Presentation on theme: "ITU-T Handbook on Telecommunications and Disaster Mitigation Keith Mainwaring ITU Consultant Istanbul, Turkey,11 December 2012."— Presentation transcript:
ITU-T Handbook on Telecommunications and Disaster Mitigation Keith Mainwaring ITU Consultant Istanbul, Turkey,11 December 2012 Workshop on Disaster Relief Systems, Network Resilience and Recovery (Istanbul, Turkey, 11 December 2012)
Contents Trends in natural disasters Case studies United Nations disaster mitigation activities Regional disaster mitigation initiatives ITU activities related to disaster mitigation International Amateur Radio Union (IARU) Other standardisation activities Conclusions and Recommendations
Trends in Natural Disasters
Impact on countries in different states of development (1991 – 2005) Source: A year of living dangerously – a review of natural disasters in 2010; The Brookings Institution – London School of Economics Project on Internal Displacement; April 2011.
Risk Hazard x Vulnerability Capacity Risk
Climate change and environmental degradation 300,000 deaths annually 325 million people affected Human displacement – 36 million people displaced by sudden-onset natural disasters in 2008 Sources: Global Humanitarian Forum Human Impact report – Climate Change 2009; and Monitoring disaster displacement in the context of climate change – Findings of a study by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs and the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre, September 2009,
Global estimates of newly displaced people Source: Global estimates 2011 – People displaced by natural hazard-induced disasters IDMC, June 2012
The causes of disasters
Hazards Natural – earthquake, landslide, tsunami, cyclones, flood, drought. Biological – disease epidemics (such as SARS, influenza and cholera), pest infestations. Technological – chemicals, radiological agents, transport accidents. – some 10,000 people were killed and 500,000 between 2000 and 2011 – Chernobyl accident affected 8 million people Societal – conflicts, population displacement, acts of terrorism.
Case studies Japan earthquake & tsunami 11 March 2011 Hurricane Katrina 29 August 2005 Indian Ocean tsunami 26 December /11 New York City 11 September 2001 Some observations
Some observations Avoiding congestion – Encourage alternative means of communication – Reduce call hold times – Reduce call quality – Reassign resources to telephony – New network architecture Autonomous power supply critical Install equipment in safer locations Avoid use of aerial facilities Geographical disperse critical equipment such as authentication servers
Media diversity important Radio – BBC World Service 188 million weekly (2009) – USA million weekly (2011) 93% of population Social Media – Twitter 140 million users (March 2012) – Facebook 900 million users (2012)
Accessibility Elderly and disabled vulnerable Need mechanisms to inform the deaf, blind and illiterate – Text-to-speech – Text-to-sign language – Talking books Multi-lingual information
Lead times Time between detection of an event indicative of a disaster and the disaster itself are those in which early warnings can be provided. Lead times vary enormously depending upon the type of threat – tens of seconds for earthquakes, – minutes for tornadoes, – minutes to hours for tsunamis, – hours to days for volcanic eruptions, – hours to weeks for hurricanes, – weeks to months for droughts, and – years for long term climatic events such as El Nino and climate change.
United Nations Disaster Mitigation Activities
UN Disaster Mitigation Activities UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) World Meteorological Organization (WMO) World Health Organization (WHO) UN Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) World Bank Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC) Istanbul, Turkey,11 December
Regional Disaster Mitigation Initiatives
Regional initiatives Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (www.adpc.net)www.adpc.net Association of South East Asian Nations – ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response (AADMER) – ASEAN Coordinating Centre for Humanitarian Assistance (AHA Centre) ….
International Telecommunications Union Activities Related to Disaster Mitigation
ITU ITU Objectives Tampere Convention ITU Framework for Cooperation in Emergencies (IFCE) ITU-T Recommendations ITU-R Recommendations and Reports ITU-D Reports Istanbul, Turkey,11 December
ITU-T Recommendations Numbers Emergency Telecommunications Service (ETS) International Emergency Preference Scheme (IEPS) Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) Alerting object identifier NGN service restoration Outside plant Istanbul, Turkey,11 December
International Amateur Radio Union (IARU) Activities
International Amateur Radio Union (IARU) Over 160 national amateur radio society members Represents more than 2 million radio hams many of whom have undertaken special training in emergency communications Member of ITU-R and ITU-D Amateur Service defined in ITU Radio Regulations IARU promotes the use of amateur radio as a means of providing relief in the event of natural disasters Amateur radio is a valuable asset during an emergency as communication links are independent of vulnerable infrastructure and immune to overload Amateur Service is integrated into the emergency preparedness systems in a number of countries
Other Standardisation Organizations
Other standardisation activities CEPT ETSI EMTEL W3C Disaster Management OASIS emergency management committee 3GPP / GSMA
Conclusions and Recommendations To be defined. Istanbul, Turkey,11 December