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1 Feedback and Guidance from the World Meteorological Organization Wenjian Zhang Director Observing and Information Systems Department WMO.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Feedback and Guidance from the World Meteorological Organization Wenjian Zhang Director Observing and Information Systems Department WMO."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Feedback and Guidance from the World Meteorological Organization Wenjian Zhang Director Observing and Information Systems Department WMO

2 WMO Congress XV Res. 11 With adoption of Res. 11, Congress XV (2007) reaffirmed WMOs strong commitment to the objectives of GCOS (see annex) 2

3 3 Cg XV Res. 11: Considering: (1) The increasing needs of Members and international organizations for comprehensive, continuous, reliable climate and climate-related data and information in support of: –(a) Climate system monitoring, –(b) Climate change detection and attribution, –(c) Research to improve understanding, modelling and prediction of the climate system, –(d) Operational climate prediction on seasonal-to-interannual timescales, –(e) Assessment of the impacts of, and vulnerability and adaptation to, natural climate variability and human-induced climate change, –(f) Applications and services for sustainable economic development, –(g) Requirements of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and other international conventions and agreements,

4 4 Cg XV Res. 11: Considering: (2) The specific observational needs of the: –World Climate Research Programme –the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, –the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change and DIVERSITAS; –the requirements for comprehensive observations in support of the assessment processes of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,

5 5 Recognizing with appreciation: (1) The important contribution of the GCOS Steering Committee and its Panels in providing scientific and technical guidance to WMO and other sponsoring and participating organizations for the planning, implementation and further development of the Global Climate Observing System,

6 6 Cg XV Res. 11 : Reaffirms the continuing strong commitment of WMO to the objectives of the Global Climate Observing System and support for its implementation in order to meet the full range of user needs; Decides to maintain the Global Climate Observing System as a priority programme of the Organization, in partnership with IOC, UNEP and ICSU and such other international sponsors as might be agreed by the Executive Council;

7 7 Cg XV Res. 11 : Urges Members: (1) To strengthen their national atmospheric, hydrological and related oceanic and terrestrial climate observing networks and systems within the framework of the Global Climate Observing System and in support of user needs; (2) To assist developing country Members to strengthen their observing networks, to improve their capacity to acquire climate-relevant data, and to enhance their provision of climate services by implementing projects in the 10 GCOS Regional Action Plans, and by contributing to the implementation of the ClimDev Africa Programme and to similar initiatives in other regions;

8 8 Cg XV Res. 11 : Requests the Executive Council: (1) To keep the progress of the Global Climate Observing System under regular review and to provide support and guidance on its further development and implementation; (2) To advise and assist Members, sponsoring bodies, and other international organizations in the implementation of global observing systems for climate; Requests the technical commissions: (1) To lead the development and implementation of the networks for which they are responsible in the light of advice and guidance from the GCOS Steering Committee; (2) To contribute to the five-year Nairobi Work Programme on Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, in particular to the elements of the programme related to data and observations;

9 9 Cg XV Res. 11 : Requests the GCOS Steering Committee to continue to provide broadly-based strategic advice and guidance to all relevant WMO bodies on the implementation and further development of the Global Climate Observing System; Requests in particular the GCOS Steering Committee and the technical commissions to continue their interaction and cooperation in the further development and implementation of the Global Climate Observing System;

10 10 Cg XV Res. 11 : Requests the Secretary-General, as appropriate and within the programme and budget approved by Congress, and using whatever access might be possible to additional external funding mechanisms: (1) To support the further planning, development and implementation of the Global Climate Observing System, including the actions in response to the needs of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the recommendations of the 2004 Implementation Plan; (2) To encourage and assist Permanent Representatives of Members to take the lead in the establishment of GCOS National Committees and the designation of GCOS National Coordinators;

11 11 WMO also Recognize GCOS, as an integrated cross-domain system, contributes to achievement of many WMO Expected Results: –ER 2 (enhanced capabilities of Members to provide better climate predictions and assessments) –ER 4 (integration of WMO observing systems) –ER 5 (development and implementation of the new WMO Information System) –ER 6 (enhanced capabilities of Members in multi-hazard early warning and disaster prevention and preparedness) –ER 7 (enhanced capabilities of Members to provide and use weather, climate, water, and environmental applications and services) –ER 8 (broader use of weather-, climate- and water-related outputs for decision-making and implementation by Members and partner organizations), –And ER 9 (enhanced capabilities of NMHSs in developing countries, particularly least developed countries, to fulfil their mandates of the WMO Strategic Plan).

12 12 WMO Members Input WMO notes how important it is that WMO Members provide comprehensive and timely input to the 2009 progress report on implementation of GCOS to the GCOS Secretariat. We encourage the Secretariat to complete this report in the shortest possible time in order to provide a framework for further work to improve climate observing systems;

13 13 National Climate Observing Network-USA Paired Sites Single Sites Parks with existing AQ monitoring Parks near the ideal location

14 14 China national climate committee identified 16 climate-target regions of China

15 15 Current design of 260 National climate observatory network Over land, the great spatial heterogeneity requires detailed observations

16 16 UNFCCC WMO is pleased that GCOS has received strong support from the UNFCCC and that this relationship has contributed to a substantial increase in the visibility of GCOS and, therefore, its parent bodies, thus enabling the GCOS Secretariat to more effectively represent the concerns, interests, and needs of the climate observing community. WMO encourages you to maintain, and indeed, strengthen your fruitful connection with the UNFCCC.

17 17 FAO / GTOS WMO understands the desirability of inviting the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), which is the main sponsor of GTOS, to become a fifth sponsor of GCOS. The terrestrial domain and the role of GTOS in meeting climate-related needs for observational data have assumed greatly increased importance, especially since the emergence of adaptation as a major thrust of the UNFCCC.

18 18 GCOS Reference Upper-air Network (GRUAN). The WMO Executive Council has noted the recent establishment of the GCOS Reference Upper-air Network (GRUAN). This network will provide high-quality observing sites for the atmospheric profile, including surface and upper-air measurements, in support of climate applications, validation of satellite products, and climate research. We would like to remind the Steering Committee that the Council has requested an update on the progress of the selection of GRUAN sites, as well as minimum instrumentation requirements, at its sixty-first session in June 2009.

19 19 Benchmark Network ~10 stations Upper Air Reference Network stations GCOS Upper Air Network (GUAN) 161 stations Comprehensive observing network All observing systems, satellites, reanalyses etc. Spatial density Climate driven The tiered climate networks will be the real solution (GRUAN)

20 20 Satellite Observations for Climate WMO has taken action through its Space Programme to respond at several levels to the space-related aspects of the GCOS Implementation Plan and in particular to its Satellite Supplement (GCOS-107). The WMO Executive Council has agreed that the new Vision for the space-based Global Observing System should address climate observation needs among its core objectives and confirmed the high-level goal that there should be no gap in the satellite-based climate records, in accordance with the GCOS Climate Monitoring Principles.

21 21 Satellite Observations for Climate The Global Space-based Inter-calibration System (GSICS) is reaching an operational stage and will ensure data comparability and homogeneity in the provision of Fundamental Climate Data Records. Developments are underway towards an initial network of Regional Specialized Satellite Centres for Climate Monitoring (RSSC-CM) that will ultimately deliver routine products related to Essential Climate Variables. WMO is pleased to mention that an active collaboration is developing with space agencies, CGMS and CEOS on these initiatives in support of GCOS.

22 22 Satellites can make contributions to climate observations in all three domains

23 23 Global Satellite Inter-Calibration System (GSICS) -key issues for global satellite observations for climate To improve the use of satellite global observations. To provide for the ability to create stable long-term climate data sets. To ensure instruments meet specification, pre-launch tests are traceable to SI standards. Simultaneous Nadir Overpass (SNO) Next step: Global satellite products validation

24 24 Multi-satellite inter-calibration is so important to long-time data series Operational Calibration Improved calibrated radiances using SNO- improved differences between sensors by order of magnitude. Trends for nonlinear calibration algorithm using SNO cross calibration 0.20 K Decade -1 Improved Calibration

25 25 Integration of space-based and ground- based observations: (talking each other ) Ground- and space- based system can be complementary and supplementary by design and operation Integration with ground observations can remove satellite biases and ensure consistency; Ground observations can support process studies, satellite products validation, and algorithm /model development. FY-3

26 Regional Specialized Satellite Centres for Climate Monitoring (RSSC-CM)

27 Slide: 27 R/SSC-CM Planning Meeting Darmstadt, April 2008 Implementation The R/SSC-CM Network will be: Based on activities of existing initiatives (GOS, GCOS and GSICS) Build upon existing operational infrastructures Serve users and other organisations (e.g. WMO Regional Climate Centres RCC, National Weather Services)

28 Slide: 28 R/SSC-CM Planning Meeting Darmstadt, April 2008 Components of the R/SSC-CM Global Network The global network of R/SSC-CM will include: Individual R/SSC-CM centres supported by a Secretariat and overseen by an Executive Panel.

29 29 Atmospheric Domain Action ID (Atmosphere) ECVDescription Climate-A-10 Carbon dioxide, methane and other greenhouse gases CEOS agencies will participate in planning, by 2011, the operational follow-on to the chemistry missions planned for the next 5 to 7 years. Climate-A-12 Upper air windsCEOS will determine options by 2010 for continuing improvements to wind determinations demonstrated by MODIS and to be demonstrated by ADM Aeolus.

30 30 Oceanic Domain Action ID (Ocean)ECVDescription Climate-O-3 Sea iceNew space-based measurements and products, including ice thickness and ice drift, will be considered by CEOS agencies as part of their future research missions. Climate-O-15 SalinityESA will fly SMOS in 2007 to demonstrate measurement of the sea surface salinity (and soil moisture) ECV; NASA/CONAE will fly Aquarius/SAC-D in 2009 to demonstrate measurement of the sea surface salinity ECV. Climate-O-16 SalinityCEOS agencies will cooperate in developing future plans for an Ocean Salinity Constellation. Climate-O-3 Sea iceNew space-based measurements and products, including ice thickness and ice drift, will be considered by CEOS agencies as part of their future research missions.

31 31 Developing countries Developing countries have special problems, not least with respect to securing the resources needed to implement regional GCOS Action Plans. The WMO Executive Council encourages the GCOS Secretariat and the GCOS Steering Committee to study the issue with a view to facilitating the necessary fundraising, including from the UNFCCC and its financial mechanism, to enable the effective implementation of these Plans.

32 32 Implementation WMO recognizes that GCOS is still far from fully implemented and that a major effort is needed in most parts of the world to strengthen and maintain essential climate observing networks and systems. In this regard, WMO would like to commend the development of the Regional Action Plans produced through the now-completed GCOS Regional Workshop Programme and also the follow-up initiatives, such as the Climate for Development for Africa Programme, intended to facilitate the implementation of needed improvements in developing regions. WMO encourages the GCOS Steering Committee to continue such follow-up efforts as resources allow.

33 33 Climate Adaptation WMO understands the need to pay increasing attention to the requirements for climate information for adaptation. We would like to see the GCOS Steering Committee, in addition to WCRP and others, identify their current activities that are relevant to adaptation and also identify gaps in climate information in key socio- economic sectors that need addressing in order to enable effective climate-risk management. The GCOS Steering Committee should take steps to address observational needs for adaptation in future priority setting and planning.

34 34 UNFCCC/GEOSS/WIGOS WCC-3 WMO notes that much has changed since the original 1992 Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) establishing GCOS was last updated in 1998: –the greatly strengthened link with the UNFCCC –the emergence of GEOSS –the establishment of WIGOS. –the agreement of WMO with ISO the outcome of WCC-3 will have important implications for GCOS.

35 35 WMO and ISO strengthen partnership on international standardization WMO and ISO have agreed to increase their cooperation in the development of international standards related to meteorological and hydrological data, products and services. The WMO has liaison status with nearly 30 of ISO's technical committees developing standards with relevance to hydrometry, air quality, water quality, soil quality, geographic information, solar energy, petroleum and gas industry, information technologies, marine, quantities and units. ISO Secretary-General Alan Bryden and WMO Secretary-General Michel Jarraud today signed an agreement on Working arrangements in Geneva, Switzerland, to formalize the partnership. Geneva, 16 September 2008 – WMO/ISO

36 36 Agreement of WMO with ISO The Working arrangements between the WMO and ISO aim to strengthen the development of International Standards and to avoid duplication of work on standards related to the following environmental data, products and services : –Meteorological –Climatological –Hydrological –Marine/Ocean and related Procedures are now in place for the accelerated adoption by ISO of WMO documents as ISO standards. WMO and ISO will develop, approve and publish common standards based on WMO technical regulations, manuals and guides.

37 37 Agreement of WMO with ISO Michel Jarraud, SG of WMO, stated that the new procedures would clarify the authority of WMO documents and enhance their international recognition and dissemination. Alan Bryden, SG of ISO, underlined that the agreement was an illustration of the increasing collaboration between the UN System and ISO, as well as of the contribution of international standards to responding to the challenges of climate change. ISO has recognized WMO as an international standardization body through ISO Council Resolution 43/2007 approved in December 2007.

38 Challenges and opportunities

39 39 Need an Integrated Comprehensive Global Climate Observing System

40 40 MOU and GCOS PLAN Considering all above changes, WMO therefore encourages the Steering Committee to assess the need for updating the GCOS MOU and that it propose to the Sponsors elements that they should consider in renegotiating and revising the MOU. For similar reasons, WMO supports updating the 1995 GCOS Plan and encourages the Steering Committee to propose a process for accelerated completion of the Plan. WMO recognizes the precarious and unstable nature of the GCOS Secretariat budget and will work with the other Sponsors of GCOS to ensure its long-term viability

41 41 Discussions: Sustained approach for GCOS Any Single Problem Requires Many Data Sets A Single Data Set Will Serve Many Communities

42 1. Sustaining current GCOS observing systems and merge other systems to make it stronger by using all available resources; (operational ?) 2. Developing new climate observing capabilities (both surface/deep ocean and space-based systems, comprehensive GCOS) 3.Providing climate products and services to end users, i.e., from climate observation to climate monitoring and services. (Result-based approach, more visible way) 42 Discussions : Sustained approach for GCOS

43 Thanks again to all SC members for your great efforts and achievements! Thanks for your attention ! 43

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