM modulation, which allows to mitigate interference with radio services by removing specific frequencies used. A 2001 joint study by the ARRL and HomePlug Powerline Alliance showed that for modems using this technique "in general that with moderate separation of the antenna from the structure containing the HomePlug signal that interference was barely perceptible at the notched frequencies" and interference only happened when the "antenna was physically close to the power lines" (however other frequencies still suffer from interference).

10 Manassas Trial In October 2005, the city of Manassas began the first wide-scale deployment of BPL service in the US, offering 10 Mbit/s service for under $30 USD per month to its 35,000 city residents, using MainNet BPL technology. On June 16, 2006 FCC directed the Manassas BPL System to resolve Amateurs' interference complaints. The FCC minced no words in detailing what it wants the city and BPL operator COMTek to do to ensure its system complies with Part 15 rules governing BPL systems and even hinted that it may shut down all or part of the system.

US FCC Approval 3 August 2006 STATEMENT OF FCC CHAIRMAN KEVIN J. MARTIN Re: Amendment of Part 15 regarding new requirements and measurement guidelines for Access Broadband over Power Line Systems; Carrier Current Systems, including Broadband over Power Line Systems In this item, we build upon our previous efforts to facilitate deployment of broadband over power line (BPL) systems while protecting existing spectrum users from harmful interference. It is my hope that our rules will allow BPL systems to flourish. This technology holds great promise as a ubiquitous broadband solution that would offer a viable alternative to cable, digital subscriber line, fiber, and wireless broadband solutions. Moreover, BPL has unique advantages for home networking because consumers can simply plug a device into their existing electrical outlets to achieve broadband connectivity. Promoting the deployment of broadband continues to be one of our top priorities and today’s action is another step towards reaching that goal.

12 Standards IEEE P1901 Effort Still in Negotiations 13 Oct 2008)
IEEE P1901 refers to the draft standard for "Broadband over Power Line Networks: Medium Access Control and Physical Layer Specifications." The second confirmation vote for the IEEE P1901 In-Home proposal portion took place in Spain in the attempt to attain the 75 percent needed for passage. The confirmation was missed by a few votes (69 percent), which was short of the 75 percent needed. Apparently, some of the voting proxies were not included in the voting outcome, because last-minute changes again occurred to the proposal, and the procedure dictates that proxies cannot be used if changes are made to the proposal after proxies are cast. It is difficult to say if their inclusion would have changed the outcome or not.

13 DS2 and their Chipsets VALENCIA, Spain March DS2, the leading technology innovator and global supplier of high-speed powerline communications technology today announced that a proposal originally co-authored by UPA, CEPCA and other IEEE members was selected last week as the single proposal for an eventual coexistence mechanism for access and in home Powerline Communications applications. The proposal which DS2 supported was approved in the IEEE P1901 Working Group (WG) process towards developing a baseline specification for Powerline Communications. One of the most important advantages of the coexistence proposal is to ensure that access systems deployed by power companies or service providers can share resources with any in-home system deployed in the same area. The proposal enjoyed significant consensus from the WG.

14 Electricity Network HV Transmission >40Kv up to 100’s Kv
HV - MV Substation MV Distribution 1Kv up to 40Kv Distribution LV Distribution 110v – 440v Transformer MV Distribution 1Kv up to 40Kv MV - LV Distribution Node Substation MV-LV Transformer MV-LV Transformer Customer’s Premises Customer’s Premises LV Distribution 110v – 440v Customer’s Customer Service Line Premises Customer’s Premises

15 Current PowerGate Access Technology
MV Modem/Repeater 200Mbit/s Max Throughput PowerGate 1001 LV Repeater Management Software PowerGate Commander PowerGate 1001 LV Head-end Modem PowerGate 102 CPE PowerGate 101 CPE

16 Customer Premises Equipment and Head End
KEY FEATURES Provides low cost CPE option for service providers requiring only data service access Compact “plug in the wall” design with integral 10/100 Ethernet port

17 Customer Premises Equipment
Comprehensive QoS architecture supports data, VoIP and other IP media types Ethernet, USB and analogue phone connections

18 Head End 200 Mbit/s physical layer throughput Can act as Head-end,
TDM repeater or FDM repeater (two devices) Supports data, VoIP and other media types with comprehensive QoS architecture Integral 802.1d Bridge Ethernet 10/100 interface

19 Future 400 Mbps Chips IPTV Adaptive Notching

20 Providing the Backhaul
BPL is an excellent solution for the final customer hop But… Need to connect effectively and economically to the national network Conventional solution is to use BPL on the MV line MV line

21 MV Backhaul Challenges
Much more expensive than LV only Repeater needed every m Expensive couplers ($1000s vs. $10s for LV) Speeds and latency are issues 2-3Km limit for VoIP Reduces overall performance for user Design and deployment are complex Potential interference with LV

22 Hybrid Fibre Powerline (HFP) Overview
New solution which combines BPL with fibre BPL is used on LV only Aerial fibre optic cable on MV poles provides backhaul Optimised for use with electricity systems based on overhead poles Use MV pole wayleave as key asset BPL to consumers can be combined with direct fibre services for business customers Unused fibres provide “dark fibre” business opportunity

23 HFP Schematic

24 HFP vs. MV BPL Backhaul MV HFP Active repeater needed every 500m
Up to c.100Km without repeaters Limits bandwidth available in LV cells Full 200Mbits/s raw bandwidth in all LV cells High latency limits VoIP deployment Low latency Requires complex design & installation Simple design & installation Low bandwidth (< 80 Mbit/s) High Bandwidth (Gb/s)

25 ADSS Fibre Mature optical technology >15 years old
100,000s of Km already installed Good team can install 8-10Km per day Installation requires only craft level skills With training can use local labour

26 BTs Next Generation Network

27 Designing the Core Network
MetroWAND Plan Ring and Mesh Architecture. Highly efficient network design algorithms. Design rules incorporates fibre topology, traffic demands and equipment constraints. Quick analysis of "what-if" scenarios. Optical link layer performance estimations. Failure analysis with rerouting options. Customize Vendor equipment library. Can incorporate both Powerco and Telco links to establish a mesh

28 Testing the Robustness of the Design
Artifex Design and simulate discrete event systems using the Petri Net formalism. Graphical language object oriented and event driven ensures scalability to high degrees of complexity. Integrated platform with tools to create, validate, simulate, measure and deploy the system. Dynamic visualization of events and states supports Iterative model development. Real-time and virtual-time simulation with full user control of model's execution. Simulation data analysis and representation. Automatic ANSI C and C++ code generation to build custom simulators and control software. Networking tool-kit for protocol simulations.

29 Converged Processes: Integrated System View

30 TMF eTOM Process Map

31 Telecommunications Application Map

32 Converged Billing A future-proof and flexible solution for offering converged services is a necessity for operators who are invested in the next stage of telecommunications. Establishing a convergent operator to win the customer’s entire communications budget is one way of dealing with this situation and ensuring undisturbed streams of revenue. However, convergence in telecommunications is becoming increasingly complex. Currently the following types of convergence affect operators: • Line of business – fixed/mobile • Payment methods – prepaid / post-paid • Customer segments – business / private • Processing – real-time / near-real-time / online • Event / session type – voice / IP / content • Network – IMS-enabled /PSTN / GSM / 3G mobile / NGN … • Business model – retail / wholesale / MVNO

33 Smart Grid SmartGrids: Enhancing grid flexibility & robustness
• Create a toolbox of proven technical solutions • Establish interfacing capabilities that will allow new designs of grid equipment and new automation/control arrangements to be successfully interfaced with existing, traditional, grid equipment; Ensure harmonisation of Regulatory and Commercial frameworks in Europe to facilitate cross-border trading of both power and grid services

34 Infrastructure Monitoring
Kenya Power and Light company have £4 million pounds of annual damage from thieves and vandals. Adding intelligence to the network allows active surveillance and reaction.

35 Metering IBERDROLA launches a new open, public and standard telecommunications architecture for Smart Metering and Smart Grids IBERDROLA is coordinating the PRIME project, with the objective of developing an AMI infrastructure for automatic meter management that is public, open and standard Many companies have joined efforts to launch a new public, open and non-proprietary telecommunications architecture that will support the new AMM functionality and enable the building of the electricity networks of the future, or SmartGrids.

36 Business Models Powerco as Telco competes with incumbent Telco
Powerco rents medium to Mobile Co or ISP as fixed extension. Example Cysca and Edenor in Buenos Aires. Cysca pay Edenor 2% of annual revenue and 10% of profits. Powerco and Incumbent Telco maintain Monopoly on Telecoms

37 Thank you for your Interest.
I am happy to take questions. My address is My Mobile number is

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