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Indian National (Weather) SATellites for Agrometeorological Applications Bimal K. Bhattacharya Agriculture-Terrestrial Biosphere- Hydrology Group Space.

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Presentation on theme: "Indian National (Weather) SATellites for Agrometeorological Applications Bimal K. Bhattacharya Agriculture-Terrestrial Biosphere- Hydrology Group Space."— Presentation transcript:

1 Indian National (Weather) SATellites for Agrometeorological Applications
Bimal K. Bhattacharya Agriculture-Terrestrial Biosphere- Hydrology Group Space Applications Centre (ISRO) Ahmedabad , India

2 GEO LEO PRESENT ... EO SYSTEM OF INDIA 1999 1993 1992 2002 1990 2003
INSAT-2E VHRR, CCD (1 KM) INSAT-2B VHRR METSAT-1 VHRR – 2 Km(vis); 8 Km(IR & WV) 1990 2003 INSAT-2A VHRR INSAT-3A VHRR – 2 Km(vis); 8 Km(IR & WV) CCD – 1 Km 1999 2003 INSAT-1D VHRR 1996 2005 IRS-P4 (OCEANSAT-1) OCM, MSMR LEO IRS-P6(RESOURCESAT) LISS 3 – 23.5/140 Km LISS M/ 27Km AWiFS M/ 730 Km IRS-P3 WiFS, MOS X-Ray IRS-P5 (CARTOSAT-I) PAN 2.5 m stereo 1995/1997 PRESENT ... 2007 EO SYSTEM OF INDIA IRS-1C/1D LISS-3 (23/70M) STEERABLE PAN (5.8 M) WiFS (188M) IRS-P7 (CARTOSAT-II) PAN m

3 Suite of Indian geostationary Sensors
Satellite Sensor Bands (m) Spatial res. Kalpana -1 VHRR VIS ( ) WV ( ), Thermal IR ( ) 2km x 2km 8km x 8km INSAT 3A CCD Red ( ), NIR( ), SWIR ( ) 1km x 1km INSAT 3D (2011) Imager VIS( ), SWIR( ) MIR( ) WV( ), TIR1( ), TIR2( ) 4km x 4km Sounder 19 channels 10km x 10km Geo-HR (2015) Red, NIR, SWIR Thermal IR 100m X 100m 1 km X 1km VIS : 2km TIR-day : 8km TIR-night : 8km WV-day : 8km CCD FCC : 1km Optical band Water Vapour band Thermal Infrared band Optical bands KALPANA - 1 VHRR INSAT 3A CCD

4 Flow of INSAT 3A CCD NDVI operational product generation
F C C F C C 0300 GMT 0400 GMT 0500 GMT 0700 GMT 0900 GMT RED DN SWIR DN NIR DN Level 1A correction DEM (m) MODIS ozone (Dobson) Molecular scattering (Rayleigh) Cloud masking Cloud masking Level 1B & 1C correction Mie scattering MODIS precipitable water (cm) MODIS AOD (tau550) N D V I Before noon (<1200 hrs) Afternoon (>1200 hrs)

5 VEGETATION DYNAMICS FROM INSAT 3A CCD
25 May to 9June’08 10 June to 25 June’08 26 June to 11 July’08 12 July to 27 July’08 28 July to 12 Aug’08 13 Aug to 28 Aug’08 29 Aug to13 Sept’08 14 Sept to 29 Sept’08 30 Sept to 15 Oct’08 16 Oct to 31Oct’08 1 Nov to 16 Nov’08 17 Nov to 2 Dec’08 3 Dec to 18 Dec’08 2 Feb to 17 Feb’09 18 Feb to 05 Mar’09 6 Mar to 21Mar’09 22 Mar to 6 April’09 7 April to 22 April’09 23 April to 30 April’09 -1.00 – 0.00 0.35 – 0.37 0.01 – 0.12 0.38 – 0.41 0.13 – 0.15 0.42 – 0.46 0.16 – 0.18 0.47 – 0.50 0.19 – 0.21 0.51 – 0.60 0.22 – 0.24 0.61 – 0.69 0.25 – 0.26 0.70 – 0.79 0.27 – 0.30 0.80 – 0.90 0.31 – 0.34

6 Rainfall product Flow Chart for rainfall estimation from INSAT VHRR
(Gairola et al. 2008) INSAT TIR, WV Data 3 Hourly Image Conversion from Grey Count to TBs Look Up Table for Calibration Grid Average of IR TBs (0.250x0.250) Satellite Microwave Rainfall (TRMM/SSMI) IR and WV - Cloud Classification Collocation of IR TBs and MW Rainfall Grid Avg. Rainfall (0.250x0.250) Estimation of Rainfall Rainfall product PW & RH Correction Model PW & RH Forecast Rainfall Validation/ Fine Tuning (DWR/SFRG) Corrected Rainfall Estimation Final Rain Rate, Daily, Pentad, monthly & Seasonal Rainfall

7 Experimental product – Land surface temperature (LST)
Surface Emissivity Original VHRR thermal IR data Correction for atmospheric water vapour & surface emissivity Characteristic vertical tropospheric air temperature profiles and AIRS sounder based surface air temperature cm K K1VHRR LST Precipitable water

8 Agromet Applications Late season drought detection from NDVI
Identification of cold wave zone Disaster (flood) Evapotranspiration monitoring for stress detection & productivity mapping

9 Late season agricultural drought detection from INSAT 3A CCD NDVI
30thSept to 15thOct 2008 30thSept to 15thOct 2009 IMD June-Sept 2009 NDVI ranges - 1.00 0.00 0.13 0.15 0.16 0.18 0.19 0.21 0.22 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.30 0.31 0.34 0.35 0.37 0.38 0.41 0.42 0.46 0.47 0.50 0.51 0.60 0.61 0.69 0.70 0.79 0.80 0.90 0.01 0.12 16thOct to 31stOct 2008 16thOct to 31stOct 2009

10 2008 using nighttime thermal infrared data from Kalpana-1 VHRR
Capturing Coldwave spell over Northwestern India during January and February 2008 using nighttime thermal infrared data from Kalpana-1 VHRR 19 Jan’ 08 20 Jan’ 08 22 Jan’ 08 oC -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 5 Feb’ 08 8 Feb’ 08 9 Feb’ 08 7 Feb’ 08

11 Capturing damaging events : Koshi flood 2008 from 3A CCD
22 Aug 2008 1 Sept 2008 31 Aug 2008 5 Sept 2008 2 Sept 2008 3 Sept 2008

12 Monthly Actual and Relative Evapotranspiration during rabi season
using surface energy balance approach mm d-1 AET January AET February AET March 1.0 AET November AET December 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 Agriculture Desert Forest RET November RET December RET January RET February RET March 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 >1.0

13 Automated Microclimate in situ observational Network Using INSAT Communication Transponder – A recent Initiative from ISRO

14 Defining 10 m INSAT- uplinked micrometeorological tower for
short (2-3m) vegetation Agro- Met Station (AMS)

15 Micromet tower network in India
P G R A S W E T L A N D D E S R T Selection criteria : fetch ratio (1:50 to 1:100), Agroclimate, vegetation, soil type

16 MULTIPLE IN-SEASON FORECAST
Forecasting Agricultural out put using Space, Agrometeorology and Land based observations (FASAL) Econometry Agro Meteorology Land Observations RS, Mod. Re. Temporal RS, High Re. Single date Conventional Remote Sensing MULTIPLE IN-SEASON FORECAST Pre- Season Early- Mid- State Harvest District Cropped area Crop condition Crop acreage Crop yield Revised Incorporating damage

17 Thank you……..


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